Basic elements of cadastral system



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Basic elements of cadastral system



 

A Land Cadastre as a Tax Tool and a Land Registry has long traditions. The legal base of modern era of these institutions was created long ago.

The following four basic aspects give an overview of the existing cadastral systems: legal and organizational characteristics, levels of planning and control, aspects of multipurpose cadastres, and responsibilities of the public and the private sectors.

The basic elements of the cadastral systems are different in different countries. Cadastral systems can be based on titles, deeds, or both. Some countries have indicated that their cadastral system is based on titles. The parcel is the basic unit in the others. A civil law system is the legal basis in the most of them. Registration of property rights is also compulsory. In the average cadastral system, legal protection of the registered rights seems to be very good. The legal force of a property registration, however, has at the same time both a positive (registered rights are assumed to be correct) and a negative effect (unregistered rights are assumed to be non-existent).

Furthermore, the state is in the most cases liable for any damage that was caused by faulty registration. In most jurisdictions, the cadastral systems include land registration and cadastral mapping. In many countries cadastral maps are part of the register, but not, for example, in most of the Australian states, and in Hong Kong, Greece, and Latvia. Land registration includes interests in land that are rights, but which are also restrictions and responsibilities.

In most cases, the cadastre covers the complete territory of the country. The exceptions are low priority areas which may not always be covered. The cadastres are mainly of a complete character which means that parcels are introduced into the systems in a systematic way.

Strategic planning, management, and operational control for both components of the cadastral system – land registration and cadastral mapping – are done within the same organization which is, in all cases, from the public sector. But sometimes tasks of strategic planning and management control are separated among different organizations, some of which are even in the private sector. However, the strategic responsibility for the cadastral systems, i.e., strategic planning, is always kept in the hands of the public sector.

Cadastral systems were mainly established to serve a legal and/or a fiscal purpose. Historically, land records have been established to serve two main purposes. First, as "fiscal" records, primarily for the public sector, they have served as the basis for the full and accurate taxation of land. Second, as "legal" records for the private sector, they have served as registers of ownership and other land rights. The data of the cadastral systems are used for facilities management, base mapping, value assessment, land use planning, and environmental impact assessment. A legal basis, however, does not exist everywhere for all of these other purposes.

 

5. Найдите синонимы среди следующих слов:

 

Steady, equipment, legal, official, basic, tool, main, state, persistent, nation.

 

6. Образуйте от данных слов антонимы при помощи отрицательных префиксов и переведите их:

Dis-: regard, advantage, courage, appear, appoint, count, symmetrical, pleasure.

Non-: agricultural, currency, human, durable, effective, persistent, content, communicable, plowable, judicial.

 

7. Переведите следующие сочетания слов с русского на английский язык:

 

Основные аспекты; во всех случаях; правовые и фискальные цели; частный сектор; влияние окружающей среды; эра нового государственного управления; финансовая часть земельной регистрации; административные недостатки; сильные и слабые стороны; быстрое обслуживание пользователей; точность карт; очень дорогой; часто указывает; низкий уровень (степень) охвата.

 

8. Переведите следующие предложения с русского на английский язык:

 

1. Ограниченная компьютеризация - слабая сторона системы. 2. Государство постоянно регистрирует земли. 3. В прошлом году в агентстве имели место финансовые и административные недостатки. 4. Землеустроитель проводит сейчас кадастровую съёмку. 5. Кадастровые карты есть почти во всех странах. 6. Информация о земле очень полезна для землеустроителей. 7. Кадастровая система защищает права владельцев земли. 8. Землеустроители несут ответственность за оценку земли.

 

9. Образуйте однокоренные слова от данных глаголов:

 

Manage, arrange, organize, work, survey, describe, use, express, locate, consider, assess, execute, change, improve, plow.

 

10. Заполните пропуски, используя следующие слова:access, increase, costs, undertakes, sciences, offers.

 

1. A land use planner ... different role in different countries. 2. Land use planning is concerned with a lot of different ... 3. Modern technology ... new possibilities. 4. It's important to ... the speed and lower the ... for cadastral reforms. 5. Computer technology provides better ... to information.

 

11. Заполните пропуски предлогами и переведите предложения на русский язык:

 

1. ... this text we discuss the basic determination ... the cadastral system. 2. ... the modern world word combination "land use planning" has a much wider meaning. 3. The public and private sectors are responsible ... all tasks. 4. The strengths ... existing cadastral systems include land registration. 5. Both cadastres and land mapping should be kept simple, and concentrate only ... the data ... their particular purposes.

 

12. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам:

 

1. The financial part of land registration is constantly carrying out by the private sector. 2. The weaknesses of the system are gradually decreasing. 3. It's difficult to achieve a high level of integration. 4. An integrated system is developing now. 5. Land use planners are working today on the problem of automating land records.

 

13. Составьте предложения, используя следующие слова:

 

1. The, basic, now, is, system, of, determination, cadastral, discussing. 2. The, holds, state, all, on, registration, land, responsibilities. 3. Are, some strengths, there, in, system, cadastral, weaknesses, and, the existing. 4. Maps, cadastral, the, part, of, register, are, the. 5. Low, funds, are, budget, of, systems, cadastral, existing, weaknesses.

14. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

 

1. Is a land cadastre a tax tool? 2. Does it have long traditions? 3. When was the legal base of a land cadastre and a land registry created? 4. What are the basic elements of cadastral systems? 5. Does the cadastral system implement legal protection of landowners' rights? 6. Is the state liable for any damage caused by faulty registration? 7. Does the cadastre cover the complete territory of most countries? 8. Are fiscal and legal records the main purposes of cadastral systems?

 

15. Перескажите текст 6А "Basic elements of cadastral system".

 

16. Прочтите, переведите текст 6В и сформулируйте основную мысль каждого абзаца:

 

Text 6B



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