How is the Planning process described in the laws



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How is the Planning process described in the laws



 

The Russian Code spends most of its details on the technical processes of creating plans and urban development documentation. Detail is included which is intended to guide the bureaucratic organizations and the planning institutes and professionals in the ways in which they should go about creating plans. This includes descriptions of the content of the mandatory section plans, interrelation of the urban development plans with other actions of governmental authorities as well as the processes of mandatory "expertization." Similarly, there is great detail in describing the tasks and powers of bureaucratic units.

By contrast the "western" laws contain very little detail about the technical methods by which plans are to be compiled and the specific authority of bureaucratic units to engage in tasks related to the planning work. It is assumed that these are technical and managerial issues to be treated in sub-legislation and worked out by the senior managers of the governmental administration.

A strong example of these differences can be seen in the way the laws describe the municipal general plan. This is a common feature of all the laws and, in general terms the plans all have the same purpose. They link a spatial plan with a plan of infrastructure, transport and public facility needs.

The spatial plan describes the best pattern of land uses from the standpoint of land capacity, density of settlement and good urban design. But the plan of infrastructure, transport and public facility needs is based on an estimation of economic calculations and efficient system design and functioning.

Despite the differences, however, the planning and urban development laws of the "western" countries reflect similar concepts of law-drafting and the structure of legislation. These can be characterized in the following ways:

- the laws (as opposed to the sub-legislation and local regulation) accomplish two primary purposes: 1. they authorize or mandate the pertinent government administrations to engage in planning and land use regulation; 2. they define the status of these government actions in relation to the legal rights and responsibilities of landowners and land users, individuals and juridical entities and citizens generally;

- the laws assume that the predominant form of landholding in urban area is private ownership and that most actions, which result in new development or re-development, are civil law/market transactions. The plans and regulations are intended to guide these private actions, and the state and municipal investments in infrastructure and public facilities are to support them. Except in the special case of redeveloping obsolete areas, government actions are not intended to replace private actions to determine how and when to invest in the use and development of specific parcels of land;

- the laws do not define the specific methodologies for planning or fix the content of plans, except with respect to broad categories of subject matter. These are technical issues, which the experts, local officials and citizens will work out. The laws anticipate that there will be disagreements; therefore, they provide procedures for coordination, mediation and public participation. The laws are not used to give one group of experts control over the planning process, excluding others;

- the laws are not intended to fix the power relationship among sub-units of the government administrations. These are management issues. The responsibilities to carry out planning and regulatory tasks are given to the chief executor (governor, mayor) or to one or more ministers. They have the responsibility to organize (or re-organize) the subordinate units to accomplish the tasks most efficiently.

 

5. Найдите синонимы среди следующих слов:

Responsibilities, hinder, accumulate, income, revenue, worth, obligations, discourage, dignity, collateral, secondary, compile.

 

 

6. Образуйте от данных слов антонимы при помощи отрицательных префиксов:

 

in-: expensive, convenience, consistent, accessible;

dis-: agree, comfort, vantage, agreement;

un-: changeable, questioned, repeatable, seasonable, satisfactorily, shadowed, transportable, touchable.

 

7. Переведите следующие словосочетания с русского языка на английский:

Процесс, описанный в Российских законах; взаимосвязь планов городского развития; технические и управленческие вопросы; правительственная администрация; правовые и финансовые трудности; разрабатывать крупномасштабные территориальные планы; последующий ущерб; технический и государственный обзор.

 

8. Переведите следующие предложения с русского языка на английский:

 

1. Чтобы регулировать городское развитие, Соединенные Штаты Америки приняли соответствующие законы. 2. Французский Кодекс опубликован в трёх частях. 3. Говорят, земля является частью окружающей среды. 4. Законы Российской Федерации и западных стран сильно отличаются. 5. Необходимо страховать недвижимость. 6. Пространственные планы показывают лучшие модели землепользования. 7. Подзаконные акты только что разработаны Думой. 8. Документация по городскому развитию постоянно регулируется Российским кодексом.

 

9. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на инфинитивные обороты:

 

1. We expect them to do this work. 2. I want you to work hard. 3. We saw them work at urban development plan.

 

10.Образуйте однокоренные слова от следующих прилагательных:

 

Local, different, constant, independent, confident, competent, evident, permanent, reliable, desirable, valuable.

 

11. Заполните пропуски предлогами:

The United States ... America have adopted laws ... regulate urban development. 2. It's important ... coordinate the expansion ... urban territories. 3. Government administration elaborates schemes ... major transport systems. 4. ... contrast the "western" laws contain very little detail ... the technical methods. 5. Generally ... the "western" countries the systems ... private ownership and other civil law rights ... land and real property have been functioning ... over a century.

 

12. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам:

 

1. The City general plan is defined by the law. 2. The Russian Code spends most of its detail on urban development documentation. 3. In the "western" countries the systems of private ownership have been functioning for over a century. 4. The structure is done deliberately. 5. In order to make them work in reality, the law also must deal with the financial aspects of planning and urban development.

 

13. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на сложное определение (именительный падеж с инфинитивом):

 

1. Aristotle is said to have defined a City "as a place where men live a common life for a noble end." 2. It's difficult to prognose which laws is likely to prove the most efficient. 3. Systems of planning and regulation definition is said to be necessary for urban development purposes. 4. Every green plant is considered to be a "factory." 5. The legislation proved to be useful. 6. He is said to work at the Ministry. 7. This problem is unlikely to be decided quickly.

 

14. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

 

1. Does the Russian Code spend most of its details on urban development documentation? 2. What does the spatial plan describe? 3. Is the plan of infrastructure based on an estimation of economic calculations? 4. Can French five-year moratorium work unless the municipality is able to borrow the capital funds? 5. What requires consideration of the economic impact on private owners? 6. Have private property rights fully defined in the law? 7. Is it necessary to elaborate large area territorial plans and schemes? 8. Is there need for the Russian Federation to copy the "western" laws on urban development?

 

Перескажите текст 12А.

 

16. Прочтите и переведите текст 12В на русский язык и сформулируйте основную мысль текста:

 

Text 12B



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