Necessity of economic and ecological safety

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Necessity of economic and ecological safety


A land resource, as a plant of the real estate can not be physically withdrawn and displaced, processed and dissolved in another production. This specific characteristic of the landownership allows keeping it in a focus of public attention and monitoring, to stipulate it by a complex of regulating demands and limitations. Thus the possibility to provide priority of public interests above individual always remains, the society has free-hand in modification of standards of land use and provision on the rights of land tenants.

The peculiarity of the landownership creates the objective reasons and technological possibilities for interposition of authorized bodies in correlation and mutual relation between people, originating from allocation, redistribution, usage and restoration of land resources. This interposition can have both – administrative and economic basis, to be more or less command-bureaucratic or liberal-market. But anyway the society remains the principal owner of territorial – land resources, regulating the land-property relations in different legal ways.

Serious problem of land use today is the aggravating contravention between interests of the land users and possibility of conservation of useful properties of land resources.

Abusive usage of lands has resulted in lowering productivity of agricultural structure. The critical state of a land complex of Russia and its ecosystem in whole is a very important problem. Certainly, the indicated problems were not a surprise. They cannot be considered, as it is done by some politicians and journalists, as outcome of unreasoned destroying of an old command management system and its substitution by a more liberal market system of socially-economic regulating. On the contrary, the necessity of such conversions was historically determined by long-time accruing of the social and economic, political, ideological, natural and ecological contraventions which have become excessive, and clearly seen at the moment of total reforming of the settled social structure.

Other matter, that this reformation has better to say, declarative and superstructural character, than structural – basis character, differs by an extreme inconsistency and unpredictedness, what has resulted in a continuation of a difficult process of public perturbations. Land-property relations were in the epicenter of this process. Therefore the development of mechanisms and strategy of their regulating in modern conditions acquires substantial value for integrated development of the nation, ensuring its economic and ecological safety.




1. Прочтите следующие слова:


Disturbed, ugliness, wildlife, beyond, purifying, widespread, endangering, associated, mean, significantly, jointly, wealthiest, emission, ozone, controversy, gully, splash, nuisance.


2. Прочтите и переведите следующие слова и словосочетания:

Widespread cries, gully erosion, chemicals and fertilizers, industry waters, great publicity, trust and support, ugliness of billboards and trash, strict pollution control, considerable improvement, wildlife reservation, beyond the concern of a single country, sheet and rill erosion, raindrop splash, the burning of fuels.


3. Запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:


abrasion (n.) – смыв материка морской водой, снашивание, истирание

acid rains – кислотные дожди

aggregate (n.) – совокупность

animal husbandry – животноводство

beyond (prep.) – за пределами

billboard (n.) – доска для объявлений

blame (v.) – порицать, считать виновным

burn (v.) – сжигать

combat (v.) – бороться

consequences (n.) – последствия

controversy (n.) – спор, дискуссия, обсуждение

cropping (n.) – земледелие

crust (n.) – земная кора, поверхностные отложения

curtail (v.) – урезать

death (n.) – смерть

deforestation (n.) – вырубка леса

depletion (n.) – истощение, исчерпывание

deposition (n.) – отложение, осадок, накипь

disperse (v.) – рассеивать, разбрасывать

disturb (v.) – нарушать

ditch (n.) – яма, канава, траншея

emission (n.) – выделение (тепла, света, запаха)

encrustation (n.) – покрытие коркой

endanger (v.) – подвергать опасности

expose (v.) – подвергаться

fine (adj.) – мелкий

fragile (adj.) – слабый, недолговечный

fully banks – переполненные берега

great publicity – большая огласка

greenhouse (n.) – теплица, парник

greenhouse gases – парниковый эффект, парниковые газы

gully erosion – овражная эрозия

harm (v.) – повреждать

high velocity wind – сильный ветер

human induced soil degradation – деградация почвы, спровоцированная человеком

install (v.) – устанавливать

knoll (n.) – холм, бугор

leaching (n.) – выщелачивание

natural resources – полезные ископаемые, природные ресурсы

nuisance (n.) – помеха

oil waters – воды, загрязненные нефтью

ozone layer – озоновый слой

over-pumping – чрезмерное выкачивание

pipeline (n.) – трубопровод

pond (n.) – пруд

purify (v.) – очистить

raindrop splash – дождевой поток

residues (n.) – остатки

resistance (n.) – сопротивление

ripple (n.) – рябь, волнистость

seepage (n.) – просачивание, стекание

sheet and rill erosion – линейная и ручейковая эрозия

sloughing (n.) – заболачивание

slumping (n.) – оползание грунта

spaceship (n.) – космический корабль

steep slope – крутой склон

stress (v.) – подчеркивать

suffer (v.) – страдать

support (n.) – поддержка

tin cans – консервные банки

threaten (v.) – угрожать

trampling (n.) – вытаптывание

trash (n.) – мусор

trigger (v.) – приводить в движение

trust (n.) – доверие

wastes (n.) – отходы

widespread cries – многочисленные призывы

wildlife reservation – заповедник дикой природы

yet (adv.) – ещё, уже, даже


4. Прочтите и переведите следующий текст:


Text 15A

Environmental Protection


Scientific and technological progress of the twenty-first century resulted in widespread mechanization, automated lines computerized management, spaceships, atomic power stations, pipelines, new roads and highways.

But it can not be denied that the price for rapid industrial development is very high: natural resources are exhausted, the ecological balance of the planet is disturbed; some species of flora and fauna disappear; city and industry waters, chemicals and fertilizers are endangering lakes, rivers and ponds. Big cities have a problem with air pollution: the "Killer Smog" caused some 3500-4000 deaths in London in December 1952. Progress can be blamed for all these environmental problems.

In recent years the pollution problems have received great publicity. The Environmental movement associated with no political party has gained widespread trust and support. Environmental activities stress that the problem is caused by industrial pollution and the automobile. Long-established environmental groups warn that acid rains threaten many forests. The media's begun to campaign against the ugliness of billboards, tin cans and trash. Many people started to realize that to keep air and water clean, strict pollution control is necessary.

The protection of natural resources and wildlife is becoming a political program in every country. Numerous antipollution acts passed in different countries led to considerable improvements in environment. In many countries purifying systems for treatment of industrial waters have been installed, measures have been taken to protect rivers and seas from oil waters. Wildlife reservation models of undisturbed nature are being developed in some parts of the world.

But the environmental problems have grown beyond the concern of a single country. Their solution requires the cooperation of all nations.


5.Найдите синонимы среди следующих слов:


Protect, trash, litter, defense, impoverish, exhaust, controversy, discussion, combat, fight, tillage, treatment.


6. Найдите антонимы среди следующих слов:


Adoption, reduce, unbalanced, steep, management, unnoticed, mismanagement, non-adoption, gentle, balanced, reversible, increase, disturbed, noticed, irreversible, disappear, undisturbed, decomposition, appear, composition.


7.Переведите следующие сочетания слов с русского языка на английский:


Овражная эрозия; научный и технический прогресс; проблемы загрязнения; широко распространенное доверие и поддержка; экологический баланс; подвергать опасности; кислотные дожди; заповедник дикой природы; сотрудничество всех государств; быстрое промышленное развитие; обработка промышленных вод; консервные банки; компания против уродства досок для объявлений; очистительные системы.


8. Переведите следующие предложения с русского языка на английский:


1. Проблемы загрязнения получили большую огласку. 2. Существуют разные виды эрозии. 3. Эрозия почвы увеличивается, если нет растительного покрова. 4. Меры консервации могут уменьшить опасность эрозии почвы как водной, так и ветровой. 5. Правильные методы обработки и земледелия могут решить проблемы эрозии почвы на фермах. 6. Почвенная эрозия - это естественный процесс. 7. Ветровая эрозия зависит от разных факторов. 8. Овражная эрозия наиболее драматическая демонстрация эрозии.


9. Определите, к какой части речи относятся следующие слова:


Unnoticed, detachment, emission, improvement, industrial, disturbed, pollution, reservation, deforestation, depletion, environmental, twentieth, disappear, different, installation, requirement, considerable.


10.Составьте предложения, используя следующие слова:

1. Many, in, purifying, been, have, installed, countries, systems. 2. Price, industrial, rapid, high, development, the, for, is, very. 3. Received, have, recently, the, great, pollution, publicity, problems. 4. Ecological, of, planet, the, disturbed, is, balance, the. 5. Been, to, measures, from, protect, have, and, rivers, sees, waters, taken, oil. 6. The, requires, nations, the, all, cooperation, solution, of. 7. Different, in, antipollution, countries, acts, passed.


11.Образуйте причастия настоящего и прошедшего времени от данных глаголов:


To lead, to take, to grow, to exhaust, to mean, to protect, to lose, to occur, to cover, to have, to consider.



12.Поставьте к каждому предложению по пять вопросов:


1. Numerous antipollution acts passed in different countries. 2. The environmental problems is caused by industrial pollution. 3. Purifying systems have been installed for treatment of industrial waters. 4. The solution requires the cooperation of all nations. 5. In recent years the pollution problems have received great publicity. 6. Measures have been taken to protect rivers and sees from oil water.


13.Преобразуйте предложения, изменив форму глаголов-сказуемых из действительного залога в страдательный:


1. Specialists have just installed purifying systems for treatment of industrial waters. 2. Recently workers have taken necessary measures to protect rivers and seas from oil waters. 3. Acid rains threaten many forests. 4. In some parts of the world people are developing wildlife reservation models of undisturbed nature now. 5. The solution of the environmental problems requires the cooperation of all nations.


14.Ответьте на следующие вопросы:


1. What are advantages of industrial development? 2. What are disadvantages of industrial development? 3. What do Environmental activists do? 4. What has been done to improve the environment in many countries? 5. Why do the environmental problems require the cooperation of all nations?


Перескажите текст 15А.



16. Прочитайте, переведите текст 15В и сформулируйте основную мысль каждого абзаца:


Text 15B

Ecological Problems


Global concentration of atmospheric pollution seriously threatens the ozone layer. It means the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases and increased ozone depletion. This threatens to lead to dramatic climatic changes or global warming. To reduce these threats, the scientists of the various countries of the world say that global emissions must be curtailed.

A number of gases contribute significantly to the stock of greenhouse gases. The burning fuels by automobiles and industries are main sources of greenhouse gases. Less damaging sources include deforestation, animal husbandry, wet rice cultivation, decomposition of waste, and coal mining.

Because incomes and consumption are higher in the wealthiest countries, per capita emissions are much higher. For example, the level of per capita emissions in the United States is more than twice bigger than that in Europe, 19 times higher than that in Africa, and 25 times higher than that in India.

A study jointly sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Program shows that global warming is growing. It says that if current emission trends continue, the mean global temperatures may rise 3 C by the end of the twenty-first century.

The potentially catastrophic consequences of climate changes have caused widespread cries for joint preventive policy to combat environmental pollution, concentration of greenhouse gases and ozone depletion.

Statesmen and scientists stress that responsibility for reducing emissions must be divided across the members of the international community. The share of responsibility may be remarkably different depending on industrial development, income, social structure and political orientation of a country.

There is great controversy over the extent to which each government must control the emissions produced by its local population, industry and agriculture.


17. Прочтите и переведите текст 15С:


Text 15C

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