Purposes served by the cadastre



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Purposes served by the cadastre



 

The Cadastre serves the following purposes: legal, fiscal, facilities management, base mapping, value assessment, land use planning, environmental impact assessment and others. As for responsibilities of public and private sectors it is necessary to distinguish them. In the era of New Public Management, it's important to look at the separation of the responsibilities between the public and the private sectors. Originally the cadastral systems were very much in the hands of the state which held all the responsibilities and which carried out all the tasks that were involved.

The experience showed that this is still the case today, although there have been developments going on in recent years which has led to some tasks being taken over by the private sector. In particular, the financing part of land registration and cadastral surveying has to be carried out also by the private sector.

There are some strengths and weaknesses in the existing cadastral system. The strengths of existing cadastral systems include state guarantee of title, legal security; fast service for users; complete coverage, comprehensive, liable, secure system. System is computerized and automated, digital data; system serves other purposes (i.e. as basis for land information system - LIS); integration of different systems, land registration and cadastral mapping in one organization; legal support, legal basis; good base mapping; meeting local needs, flexibility in market adaptation; decentralized, structures/private sectors involvement; cheap system to handle, involvement in economy, centralized management.

The most important strengths include the state guarantee of title and the legal security of the system as well as a fast user service, and the complete data coverage.

Weaknesses of existing cadastral systems involve limited computerization; link land registration – cadastral mapping is not efficient enough or inappropriate. In some cases national consistency could be greater, administrative control over land by different organizations is necessary. One of the disadvantages are low budget funds and incomplete legal framework, little accuracy of maps and slow updating, slow customer service. Financing mode is unsuitable or very expensive. The system has low degree of coverage and high investment cost. Rigid structure, little flexibility, low level of integration are also disadvantages of the existing cadastral system.

 

17. Прочтите текст 6С, переведите его и раскройте содержание рассматриваемых в нем проблем:

 

Text 6C

General trends

 

Today's European cadastral/land registration systems are all strongly influenced by the land information concept. In short, the main trends can be expressed in the following terms: multiple uses, automation, geocodes and digitization.

The cadastre and the land register were each originally designed for one purpose: taxation and security in rights. But almost from the very start, the information provided and the maps produced were found to be very useful for other purposes as well. Only during recent decades, however, this point has been stressed in the technical design of cadastres and land register.

Modern society has developed into an information society, which both requires, and has the ability to produce accurate information. However, if the information is to be convenient to handle, it must be linked to identifiable spatial units. The cadastral land unit is one such unit which is a suitable basis for much information – not only concerning the land itself, but also the people living on the land and many of their activities.

This does not, however, mean that cadastre/land register themselves should contain the necessary land information. On the contrary, all experience shows that both cadastres and land registers should be kept simple, and concentrated only on the data required for their particular purposes. The essential thing is the uniquely defined land unit, which can be used as a key for integrating many different records, thus making available a vast amount of relevant land information.

It is, however, difficult to achieve such a high level of integration when all records are kept manually. Two records such as a cadastre and a land register could certainly be made to influence each other considerably, and to function as one source of information. But in order to advance from here to an efficient, fully integrated system consisting of several different sub-systems, automation is essential.

 



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