UNIT 4. MARKETS, TAXES, ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS.



Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!



Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

UNIT 4. MARKETS, TAXES, ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS.



 

Lesson 13. INTERACTION BETWEEN MARKETS, LAND REGISTRATION, SPATIAL PLANNING

 

1. Прочтите следующие слова:

Single, frequently, adversely, commodity, social, allocation, portfolio, sharecropping, rationale, sophistication, particularly, globalization, performance, commodification, harmonization, accounting, expect, reduce.

 

2. Прочтите и переведите на русский язык следующие группы слов:

Wide range of activities, to encourage certain uses, potential interventions, land taxation system, sound arguments, access to information, the general trend, a constantly developing portfolio, transaction types, formal registration institutions, third party interest, the general rationale, level of sophistication, increasing demands for harmonization.

 

3. Запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:

 

accounting standards – стандарты отчетности

adversely (adv.) – вредно, противоречиво

asset (n.) – имущество

bona fide sales – добросовестная продажа

commodification (n.) – отоваривание

commodity (n.) – товар, сырье

contiguous (adj.) – прилегающий, смежный

customary (adj.) – привычный, основанный на опыте, обычае

eligibility (n.) – приемлемость, право на избрание

enable (v.) – дать возможность

encompass (v.) – охватывать

enhance (v.) – повышать, усиливать

encourage (v.) – поощрять

f or се thе расе – подталкивать

friction (n.) – разногласия, трения

ineligible (adj.) – неприемлемый

influx (n.) – наплыв

institutional frameworks – официальные, законные рамки

intervention (n.) – вмешательство, посредничество

pace (n.) – шаг

portfolio (n.) – пакет (ценных бумаг, документов)

rationale (n.) – разумное объяснение, основная причина

society (n.) – общество

sophistication (n.) – усложнение, фальсификация

spread (v.) – распространять, простираться, развертывать

uncertainty (n.) – нерешительность, неуверенность, сомнения

underpin (v.) – подводить фундамент

up-stream (adv.) – против течения

 

4. Прочтите и переведите следующий текст:

 

Text 13A

Land market

 

Land markets provide a mechanism for the allocation of ownership and use rights that is typically for the most valuable single class of asset in an economy. At the same time land use and sometimes land ownership frequently have influences on other aspects of society's economic and non-economic interests. The general trend towards market economies, for example, often adversely affects men who do not get equal opportunities to use land and property as a commodity. There is therefore a need for regulations based on environment, social, cultural and political considerations that provide a framework for the activities of the land market.

Land markets are made up of a constantly developing portfolio of legal interests and transaction types. This portfolio of transaction types includes sale, rental, sharecropping, and licenses, together with associated derivative transactions including mortgages and mortgage markets, and other real estate interests. Some of these transaction types are typically registrable in those jurisdictions that have formal registration institutions, including sales, mortgages, some leases, and some third party interests. Many are not, including particularly those "less" formal interests such as shorter term of leases or rental agreements, sharecropping agreements and licenses, derivative interests operating "upstream" of the registrable interests such as secondary mortgage market, and some customary rights.

The general rationale for land markets is that, under appropriate institutional frameworks, they will tend systematically to move land towards the most economically efficient ownership and use. This is broadly accepted as a desirable function, particularly given that land is typically the most valuable single class of asset in an economy.

 

5. Найдите синонимы среди следующих слов:

 

Enhance, assistance, commodity, goods, community, construct, build, increase, help, society, adverse, harmful.

 

6. Найдите антонимы среди следующих слов:

Ineligible, cheap, faulty, hinder, eligible, expensive, true, encourage, beneficiaries, disadvantages.

 

7. Образуйте антонимы от следующих слов, используя нужные префиксы:

 

Increase, centralized, pleasure, moralize, tie, told, published, translatable, true, shadowed, trained.

 

8. Переведите следующие сочетания слов с русского языка на английский:

 

Ключевые требования, более точная оценка, финансовый сервис, уровень фальсификации, рыночные товары, отоваривание земли, повышающаяся стоимость земельного имущества, возможности вложения.

 

 

9. Переведите следующие предложения с русского языка на английский:

1. Существует несколько ключевых требований для правильного функционирования рынка. 2. Земельная регистрация подводит фундамент к более эффективным операциям земельного рынка. 3. Земельный рынок регулируется двумя основными механизмами. 4. Земельные рынки состоят из постоянно развивающихся пакетов документов по законным интересам людей. 5. Землепользование оказывает влияние на разные аспекты экономических и неэкономических интересов общества.

 

10. Образуйте 3 формы от следующих глаголов:

 

To experience, to associate, to come, to omit, to purchase, to undergo, to tend, to add, to make, to drive, to contribute, to give, to attach, to reduce, to provide, to encourage.

 

 

11. Заполните пропуски предлогами:

1. Spatial planning may encompass a very wide range ... potential interventions. 2. Planning process is based ... improved access ... information. 3. The market is ... reduce the costs ... simplifying the legal procedure. 4. There are several key requirements ... a property functioning market. 5. The value ... interests ... land is closely related ... the level of risk.

 

12. Составьте предложения, используя следующие слова:

 

1. Provides, system, guarantee, the, appropriate, an. 2. Of, markets, made up, constantly, portfolio, a, developing, land, are. 3. Transaction, these, registrable, types, are. 4. Of, important, commodification, is, factor, land, an. 5. Requirements, are, key, several, there.

 

13. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные функции причастия прошедшего времени:

 

1. Land use and land ownership have influenced different assets of society's economic and non-economic interests. 2. With the established fact of capital markets globalization, the capacity of land commodification is an important factor. 3. The most basic key requirement includes an appropriate legal framework aimed at minimizing risk of ownership. 4. The provision of related information underpins the more official operation of the land market by 2 main mechanisms. 5. Simplifying the legal procedures could be expected to increase the value of registered land. 6. Contributing factors were grouped into locational, physical and sales characteristics associated with specific properties in the area. 7. Land markets are made up of a constantly developing portfolio of legal interests and transaction types.

14. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

 

1. What does land market provide? 2. Is there a need for environmental, social, cultural and political relations? 3. What are land markets made up of? 4. What does the portfolio of transaction types include? 5. Are transactions in land typically related to the economy? 6. Are lands marketable commodities? 7. What key requirements for a property functioning market do you know?

 

15. Перескажите текст 13A "Land market."

 



Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-12-12; Нарушение авторского права страницы; Мы поможем в написании вашей работы!

infopedia.su Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав. Обратная связь - 100.26.179.251 (0.009 с.)