The main lessons from a technical comparison of European cadastral systems

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The main lessons from a technical comparison of European cadastral systems


Recently European Union has conducted a comparison of European cadastres. The three main technical conclusions of the studies of urban cadastres are: (1) many European countries are moving toward the integration of the cadastre with the property registry, (2) existing graphic and textual information is detailed but their homogeneity varies from one country to another and (3) computerized technology is new commonly used.

Historically, ownership was established without cadastre. Nevertheless, nowadays, most European countries have understood the importance of linking the property registries or mortgage books with the cadastre to eventually achieve a legal cadastre or a parcel based registry. In the land registry, the right is created once inscribed in the book under the control of a judge. The inscription in the land book is accompanied by an accurate survey. In the mortgage book, the right is created by the contract between the parties. The inscription in the mortgage book makes the right defendable to a third party. It is now compulsory to ensure the exact correspondence between the cadastre and the mortgage book.

In most countries the cadastre is old and homogeneous. Urban cadastre maps cover the dense of urban and dense of peri-urban areas of main European cities. The cartographic and historic homogeneity of these maps is highly various from one country to another. Moreover, the characteristics of the textual information associated to the graphic information vary largely from one country to another.

Computerized technology is now commonly used. Most of the countries have almost finished capturing cadastral textual information and are now on the way to digitize the graphic information (cadastral maps). Technical departments are now equipped with highly sophisticated computerized equipment for data acquisition and maintenance.




1. Прочтите следующие слова:


Vacant, eminent, enforcement, condemnation, levy, domain, delinquency, revitalization, officials, deem, attractive, blighted, redemption, emerge, revenue, perception, perceive, pursue.


2. Прочтите и переведите следующие группы слов:

Tax lien foreclosure, for the public good, land remains vacant, eminent domain, increase tax revenue, insurable property title, recipient property, smart growth, legislative reforms, local level remains deficient, abandoned land, approaches have been pioneered, hindering the process, a marketable proper title.


3. Запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:

abandoned properties – пустующая недвижимость

acquisition (n.) – приобретение

attempt (n.) – предпринимать

attractive (adj.) – привлекательный

blighted properties – имущество (недвижимость), наносящее вред

brown field – негодная земля или недвижимость

brownfield remediation plan – план выкупа (обновления) негодной земли или недвижимости

concern (n.) – забота

(v.) – заботиться

condemn (v) – осуждать, конфисковать

condemnation (n.) – приговор

decline (n.) – упадок

deem (v.) – полагать, считать

derelict (adj.) – брошенный, покинутый владельцем

delinquency (n.) – правонарушение

diverse (adj.) – разнообразный

domain (n.) – достояние, владение

emerge (v.) – появляться

eminent (adj.) – выдающийся, знаменитый

eminent domain power – суверенное право

enforcement (n.) – принуждение, введение в силу

expedite (adj.) – быстрый

(v.) – ускорять

extent (n.) – протяженность, мера, степень

foreclosure (n.) – лишение права выкупа закладной

for the public good – для блага государства, общества

hinder (v.) – мешать

insurable property titles – учёт застрахованного имущества

lien (n.) – право наложения ареста

levy (v.) – собирать, взимать налог

likewise (adv.) – подобно, более того

meet requirements – отвечать требованиям

meet standards – отвечать стандартам

overcome (v.) – преодолевать

pay off (v.) – возмещать

penalty (n.) – наказание

perception (n.) – восприятие, понимание

perceive (v.) – постигать, понимать

porch light – балконное освещение

proceeding (n.) – судебное разбирательство, тяжба

pursue (v.) – заниматься, преследовать (цели)

quantify (v.) – определять количество

rank (v.) – давать определенную оценку

raze (v.) – разрушать до основания

recently razed property – недавно разрушенная, брошенная земля

recipient property – полученная недвижимость

reclaim (v.) – восстанавливать, поднимать, использовать

recovery (n.) – возмещение

redemption (n.) – выкуп, освобождение

reinforce (v.) – усиливать, подкреплять

resolve (v.) – решать, разрешать

retain (v.) – удерживать, сохранять

revenue (n.) - доход

revitalization (n.) – обновление, оживление, придание вторичной жизни

"smart growth" – рост благоустройства

tax generation assets – налогооблагаемое имущество (недвижимость)

tax lien foreclosure – лишение права наложения налогового ареста

termination (n.) – окончание

unintentional (adj.) – не стремящийся

vacant land label – ярлык свободной земли

vehement criticism – сильная критика


4. Прочтите и переведите следующий текст:


Text 10A

Vacant property


The reuse of vacant land and abandoned structures can represent an opportunity for the economic growth and recovery of a diverse range of urban areas. Vacant and abandoned property is a symptom of central city decline that has now become a problem in its own right.

Vacant land represents both a significant problem and an attractive opportunity for many central cities. Vacant land and abandoned structures impose both economic and social costs on cities and neighborhoods or districts in which they are located. On the economic side, such properties lower neighboring property values and tax revenues even as they create pressure to raise taxes to maintain service levels. Likewise, vacant land and abandoned structures impose significant social costs on communities as images of blight, as targets for vandalism and criminal activity, and as unsafe and unhealthy structures.


At the same time, though, vacant land holds out an opportunity for central cities when it is seen as a competitive asset in the implementation of economic development strategies. Vacant land development can generate new economic activity, increase tax revenue, improve transportation and physical amenities, and increase safety. It can also help cities to resolve their brownfield problems as well as reinforce "smart growth" practices by accommodating growth and development within existing urban areas.

Despite the need to understand better the problems and opportunities associated with vacant and abandoned properties, few efforts have attempted to comprehensively quantify their extent. Land use planners surveyed cities perceptions of their vacant land and abandoned structures problem and found that they were viewed as a serious concern. The survey has found that, on the average, 15 per cent of a city's land remains vacant. But while both surveys help to provide a better understanding of the issue and city responses to it, neither was comprehensive. The survey also found that city officials deemed aggressive building code enforcement the most effective technique to address vacant land and abandoned structures, followed by the use of tax foreclosure (used by 60 per cent of the surveyed cities).

To understand the full scope of the problems and opportunities associated with vacant lands and abandoned structures, we need systematic and ongoing data collection.


5.Найдите синонимы среди следующих слов:


Responsibilities, apply, similar, use, duties, various, homogenous, diverse, ownership, domain, suppose, levy, tax, deem.


6.Образуйте от данных слов антонимы при помощи отрицательных префиксов:


Im-: possible, mobility, material, mature, modest, measurability, memorial.

Il-: legal, liberal, legible, logical, legitimate, legitimacy, literacy.



7.Переведите следующие сочетания слов с русского на английский язык:


Перестройка земли, повторное использование, свободная земля, благоустройство города (нарядный рост), пустующие структуры, социальные затраты, цели для вандализма и криминальной деятельности, осуществление экономического развития, лучшее понимание проблем, налоговое лишение права выкупа, сбор данных, восприятие города, возможность для экономического роста.


8.Переведите следующие предложения с русского на английский язык:

1. Свободные земли и пустующие структуры должны заново использоваться. 2. 15% городских земель остаются свободными. 3. Ярлык свободной земли дается различным видам использованной и неиспользованной земли. 4. Законодательные реформы уже изданы для решения проблемы пустующих земель. 5. Землеустроители озабочены проблемой пустующих земель. 6. Экономические затраты возрастают из-за пустующих земель.


9.Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на форму сказуемого:


1. These strategies are grouped by 3 broad categories. 2. An important role is played by state governments. 3. Implementation of financing rules is carried out by eminent domain powers. 4. Legislative reforms have been successfully undertaken by some states. 5. Vacant lands must be reused. 6. The vacant land label is given to different used and unused parcels of land. 7. Legislation reforms have already been published to decide these problems.


10.Образуйте наречия от следующих прилагательных:

Successful, beneficial, wide, sufficient, official, high, quick, early, public, accurate.


11.Заполните пропуски предлогами:

1. The redevelopment ... vacant and abandoned properties consists ... five strategies. 2. Tax lien foreclosure process is greatly influenced ... a tax collection system. 3. Vacant land problems are constantly being decided ... local authorities. 4. Land redevelopment will be decided ... new approaches. 5. Land surveyors are concerned ... problems ... vacant lands.


12. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам:


1. Legislative reforms have already been implemented to support urban land redevelopment. 2. The current set of tools remains deficient. 3. Productive use requires legislative powers. 4. States can be divided into three categories. 5. Eminent domain has been used to establish public parts, preserve places of historic interest.


13. Используйте глаголы, стоящие в скобках, в соответствующем времени и залоге и переведите предложения на русский язык:


1. Vacant land problems (to view) as a serious concern. 2. The vacant land label (to give) to many different types of used or unused parcels. 3. Legislative power (to require) to overcome the problems associated with vacant properties. 4. To support urban redevelopment legislative reforms already (to undertake). 5. Urban land development will (to promote) by the legislative reforms and approaches.

14. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. Do vacant land and abandoned structures impose economic and social costs on cities? 2. What does vacant land represent? 3. Does vacant land hold out any opportunities? 4. What kind of opportunities does vacant land hold out? 5. What can vacant land development generate? 6. How can vacant land help city? 7. How many per cent of a city's land remains vacant? 8. Why have any states successfully undertaken legislation reforms?


Перескажите текст 10А


16. Прочтите, переведите текст 10В и сформулируйте основную мысль каждого абзаца:


Техt 10B

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