On condition that Ailing fell ill, she would not take part in the party.



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

On condition that Ailing fell ill, she would not take part in the party.



a)Если Эллинг заболеет, она не примет участие в вечеринке.

b)Если бы Эллинг заболела, она бы не приняла участие в вечеринке (сегодня, завтра).

c)Если бы Эллинг заболела, она бы не приняла участие в вечеринке (вчера).

____________________________________________________________________

* См.: Раздел V Иллюстрированный глоссарий «Социокультурной портрет Соединенного Королевства Великобритании и Северной Ирландии»

Упражнение 52.Выберите правильный вариант условных предложений:

 

John Locke (1632-1704) is an English philosopher, economist and teacher. 1In his two «Treatises of Government»(1690) he opposed the ideas of Thomson Hobbes arguing that governments (to rule) only if they (to be supported) by the people. Later revolutions in America and in France and the development of Western democracy confirmed this point of view. His most famous book on philosophy is «An Essay Concerning Human Understanding» (1690), an attempt to show what can and what cannot be known.

John Locke was born on August 29th, 1632 in the family of a provincial lawyer in Wrington. His parents were Puritans. He was brought up in the atmosphere of strict order, once and for all established relationships between members of the family. There he got his first lessons of being thrifty and tidy. He graduated from Westminster School, one of the oldest Latin public schools in Britain. 2 If his schooling years (to give) him an opportunity to experience formal education reigning at that time, he (not to criticize) it later. He accused schooling of giving absolutely incomprehensible knowledge.

On graduation he was sent to Oxford University as one of brilliant pupils. The University studies didn’t satisfy him but brought excellent records and the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1656, changed by the Degree of Magister of Arts three years later. In 1660 Locke was appointed a lecturer of the Greek language at the University and turned to writing.

He wrote the treatise «Reflections on the Rome Republic» there. 3 On condition that his scientific ambitions (to coincide) with the famous University principles, J. Locke (to leave) it to find his own cup of tea. He contributed to settling relationships between state and church, development of economical theory, educating the nation.

He believed the society to reform under the influence of education. The primary concern of education is upbringing of a virtue. On the whole a bourgeois youth development is regarded by the scholar. The focus of moral education is concentrated on fostering a noble religious bourgeois gentleman, possessing wisdom, politeness, courage, generosity, fair play. 4 If learning the rules of behaviour and forming habits, setting grown-ups way of living as an instrument of pedagogical influence, stimulating and punishment (to take) into consideration, the aim (to reach). 5One of his basic educational principles sounds «If the habit of physical labour as an irreplaceable method of inculcation of love to the activity (to be) exercised in the educating process, a lazy young (to get) a good opportunity to become industrious and hard-working person».

J. Locke declared differences in educational approaches according to the kid’s origin. He proposed a variety of educational establishments including schools for workers. A special attention should be paid to the development in the pupils from workers’ families the habit of work, love of labour, diligence and minimum of scientific knowledge.

According to J. Locke, moral education is to follow a physical preparation. The latter begins at a child’s birth through constant physical training. He prevented from mistakes in moral education: giving children uncontrolled freedom as full and absolute crush of child’s independence could lead to creating a weak-willed character.

6 Unless a good teacher (to be) not only a communicator of knowledge and studied pupils closely to discover their interests, their strengths, weaknesses, needs and abilities, he (to be) a success in his job according to J. Locke pedagogical theory. 7 Thus providing that a good teacher always (to regard) capacities of his pupils, trying to temper his teaching methods to children’s abilities and aptitudes, he (to be able) to build his work upon what he learns about his children. 8 If he (to be) a teacher, he (to control) his temper without shutting eyes to faults requiring correction.

Acquiring knowledge of arithmetic, astronomy, geometry, history and religion takes the second place after shaping the child’s character according to J. Locke. 9He wished he (to teach) foreign languages if it (to be) necessary for job.

Thus, John Locke outstripped the views of bourgeoisie on education. 10 He thought that human qualities and traits of any character (to be) stronger if they (to be) got in the process of education. Only using proper approaches in education a teacher is able to develop a person. The process of education was considered to be a creative one as it brought something new. Нe pointed out merits and defects of educational system of his time.

His writings on education are selected in nine volumes. The main of them are «Some thoughts concerning education»(1732), «Of the conduct of the understanding» (1824), «Elements of natural philosophy».

J. Locke died in a solitary small town White near the county Sussex in 1704.

Thomson Hobbes Томас Гоббс, английский философ (1588-1679)

«An Essay Concerning Human Understanding» «Опыт о человеческом разуме»

A strict order, once and for all established relationships строгий порядок и раз и навсегда установленные отношения

To be thrifty and tidy быть бережливым и аккуратным

To give absolutely incomprehensible knowledge давать абсолютно непонятные знания

A treatise трактат

«Reflections on the Rome Republic» «Размышления о Римской республике»

To find one’s own cup of tea найти свою дорогу в жизни, призвание

To contribute to settling вносить вклад в урегулирование

On the whole development of a bourgeois youth is regarded by the scholar. В основном, формирование личности представителя буржуазной молодежи рассмaтривалось ученым.

Developing the habit of physical labour as a irreplaceable method of inculcation of love to the activity развитие привычки к физическому труду как незаменимое средство воспитания любви к деятельному образу жизни

An educational establishment образовательное учреждение

A fair play честная игра, честность

Giving children uncontrolled freedom or full and absolute crush of child’s independence leading to creating weak-willed character. предоставление бесконтрольной свободы или полное и абсолютное подавление самостоятельности ребенка воспитывает безвольную личность

A virtue добродетель

A diligence прилежание

Learning the rules of behaviour and forming habits, setting grown-ups behaviour as an instrument of pedagogical influence, stimulating and punishment. обучение прaвилам поведения и формирование привычек, пример взрослых как средство педагогического воздействия, поощрения, наказания.

He pointed out the advantages of learning foreign languages only for using in job. Он подчеркивал необходимость овладения иностранными языками, но ограничивал их использование рамками производственной деятельности.

 

1.a) In his two «Treatises of Government»(1690) he opposed the ideas of Thomson Hobbes arguing that governments would have ruled only if they had been supported by the people.

b) In his two «Treatises of Government»(1690) he opposed the ideas of Thomson Hobbes arguing that governments should rule only if they were supported by the people.

c) In his two «Treatises of Government»(1690) he opposed the ideas of Thomson Hobbes arguing that governments would rule only if they had been supported by the people.

2. a) If his schooling years gave him an opportunity to experience formal education reigning at that time, he wouldn’t have criticized it later.

b) If his schooling years had given him an opportunity to experience formal education reigning at that time, he wouldn’t have criticized it later.

c) If his schooling years hadn’t given him an opportunity to experience formal education reigning at that time, he had criticized it later.

3. a) On condition that his scientific ambitions coincided with the famous University principles, J. Locke wouldn’t have left it to find his own cup of tea.

b) On condition that his scientific ambitions had coincided with the famous University principles, J. Locke would leave it to find his own cup of tea.

c) On condition that his scientific ambitions had coincided with the famous University principles, J. Locke wouldn’t have left it to find his own cup of tea.

4. a) If learning the rules of behaviour and forming habits, setting grown-ups way of living as an instrument of pedagogical influence, stimulating and punishment are taken into consideration, the aim will be reached.

b) If learning the rules of behaviour and forming habits, setting grown-ups way of living as an instrument of pedagogical influence, stimulating and punishment were taken into consideration, the aim would have been reached.

c) If learning the rules of behaviour and forming habits, setting grown-ups way of living as an instrument of pedagogical influence, stimulating and punishment had been taken into consideration, the aim would have been reached.

5. a) One of his basic educational principles sounds «If the habit of physical labour as an irreplaceable method of inculcation of love to the activity was exercised in the educating process, a lazy young gets a good opportunity to become industrious and hard-working person».

b) One of his basic educational principles sounds «If the habit of physical labour as an irreplaceable method of inculcation of love to the activity is exercised in the educating process, a lazy young gets a good opportunity to become industrious and hard-working person».

c) One of his basic educational principles sounds «If the habit of physical labour as an irreplaceable method of inculcation of love to the activity is exercised in the educating process, a lazy young will get a good opportunity to become industrious and hard-working person».

6. a) Unless a good teacher hadn’t been not only a communicator of knowledge and had not studied pupils closely to discover their interests, their strengths, weaknesses, needs and abilities, he wouldn’t have been a success in his job in accordance with J. Locke pedagogical theory.

b) Unless a good teacher had been only a communicator of knowledge and had studied pupils closely to discover their interests, their strengths, weaknesses, needs and abilities, he wouldn’t have been a success in his job in accordance with J. Locke pedagogical theory.

c) Unless a good teacher had not been not only a communicator of knowledge and studied pupils closely to discover their interests, their strengths, weaknesses, needs and abilities, he would be a success in his job in accordance with J. Locke pedagogical theory.

7. a) Thus providing that a good teacher always regarded capacities of his pupils, trying to temper his teaching methods to children’s abilities and aptitudes, he would be able to build his work upon what he learned about his children.

b) Thus providing that a good teacher always will regard capacities of his pupils, trying to temper his teaching methods to children’s abilities and aptitudes, he will be able to build his work upon what he learns about his children.

c) Thus providing that a good teacher always had regarded capacities of his pupils, trying to temper his teaching methods to children’s abilities and aptitudes, he would have been able to build his work upon what he learned about his children.

8. a)If he had been a teacher, he would have controlled his temper without shutting eyes to faults requiring correction.

b) If he were a teacher, he controls his temper without shutting eyes to faults requiring correction.

c) If he was a teacher, he would control his temper without shutting eyes to faults requiring correction.

9. a) He wished he had taught foreign languages if it would have been necessary for job.

b) He wished he taught foreign languages if it would have been necessary for job.

c) He wished he had taught foreign languages if it would be necessary for job.

10. a) He thought that human qualities and traits of any character would be stronger if they were got in the process of education.

b) He thought that human qualities and traits of any character will be stronger if they are got in the process of education.

c) He thought that human qualities and traits of any character would have been stronger if they had been got in the process of education.

 

15. СОГЛАСОВАНИЕ ВРЕМЕН (THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES)*

 


*Правило согласования времениспользуется при выборе формы сказуемого дополнительного придаточного предложения в сложноподчиненном предложении в соответствии со временем действия сказуемого в главном предложении.

Рис. 19. Виды согласования времен

 

 

Вид согласования времен,



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