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Прочтите и письменно переведите на русский язык текст 7Д.



 

Text 7D

Forest Cadastre

 

One can see on the example of the forest cadastre that foreign methods introduced in Russia developed not only in the different social and cultural context, but even in the administrative and management environment.

Navy building had been one of the main priorities of Peter I reign. The regular forest surveys were ordered in 1703. Soon all the timber forests of European Russia - from the Baltic Sea to the Volga were managed by the Admiralty. It meant not only the forests of the crown but also private, common and clergy forests. It became illegal to the owners to cut their timber if not suitable for the navy. The historiographer of the Ministry of State Property Lev Zakharov considers it to be the nationalization of forest resources. Only at the reign of Ekaterina II liberalization of the forest status took place and in 1802 Forest Department became the body of the Ministry of Finances.

All the timber forests were examined and mapped by the officers. All the oaks, lime-trees and pines were counted and measured. It was a forest doomsday indeed. Hundreds of large-scale maps and charts, accompanied with tabular statistics were prepared. Later these documents served as the source for general forest atlases such as well-known "General Atlas of various kinds of forests" from the Hermitage Collection of Manuscript Department of the National Library in Petersburg. These surveys were carried out even where forests were never used later.

The fact that forest surveys were surprisingly detailed and exact so deserved special attention. Taking into consideration that large-scale mapping had been new in the practice of Russian state management, we could see the importance of forest surveys for Peter's administration. It makes clear the great shipbuilding plans of Admiralty and Peter himself, this "Sailor and carpenter", as he was called by Pushkin. The mapped resources of timber forests were much more than the real forest consumption and shipbuilding had ever been at that time or later.

The technology of the forest mapping is well known. It was largely borrowed from the western mapmaking. The aim of Peter's cadastres – navy building – is similar to the one of Colbert's, who managed the French crown estates at the same way. But if the Colbert cadastres managed only forests of the crown, all the Russian forests in practice belonged to the crown for almost a century after implementation of Peter's cadastre. This nationalization seems to have nothing in common with European management of natural resources.

Land cadastres could be opposed to the forest ones. Highly developed in the XVI-XVII th centuries, it degraded during Peter's reign. The reason for it was not the tax reform, but the transformation of feudal state into highly centralized bureaucratic system. Regular land surveys did not take place any more despite the fact that landed nobility remained the source for recruiting military and civil statesmen. The land property of nobility giving them independence was considered as an obstacle to their state service. The implementation of obligatory strict forms of state service for nobility is a confirmation of this statement.

Despite the large map surveys of Peter's geodesists in the internal provinces of Russia, where most of land estates were situated, these maps do not reflect land property rights, as well as land use and evaluation. These documents are similar to the later surveys of Russian frontier and colonial territories of Crimea, Siberia, Mid-Asia. The main aim of those is the use of maps for the effective state management and the search for additional natural resources.

The emergence of "resource" paradigm in Russian geography and implementation of resource cadastres instead of tax ones is the result of Peter's modernization. For long time till now these traits of Russian geographical knowledge remained linked with the active reforms carried out by the central power. Though the scientific basis of forest cadastre of Peter I – the most remarkable of his cadastres – had been borrowed from the European science, this stresses the original way of natural resources management.

 

 

Lesson 8. CADASTRAL AND LAND REGISTRATION SYSTEMS IN EUROPE

 

1. Прочтите следующие слова:

 

Methodically, colleagues, boundary, certain, majesty, zoom, announce, complete, widespread, digital, session, authority, Gazeteer, consequence, emerge, arrange, aforementioned, validity.

 

2. Прочтите и переведите следующие группы слов:

 

Within a certain country; use and implementation throughout Europe; to maximize the efficiency; Valuation Office Agency; complete digital database; e-Business strategy; relatively uniform cadastral surveys; unique definition; certificate of title; less pronounced; must be surveyed and demarcated; objects of taxation; greatest achievements; the cradle of the European cadastre' under the umbrella.

 

3. Запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:

 

aforementioned countries – вышеупомянутые страны

agreement (n.) – соглашение, договор

application (n.) – заявление, обращение

assessor (n.) – эксперт, консультант, чиновник, оценщик

assign (v.) – определять, предназначать

attain (v.) – достигать, добиваться

bind (bound) (v.) – связывать, ограничивать

blow (v.) – дуть

book (v.) – регистрировать, записывать

compile (v.) – составлять, собирать

conventional (adj.) – условный, традиционный

cradle (n.) – колыбель, начало, исток

database (n.) – база данных

deadline (n.) – крайний срок, черта, за которую нельзя переходить

delay (v.) – задерживать

devolve (v.) – передавать (полномочия, обязанности)

doubtful (adj.) – сомнительный

embark (v.) – грузить, вступать

emerge (v.) – появляться, всплывать

empower (v.) – уполномочивать

endure (v.) – выносить, длиться, продолжаться

exert (v.) – напрягать, осуществлять

Gazeteer (n.) – географический справочник

her majesty – её величество

homogenous (adj.) – одинаковый, однородный

identical (adj.) – идентичный, одинаковый

impelling reason – побудительная причина

insufferable (adj.) – нетерпимый

insupportable (adj) – невыносимый

introduce (v.) – внедрять

inventory of data – опись, инвентаризация, переучет данных

jointly (adv.) – совместно

large-scale mapping – крупномасштабное картирование

license (v.) – лицензировать

loosely (adv.) – свободно

obstacle (n.) – препятствие, помеха

organizational frameworks – организационные рамки

pan (v.) – подготовить, подвергнуть резкой критике

pronounce (v.) – заявлять, произносить

recent (adj.) – недавний, последний, современный

registrar (n.) – архивариус, регистратор

reliability (n.) – надёжность

remain (v.) – оставаться

search (n.) – поиск, исследование

similarity (n.) – схожесть

trait (n.) – штрих, черта

unification (n.) – объединение

uniform (adj.) – однообразный, единый, постоянный

verbal description – устное описание

wealth (n.) – благосостояние

widespread (adj.) – широко распространенный

zoom (v.) – изменить

4. Прочтите и переведите следующий текст:

Text 8A

The UK "Cadastre"

 

The word cadastre is generally used to describe "a methodically arranged public inventory of data concerning properties, within a certain country or district, based upon a survey of their boundaries". There are numerous models for its use and implementation throughout Europe. Using the land parcel as its foundation, the cadastre is used to record information about land rights, valuation, land use, etc.

There is no UK Cadastre – the word cadastre is not one commonly used in the UK, where for historical reasons the development of land administration institutions has taken place in a different way from the rest of Europe. While mapping remains the basis for those activities considered as "cadastral", in the UK there is no single organization responsible for the cadastre.

Ordnance Survey, as a national mapping agency, maintains large scale mapping for England, Scotland, and Wales. In Northern Ireland this is the responsibility of Ordnance Survey Northern Ireland. The detailed digital mapping maintained by these two Government Agencies provides the definitive framework upon which other organizations can "book" and manage their data. Another difference with most mainland European countries is that the base mapping in UK is topographic – it shows features that exist on the ground but not the fixed boundary points and monuments usually associated with a cadastre.

Ordnance survey has made Great Britain one of the few countries in the world to have a complete digital national topographic database. It includes complete large scale data for all urban areas. Recently Ordnance Survey Northern Ireland has completed the UK picture with large scale digital data covering the entire province. Within Great Britain there is now widespread use of digital mapping across many user sectors, in one of the most developed markets in Europe.

Over the last twelve months Ordnance Survey has embarked on a number of projects under the umbrella of a new "e-Business strategy", the vision of which is: "Ordnance Survey and its partners will be the content provider of choice for location based information in the new knowledge economy". As a part of its new e-Business strategy, Ordnance Survey is developing its digital mapping products and services within a coherent infrastructure known as the Digital National Framework. A unique 16 digit topographic identifier is used for all points, lines, and areas, and provides a common link that will allow different data to reference the same feature allowing users to cross reference data in a way that should help to release the potential and value of their data.

The Nation Land Information Service (NLIS) is a part of the UK Government "modernizing government" initiative. It is a project being jointly developed by HMLR and Local Government. It features private sector partners that provide access to a National Land and Property Gazeteer.

In conclusion, while there is no cadastre in the United Kingdom the activities normally considered to be a part of the cadastre on continental Europe are performed by a variety of agencies. Although the organizational frameworks are different, many of the issues facing UK institutions are similar to those faced by our colleagues involved in cadastre in other parts of Europe. There is a need to create co-ordination of efforts in a way described in the UK as "joined-up government" in order to maximize the efficiency of effort and to provide the best value and service to the citizen.

 

5. Найдите синонимы среди следующих слов:

 

Reason, need, best, maximize, purpose, necessity, excellent, link, similar, bind, increase, same.

 

6. Образуйте от данных слов антонимы при помощи отрицательных префиксов:

In -: significance, separable, official, subordinate, sufferable, urban(e), appropriate, supportable, dependence, dependant;

Un -: limited, steady, suitable, known, reasonable, thinking, trained, suspected.

 

7. Переведите следующие сочетания слов с русского на английский язык:

 

Основная схожесть; несмотря на организационные рамки; правительственные структуры (агентства); картирование остается основой; оценка имущества (недвижимости); электронная бизнес-стратегия; уникальный цифровой определить (идентификатор); инициатива модернизации правительства; полевые заметки; в соответствии с количеством участков; "объединенное правительство"; бывшие колонии; степень безопасности и надёжности; он должен обратиться к регистратору.

8. Переведите следующие предложения с русского на английский язык:

1. Важной характерной чертой разработки является связь между кадастром и регистрацией земли. 2. Франция – колыбель (родоначальник) кадастра. 3. Французский кадастр был определен Наполеоном в начале XIX века. 4. В Соединенном Королевстве нет кадастра. 5. В Англии 2 агентства, которые несут ответственность за запись прав на землю. 6. Англия имеет полную цифровую государственную топографическую базу данных. 7. Уникальный топографический определить используется для всех площадей. 8. Дания имеет всестороннюю кадастровую карту, охватывающую всю страну.

 

9. Заполните пропуски соответствующими модальными глаголами:

1. You ... go to the Agency by bus. 2. This is an easy text on land cadastre. You ... translate it without a dictionary. 3. The students ... work hard. 4. Information ... be organized in integrative form. 5. Works … be based on sound cadastral survey. 6. The computerization ... have much place in land use planning.

 

10. Замените модальные глаголы их эквивалентами:

1. The Government Agencies can "book" and manage data. 2. Researches must look at the possibilities of different services. 3. The results of the trial couldn't be announced. 4. The providers may use digital topographic identifier. 5. This system must provide proper information. 6. Cadastre must have basis for further modernization. 7. Completely new land records must be compiled.

 

11. Заполните пропуски предлогами:

 

1. There are numerous models ... cadastre. 2. The cadastre is used ... record information ... land rights, valuation, land use, etc. 3. There is no single organization responsible ... the cadastre ... the UK. 4. National Mapping Agency maintains large scale mapping ... England, Scotland and Wales. 5. The detailed digital mapping is maintained ... two Government Agencies.

12. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам:

 

1. The basic principles should consist of two parts. 2. This program must provide interesting results. 3. Researches must have basis for further development. 4. The Spanish cadastral system must provide national coverage. 5. The cadastre is developing gradually.

 

13. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на многозначность слова "one".

 

1. One of them is a land use planner. 2. Another cadastre emerged parallel to this one. 3. One should know all these rules. 4. In all Western European countries, cadastral maps are used for many purposes besides the original one. 5. One of the greatest achievements of the Napoleonic cadastre was that it provided a complete record of all land units.

 

14. Ответьте на следующие вопросы по тексту:

 

1. Is there the UK cadastre? 2. Are there models of its use and implementation throughout Europe? 3. How many Government Agencies providing digital mapping are there in the UK? 4. What organization provides a wealth of free mapping on web site? 5. What is "e-business strategy?" 6. Can the Government Agencies "book" and manage data? 7. May the providers use digital topographic Identifier? 8. Must national mapping Agency maintain large scale mapping for England, Scotland and Wales?

 

15. Перескажите текст 8A "The UK Cadastre".

16. Прочтите, переведите текст 8В:

 

Text 8B

Cadastre in West Europe

 

For historical reasons, there are basic similarities among all the cadastres of Western Europe. They are all, in one way or another, based on the principles of the French cadastre as defined by Napoleon early in the nineteenth century. A basic principle was that it should consist of the two main parts: a verbal description and a map showing the locations and boundaries of all land units. The maps were established systematically, area by area, by relatively uniform cadastral surveys, which produced not only the maps but also the field notes on which they were based. The unique cadastral number of each land unit – normally the parcel rather than the farm unit – served as a link between map and description. Since the main purpose was taxation, the original cadastre was arranged according to the names of the owners, showing each owner's parcels with area, land use, arranged according to the numbers of the parcels.

An important feature of these developments is the connection between the cadastre and the land register. In Germany, Austria, Switzerland and the Netherlands, there is nowadays a very close link between cadastres and land registers. In the Netherlands, both are maintained by the same organization in common offices. In other countries mentioned above, the legal units used in the land registers are also identical with the cadastral units or combinations of them. Because of the unique definitions in the cadastral records and maps, it has been possible to introduce systems of title registration with a high degree of security and reliability in all these countries.

In France – the mother country of the cadastre – the unification of the cadastre and the land register has not progressed as far. For one thing, the French cadastre is not as comprehensive nor is it maintained in quite the same way as in the aforementioned countries. It also has less legal validity, and is still mainly a fiscal cadastre lacking the very close link between cadastre and legal land registers.

A common trait in all of Western Europe is that the cadastre provides systematic coverage of the entire territory, and that collected and recorded data are continually updated. Parcels are described according to their uses, square measures and taxation values, their buildings and topography; ownership is recorded; links to other administrative registers and files are established. A general trend is that the original fiscal aspect of the cadastre is becoming less and less pronounced, while its role as the basis of a general land information system is assuming increasing importance.

In all Western European countries, cadastral maps are used for many purposes. In Switzerland, for example, the towns often produce extremely accurate municipal maps based on cadastral information. The integration of cadastral surveys with other kinds of large scale mapping for urban purposes is a common trend in other countries within the region as well. With regard to the cadastral survey, there has generally been a trend towards using increasingly accurate methods, and at the same time, assigning more and more weight to the demarcation of boundaries and to agreements between the owners.

While cadastral maps were originally of the "island map" type, depicting only the cadastral block or section in question, they now increasingly take the form of "comprehensive maps" covering a standard-sized map sheet. This is partly a consequence of the transformation from taxation cadastres to multipurpose cadastres. It is also due to the fact that nowadays all cadastral surveys in Western Europe are adapted to a national grid with a common co-ordinate system. It is, therefore, also possible to integrate cadastral surveying and general topographical surveying, and to use a common sheet division for both types of surveys.

The administration of the cadastre is organized in a variety of ways in different countries. In Germany and the Netherlands, the cadastral authorities were initially government officers connected to the Ministry of Finance. But as a consequence of the expanded function of the cadastre as the basis of a multipurpose land information system, the Dutch cadastre, for example, was reorganized as a separate division within the Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and the Environment. In other countries like France, Switzerland and Belgium, the principle work of cadastral surveying is left to licensed surveyors.

 

17. Прочтите текст 8С, переведите его и раскройте содержание рассматриваемых в нем проблем:

Text 8C



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