I take your English dictionary?



Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!



Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

I take your English dictionary?



a)Сan b) Need to c)May

3. … I ask you to make a tour about Stratford-upon-Avon with me today?

a)Сan b) Must c) May

4. He … to speak English in his childhood.

a)can b) ought c)could

5. Stella is ill, we … bring her medicine (лекарства).

a)are to b) have to c) need

6. The tourists … to know English traditions to understand the English.

a)are to b) need c) have to

7. Don’t worry! Susanna … study the English language very fast.

a)can b) must c) may

8. The train is never late, Sara and Oscar … take a taxi.

a)can b) have not to c) need not to

9. I’m sorry, I … not come earlier.

a)can b) must c) have to

10. … I take your photo apparatus and make a photo of Nelson’s Column?

a)Can b) Must c)May

Упражнение 40 . Заполните пропуски модальными глаголами:

All children at the age from five to sixteen attend school in three countries of the UK: England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Schooling is compulsory for twelve years there. There are two voluntary years thereafter. Children 1attend either state-funded or fee paying independent schools. First children enter infant school for children from five to seven, then they study at junior school for children from seven to eleven. From eleven to sixteen children attend secondary school (Look: Table below).

When children come to junior school for the first time, their teachers2divide them into three streams – A, B, C on their infant school marks and sometimes after a special test. The brightest children 3 go to the A-stream and the least gifted go to the C-stream. At the end of their junior school English children usually 4write their Eleven Plus Examination on the results of which they will go next September to a secondary school of a certain type. These examinations show only mental abilities of children, not their knowledge.

There are different secondary schools in England: modern, technical, grammar and comprehensive secondary schools. Modern schools do not provide complete secondary education; the programmes are rather limited in comparison with another secondary schools. Grammar schools provide a full theoretical secondary education, a student 5choose subjects and languages to study there. If any student leaves grammar school after a five-year course, he or she 6take General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) at the ordinary level as all school leavers in GB.

Secondary technical schools teach many general subjects together with woodwork, metalwork, needlework typing and etc. Almost 90 % of children study at comprehensive schools. The latter combine under one roof the courses of three above mentioned schools, so their number is constantly growing. At the end of the compulsory attendance cycle of education (at 16) pupils 7 take examinations to get their General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). It was introduced in 1989.

Secondary school lasts either until the end of the compulsory attendance cycle or includes two final years of secondary education generally known in Britain (for historical reasons) as «the sixth form» when pupils get academic vocational courses at a special tertiary college.

During two voluntary years of schooling pupil 8 to specialize in two or three subjects and take the GCSE of Advanced Level (A-Level) examination to enter a university, polytechnic or another college of higher education. Advanced Supplementary Levels (AS Levels) give additional knowledge on any subject and they are connected with a particular university or group of universities. Now children 9be assessed on their class work and homework as well as in the examination room.

The academic year 10 to begin in September. It consists of 3 terms with holidays for Christmas, Easter and the month in August. Еach term has a mid-term one week holiday known as half-term.

Scotland has a slightly different educational system. Children stay in primary school until twelve. They take the Scottish Certificate of Education usually at the age of sixteen which is more like continental European examinations. For less academically inclined children a Certificate of Prevocational Education was introduced in 1986 to prepare for work and vocational courses.

Schooling in the UK

Number of school year Name of school Pupils’ age
Reception class Year 1 Infant school Primary school
Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Junior school
Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10 Year 11 Secondary school: grammar / comprehensive / technical / modern / public (boarding / normal / mixed)
Year 12 Year 13 Sixth form / tertiary college
First year / fresher University or Polytechnic
Second year
Third / final year
  Postgraduate University
         

Schooling is co I mpulsory образование / обучение обязательно

The brightest/the least gifted children самые / наименее способные к обучению дети

А state-funded school школа на государственном обеспечении (бесплатная)

A fee-paying school платная школа

А primary school начальная школа для детей 5-11 лет

Аn infant school I-ая ступень начального образования, школа для детей 5-7 лет

А junior school II-я ступень начального образования, школа для детей 7-11 лет

А secondary comprehensive school средняя общеобразовательная школа

А stream поток

А compulsory attendance cycle период обязательного обучения

А tertiary/sixth-form college подготовительный колледж (среднее учебное заведение для молодежи старше 16 лет, государственное или частное)

А General Certificate of Secondary Educational (GSCE) аттестат о среднем образовании

To assess оценивать

А vocational course курс профессиональной подготовки

GCSE Advanced Level (GCSE A-Level) выпускные экзамены за курс продвинутого уровня

Аn Advanced Supplementary Level курс / экзамен по курсу углубленного изучения предмета

А Certificate of Prevocational Education удостоверение / аттестат о получении начального профессионального образования

Аn academic year учебный год

А mid term one week holiday / half term однонедельные каникулы в середине семестра

 

1. a) may b)canc) must

2. а)should b) are toc) ought to

3. а)should b) need c) ought to

4. a) are allowed b) can c) must

5. a)need b)may c) can

6. a) mayb) must c) is able

7. a)should b)have to c) are able

8. a)are b) have c) are allowed

9. a) mayb) can c) are able

10. a) oughtb) is c) may

 

10. СТРАДАТЕЛЬНЫЙ ЗАЛОГ (THE PASSIVE VOICE) *

Временные формы глагола в страдательном залоге употребляются по тем же правилам, что и в действительном залоге: Indefinite / Perfect (Present / Past / Future) NB.! Имеются только две формыContinuous (Present / Past) Основная формулa to be + Participle II
Система настоящих времен (Present Tenses) Характер действия
Факт Процесс Результат
Основная формула to be + Participle II Основная формула to be + being + Participle II Основная формула to have + been + Participle II
Present Indefinite Tense Основная формула am/is/are+Participle II* Present Continuous Tense Основная формула am / is / are + being + Participle II Present Perfect Tense Основная формула have / has + been + Participle II
e.g. I am asked. Меня спрашивают.(постоянно) e.g. I am being asked. Меня спрашивают. (сейчас) e.g. I have been asked. Меня спросили. (уже сегодня)
Система прошедших времен (Past Tenses) Past Indefinite Tense Основная формула was / were + Participle II Past Continuous Tense Основная формула was / were + being + Participle II Past Perfect Tense Основная формула had + been + been Participle II
e.g. I was askedat 6 o’clock Меня спросили в 6 часов. (вчера) e.g. I was being asked. Меня спрашивали. (вчера/в течение какого-то периода времени) e.g. I had been asked. Меня спросили. (вчера/до наступления дру-гого действия в прошлом)
Система будущих времен (Future Tenses) Future Indefinite Tense Основная формулаshall/will be + Participle II Future Continuous Tense – Future Perfect Tense Основная формула shall / will + have been + Participle II
e.g. I shall be asked. Меня спросят. (завтра) e.g. I shall have been asked. Меня спросят. (завтра / до наступления другого действия)
N.B.! Глагол в форме страдательного залогапереводится на русский язык: 1.формой глагола в страдательном залоге:   e.g. St. Paul’s Cathedral, the largest protestant church in England, was built in 1710. Собор Св. Павла, самая большая протестантская церковь Англии, (был) построен(a) в 1710 году.
  1. формой возвратных глаголов на – сь / – ся.
  e.g. Westminster Abbey*** is visitedby millions of tourists annually. Вестминстерское Аббатство посещается миллионами туристов ежегодно.

*Залог – это форма глагола, которая показывает, является ли подлежащее исполнителем действия (действительный залог) или испытывает на себе действие со стороны другого лица или предмета (страдательный залог), которые часто неизвестны или вводятся предлогами by(для одушевленных лиц) и with(для неодушевленных лиц): e.g. The novel «The Picture of Dorian Gray» was written by George Bernard Shaw. Роман «Портрет Дориана Грея» был написан Джорджем Бернардом Шоу.

** См.: РазделVI Приложение 1 «Основные формы неправильных знаменательных смысловых глаголов»

*** См.: Раздел V Иллюстрированный глоссарий «Социокультурной портрет Соединенного Королевства Великобритании и Северной Ирландии»

Упражнение 41.Выберите формы глагола в страдательном залоге, которые не могут быть использованы в предложениях, приведенных ниже:

1. These roses in the garden … three times a week.

a)you should pourb) can be poured c) should be poured

2. The foreign students … many questions about the history of the British.

a)won't be asked b) didn't be asked c) weren't be asked

3. As he does not know English table manners, he … about them.

a)must be informed b) will be informed c) was informed

4. The logs (поленья) … too long for the fireplace. (usually)

a)were cut b) cut c) are cut

5. Admiral Nelson* … in sea battle against the French Flee in 1805.

a)will be badly wounded b) was badly wounded c) had been badly wounded

6. The book «Oliver Twist» after Ch. Dickens* … everywhere as a rule.

a)is looked for b) looked for c) was looked for

7. Oliver Twist* … at in his childhood.

a)was laughed b) had been laughed c) will be laughed

8. Nora … with the housework.

a)is helped b) will help c) won't be helped

9. The picture «The Hay Wain»* … by John Constable.

a)is painted b) painted c) was painted

10. Vivien Leigh* … by the Oscar Prize for the film «Gone with the wind».

a) was nominated b) had been nominated c) nominated

____________________________________________________________________

* См.: Раздел V Иллюстрированный глоссарий «Социокультурной портрет Соединенного Королевства Великобритании и Северной Ирландии»

 

 

Упражнение 42. Заполните пропуски в тексте подходящими по смыслу грамматическими формами глаголов в страдательном залоге:

Emblems 1 as a simple way of identifying countries, companies, organizations in the UK. Each country of the UK has its own Patron Saint and a floral national emblem, as well as its own flag. A red rose 2 England’s national emblem. Roses 3 as emblems during the Wars of the Roses, civil wars (1455-1485) between the Royal House of Lancaster (whose emblem was a red rose) and the Royal House of York (whose emblem was a white rose). Afterwards, they organized the Tudor Rose. Originally the Tudor Rose introduced by Henry III was a symbol of the Tudor family when its members were the kings and queens of England (1485-1603). Other emblems include a bulldog often wearing a Union Jack waistcoat – John Bull, an old fashionedfat country gentlemаn.

Two plants, the leek and the daffodil* 4as national emblems of Wales. On the first of March each year one can see people walking around London with leeks and daffodils pinned to their coats. The Welsh put them into the hole button on the 1st of March, a holiday in honour of the Saint of Wales. St. David was an abbot and became the Saint Patron of Wales in the sixth century. The name «David» is equivalent to the Saint’s Welsh name «Dewi». This Saint was known traditionally as a «Waterman», which means that he and his monks were teetotallers. A teetotaler is someone who drinks no alcohol. The vegetable calledleek is also considered to be a traditional emblem of Wales. There are many explanations of how the leek came to be adopted as the national emblem of Wales. One is that St. David advised the Welsh, on the eve of battle with the Saxons, to wear leeks in their caps to distinguish friends from enemies.

The thistle*, a prickly-leaved purple flower, 5 as a national emblem of Scotland not by chance many years ago. People used it in the XVIIIth century as a symbol of Defense. The answer can 6 in the history of the country. The thorn7 by the people of Scotland, because it had saved their land from invaders. The legend says that during the surprise night attack by the invaders the Scottish soldiers 8 by the shouts of the invaders as their bare feet touched the thorns of the thistles in the field they were crossing. This is a good reason to choose the thistle as a national emblem! The thistle is an official emblem, but a tartan pattern 9on many Scottish products. The Scottish bluebell is also seen as the flower of Scotland.

The national flower of Northern Ireland is the shamrock*, a three-leaved plant similar to clover. An Irish tale tells of how Patrick used the three-leaved shamrock to explain the Trinity. He used its sermons to represent how the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit could all exist as separate elements of the same entity. His followers adopted thecustomof wearing a shamrock on his feast day. The shamrock and the harp 10 with the Republic of Ireland.

________________________________________________________________

* См.: Раздел VI Иллюстрированный глоссарий «Социокультурной портрет Соединенного Королевства Великобритании и Северной Ирландии»

 

The Tudor Rose Роза Тюдоров

А waistcoat жилетка

A shamrock [‘ʃæmrɒk] трилистник, разновидность клевера

A leek лук-порей

A daffodil [‘dæfədil] нарцисс

Оne can see people walking around London with leeks and daffodils pinned to their coats. В Лондоне встречаются люди, на одежде которых прикреплены лук-пореей или нарциссы.

A thistle [θisl] чертополох

А symbol of Defense символ защиты

А thorn чертополох

А surprise night attack внезапное ночное нападение

A monk [mɒŋk] монах

A teetotaler [,ti:’təυt(ə)lə] трезвенник

A clover [’kləυvə] клевер

The Trinity [‘triniti] Святая Троица

He used its sermons to represent how the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit could all exist as separate elements of the same entity. Он использовалего семена, чтобы объяснить единство Сына, Отца и Святого Духа, как они все существуют как отдельные элементы одного целого.

 

1. a) are widely used b) were widely using c) will be widely used

2. а) will be considered b) is considered c) was considered

3. a) were adopted b) has been adopted c) are adopted

4. a) have been takenb) are takenc) had been taken

5. a) is chosen b)was chosen c) were chosen

6. a) is found b) was found c) be found

7. a) was pointed out b) is pointed out c) had been pointed out

8. a) are awoken b) is awoken c) were awoken

9. a) is designedb) be designed c) has been designed

10. a) were associated b) are associatedc) was associated

 

 

Упражнение 43. Заполните пропуски в тексте подходящими по смыслу формами глаголов в страдательном залоге:

The thing is thаt private schools 1 public in the UK. Why? When only the rich people could get education many years ago, special schools 2 for the poor by charities, special organizations collecting money for people in need. As it were public money, such schools 3 public schools. In the course of history they became very successful and turned into expensive private educational establishments, but the conservative Britain continued to call them as earlier.

Public schools* 4 as either all-boys or all-girls now. They can be full boarding, where pupils live the whole academic year except holidays; normal, when students return home every day; and mixed, the pupils there can stay or go home.

The first thing you need know is money as up £ 20 000 a year 5 at some public schools. Only about six per cent of the British can afford them. The grants 6 for bright children but competition is very high. The next point is to belong to the right class as the class system is still very important. So public education is a privilege of the middle and upper classes.

The backbone of the independent educational sector 7 by public schools. The most famous public schools are Eton, Harrow, Rugby. Among several hundred public schools the most famous are the «Clarendon Nine»: Winchester (founded in 1382), Eton (1440), St. Paul's (1509), Shrewsbury (1552), Westminster (1560), the Merchant Taylor’s (1561), Rugby (1567), Harrow (1571), Charterhouse (1611).

The golden age of the public schools 8 in the end of the 19th century. They were vital to establishment of a particular outlook and set values by the dominant professional classes. Its emphasis 9 on making of gentlemen to enter one of the professions: law, medicine, the Church, the civil service or colonial service. A career in commerce, or «mere man making» 10.

Many parents want to send their children to public schools. These schools have special register lists. Eton maintains two lists: one for children of «old boys» (their leavers) and the other for outsiders. But such schools are careful not to expand to meet demand.

This rush to private education is despite the steep rise in fees. In order to obtain a place in a public school, children must take a competitive examination, called «Common Entrance». In order to pass it, most children destined for a public school education attend a preparatory (or а prep') school until the age of 13. Most candidates have to attend an interview, do well at primary school and pass a test.

____________________________________________________________________

* См.: Раздел V Иллюстрированный глоссарий «Социокультурной портрет Соединенного Королевства Великобритании и Северной Ирландии»

 

A public school «паблик скул» - привилегированная частная средняя школа закрытого типа, не зависящая от местных органов образования, для детей из средних/высших слоев общества

To be funded for the poor by charities финансироваться в помощь бедным на деньги от благотворительнных организаций

To turn into expensive private educational establishments превратиться в образовательные учреждения с высокой платой за обучение

All-boys / all-girls / full boarding / normal / mixedschools только для мальчиков / только для девочек / интернаты/стандартные / смешанного типа школы

To charge назначать цену

To afford позволять

A grant for bright children грант / дотация / субсидия для одаренных детей

A privilege of the middle and upper classes преимущественное право/привилегия для представителей среднего и высшего классов общества

A backbone основа

Making of gentlemen to enter one of the professions: law, medicine, the Church, the civil service or colonial service. Bоспитание джентльмена для овладения профессиями в области юриспруденции, медицины, церковннослужения, государственной и колониальной службы.

«Common Entrance» вступительный экзамен в частную среднюю школу закрытого типа

1. a)be called b) were called c) are called

2. а) are funded b) were funded c) will be funded

3. a) were named b) were being named c) had been named

4. a) had been run b) are being runc) are run

5. a)is charged b)are charged c) were charged

6. a) are set b) were set c) will be set

7. a) had been formed b) are formed c) is formed

8. a) is marked b) was marked c) is being marking

9. a) was put b) was being put c) had been put

10. a) is consideredb) was considered c) was not considered

 

НЕЛИЧНЫЕ ФОРМЫ ГЛАГОЛА

(THE NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB)*

*Неличные формы глаголаназывают действие, но не указывают ни лица его исполняющего, ни числа исполнителей, a также не употребляются в функции простого глагольного сказуемого.

Рис. 15. Классификация неличных форм глагола

 

Образование и использование неличных форм глагола

НЕЛИЧНЫЕ ФОРМЫ ГЛАГОЛА
Инфинитив the Infinitive Причастие совершенного вида the Participle II Причастие несовершенного вида the Participle I* Герундий the Gerund
Основная формула Все глаголы
to + V


e.g. to play

e.g. to write

Правильные глаголы
V + ed  


play + ed = played

Неправильные глаголы

write – written*

Все глаголы
V + ing  


play + ing= playing

write + ing = writing

Все глаголы
V + ing  


play + ing= playing

write + ing = writing

ФУНКЦИИ НЕЛИЧНЫХ ФОРМ ГЛАГОЛА В ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИИ
I. Подлежащее
e.g. To have а sense of humour is important for the British**. Иметь чувство юмора очень важно для британца. –     e.g. (His) Translating books by Ch. Dickens** is the best. (Его) Перевод книг Ч. Диккенса – лучший.
II. Часть сказуемого
1. e.g. I’ll readR. Burns’s poems**. Я буду читать стихи Р. Бернса (часть простого сказуемого) 2.е.g. R. Burns** began to write poems in youth. Р. Бернс начал писать стихи в юности (часть сложного глагольного сказуемого). 3.e.g My dream is to read all Ch. Dickens’ works**. Моя мечта – прочитать все произведенияЧ. Диккенса. (часть сос-тавного именного сказуемого) 1e.g. Cambridge** wasfoundedin the XIIth century. Кембридж был основан в XII в. (часть простого сказуемого). 2. e.g. The tourists looked surprised when they had knownmystery of Whispering Gallery** in St. Paul’s Cathedral**. Туристы удивились, узнав тайну Галереи Шёпотов Cоборa Свя-того Павла. (именная часть составного имен-ного сказуемого) 1. e.g. Listen! The English Queen, Elizabeth II** ismakinga speech at the Opening of Parliament. Слушайте! Английская королева Елизавета II произносит речь в честь открытия сессии парламента. (часть составного глаголь-ного сказуемого) 1. e.g. A great pleasure for young children is readingbooks by R.L. Stevenson**. Маленькие дети любят читать книги Р.Л. Стивенсона. (часть составного именного сказуемого).
III. Дополнение
e.g. I decided to make a tour about the UK. Я решила совершить тур по Великобритании. e.g. Do you enjoy her playing the harp*? Тебе нравится, как она играет на арфе?
  IV. Определение  
e.g. He was the first in our groupto read W. Shakespeare’s plays** in the original. Он первым в нашей группе прочел произ-ведения У. Шекспира в оригинале. e.g. «The painted Veil»** is written by a well-known English writer W.S. Maugham**. «Разрисованный зана-вес» написан извест-ным английским писа-телем У.С. Моэмом. e.g. Playingfootball no one must hand the ball. В футболе нельзя брать мяч в руки. e.g. The British* have no habitof interferinginto people’s affairs. Британцы не вмеши- ваются в дела других людей.
V. Обстоятельство
e.g. The British go the Royal Opera House** to watch ballet and opera productions regularly. Британцы регулярно посещают оперные и балетные постановки Королевс-кого Оперного Театра. e.g. Whenhadspare time, they always walked in the Kensington Park**. Когда у них было свободное время, они всегда гуляли в Кенсингтонском парке. e.g. The English weather permittingduring our trip there,we shall walk a lot in London. Если английская погода позволит, мы будем много гулять по улицам Лондона. e.g.In visitingEngland*,tourists pay great attention to ancient monuments. Посещая Англию, туристы особое внимание обращают на древние памятники.
КОНСТРУКЦИИ С НЕЛИЧНЫМИ ФОРМАМИ ГЛАГОЛА
1. Complex ObjectСложное дополнение Основная формула N / Pn + Inf / Part I e.g.I know William the Conqueror** to build the Tower of London. Я знаю, что Вильям-Завоеватель построил Башню Лондона. 2. Complex Subject Сложное подлежащее Основная формула To be said / to be reported / it is likely / it seems etc. + Inf. e.g. The weather in London seems to be rainу. Погода, кажется, дождливая в Лондоне. 3. For + Infinitive Construction Инфинитивный комп-лекс с предлогом for Основная формула For + N / Pr + Inf e.g. The best thing is for us to drink a cup of tea**. Нам лучше выпить чашку чая. 1. Objective-with-the Participle II Construction Объектный падеж с причастием II Основная формула To hear/to see/to have/ to get + Part II e.g. I heard A.Milne’s name** mentioned. Я слышал, что упоми- нали имя А.Милна. 2. Nominative Absolute Particiрle Construction Абсолютный причастный оборот с причастием II e.g. My study at Oxbridge finished, I got the Degree of Bachelor of Arts**. Закончив учебу в Окс-бридже, я получил степень бакалавра искусств. 1. Nominative Absolute Participial Construction Независимый причастный оборот Основная формула N + Part I e.g. She looked at him herface radiantly smiling. Она посмотрела на него, ее лицо озарилось улыбкой. 1. Gerundial Construction Герундиальный комплекс Основная формула Ger. + N / Pos. Pn. e.g. The mother was proud of her son’s returning home. Мама гордилась, что ее сын вернулся домой. .
N.B! В английском языке имеются отглагольные существительные, образованные от глаголов с помощью суффикса –ing и выполняющие в предложении функции дополнения и подлежащего как герундий. В отличие от герундия они употребляются с артиклями и во множественном числе: e.g. The British value the sparklings of humour of dialogues in Jerome Klapka Jerome’s books. Британцы ценят искрящийся юмор диалогов в произведениях Джерома Клапки Джерома.   Герундий может принимать притяжательные местоимения: e.g. During her studying at college, Ann read a lot. Учась в колледже, Анна много читала. В конструкцииСложное подлежащее Complex Subjectупотребляются следующие глаголы в страдательном залоге: to be said to говорить, что / to be seen to видеть, что / to be heard слышать/ to be supposed to предполагать, что / to be believed to полагать, что / to be reported to сообщать, что/ to be thought to думать, что / to be discovered to обнаружить, что/ to be declared to объявить, что/ to be considered to считать, что и т.д. e.g.Clyde was expected to arrive for Mother’s Day. Ожидалось, что Клайд приедет на День Матери В конструкцииСложное дополнение ComplexObject инфинитив употребляетсябез частицы to после глаголов чувственного восприятия (to see видеть/ to hear слышать/to feel чувствовать / to watch наблюдать и т.д.), глаголов to let позволять to make зд.: заставлять; конструкций I would rather Я лучше / You had better Тебе/Вам лучше: e.g. The tourists saw the Queen еnter thе Houses of Parliament. Туристы видели, что королева вошла в здание Парламента.
             

* См: Раздел VI Приложение 1 «Основные формы неправильных знаменательных смысловых глаголов»

** См.: Раздел V Иллюстрированный глоссарий «Социокультурной портрет Соединенного Королевства Великобритании и Северной Ирландии»

 



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