Property-Specific Approaches



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Property-Specific Approaches



 

Three strategies, to start with, contribute directly to the redevelopment of vacant or abandoned properties. These tools focus on the acquisition and disposal of property. These include: (1) tax lien foreclosure; (2) eminent domain powers and condemnation or acquisition of blighted properties; and (3) land banks and community land trusts.

A key first area of state support of redevelopment involves a state's framework for the enforcement of property tax collection. Properties that become tax delinquent reduce public revenues and contribute to neighborhood deterioration. The failure to pay property taxes typically results from one of three causes: (1) property owner's inability to pay their annual tax during depressed economic conditions; (2) public protest over property tax rates that are perceived to be too high: and (3) owner's efforts to maximize the income they receive from their property by neglecting tax payments. The third cause is more typical of property owners who are investors and plan to eventually abandon their property, and more common in major urban areas. Tax delinquency can be viewed as an "early warning system to municipalities that there are market problems with particular properties".

The tax lien foreclosure process allows cities to return tax delinquent vacant land and abandoned structures to productive use. Their ability to do so is greatly influenced at the state level by the particular property tax collection enforcement system that has been legally authorized. These systems vary from state to state because, historically, states retain great autonomy to determine their individual methods of property tax collection and enforcement.

State laws set the parameters for how local governments deal with their tax delinquent properties, either helping or hindering the process. Massachusetts, for example, has no specific deadlines for notifying owners or responding to foreclosure, and the foreclosure process can take years. Florida, Georgia, Maryland, Michigan, and Texas, by contrast, have all adopted legislative reforms in recent years that improve сities' ability to expedite foreclosure on properties and convert them back into productive use. Michigan's legislation shortens the foreclosure process from what could take five years to one-half years, and create insurable property titles through judicial action.

States can also be divided into three categories according to whether they (1) allow lien enforcement and property sale without a judicial process; (2) require judicial involvement at the sale or termination of the redemption period; or (3) permit enforcement of property tax liens through a judicial or non-judicial process.

A judicial tax enforcement proceeding - a proceeding that relies on the court system - is superior for several reasons. Such a proceeding provides a permanent public record and provides an opportunity for a hearing, an opportunity currently unavailable under most tax lien enforcement system. In other words, the process produces a marketable property title that a title insurance company would be willing to insure. In this way, the proceeding resolves one of the major problems to transferring and financing properties that cities seek to redevelop.

 

18. Прочтите и письменно переведите на русский язык текст 10Д:

 

Text 10D

Eminent Domain Powers

 

Eminent domain, in which the owner of the condemned property is provided "just compensation" for its taking is a police power for the public good. With that power, government takes private property through condemnation proceedings. Throughout the proceedings, the property owner has the right of due process.

Every state has a statute, or statutes, establishing how the eminent domain power may be exercised at the local level. State procedures vary widely, however, in some states, the government is required to negotiate with the property owner before instituting eminent domain proceedings. In other states, the government may institute proceedings without prior notice. The power of eminent domain is not limited to states, cities, and political bodies. In many states, public utilities and even pipeline companies have the power to expropriate private property.

Traditionally, eminent domain has been used to facilitate transportation and the provision of water and other utilities; however, it has been used to establish public parks, preserve places of historic interest, and promote beautification. Municipalities - often through their economic development or redevelopment entities - can also employ eminent domain to "retake" blighted property for urban revitalization.

Eminent domain has been critical to municipalities' revitalization efforts, but these efforts have also generated some of its most vehement criticism. Property owners protest the taking of their land for many reasons. Some of them complain about insufficient compensation. Others protest that condemned parcels may not actually be blighted, or that a taking was not for economic development but simply a transfer of property rights between private landholders for the sole purpose of benefiting the new landholder.

In reviewing recent eminent domain court cases, it is found that it remains unclear whether the cases reflect new resistance to the process or simply the need for legal clarification. All sides must keep in mind that a public purpose must be demonstrated.

It should be noted that the use of eminent domain in property condemnation remains a widely practiced and viable means of land acquisition for a number of public-use purposes.

 

Lesson 11. URBAN DEVELOPMENT

 

1. Прочтите следующие слова:

 

Unfortunately, careful, amount, individuality, pleasures, handiwork, turmoil, circumferential, curvilinear, wantonly, vista, show, congestion, desirous, carriageway, inconvenience, pedestrian, pave.

 

2. Прочтите и переведите следующие группы слов:

 

the majority of cases, attractive amenities, it invariably happens, gross handiwork, the purest of human pleasures, dwelling removed from the turmoil and discomfort, well planted and finely laid out, undulation of the site, heavily trafficked streets, to prevent the congestion, approximately the same height, wide grass margins, creation of fitting civic centre.

 

3. Запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:

 

allotment garden – небольшой участок, отведенный под сад

amenities (n.) – удобства, удовольствия

bear (born, borne) (v.) – нести, иметь (чувство)

be in commanding position – быть на высоте, занимать господствующее положение

be proud (v.) – гордиться

carriageway (n.) – проезжая часть дороги

circumferential (adj.) – кольцевой

civic centre – общественный центр

conduit (n.) – водопровод, трубопровод

congestion (n.) – скопление

convenience (n.) – удобство, выгода

convince (v.) – убеждать

desirous (adj.) - желающий

dignified (adj.) - величественный

err (v.) – заблуждаться

exercise (v.) – выполнять, проявлять

fitting centre – салон красоты

from many points of vantage – с точки зрения многих преимуществ

front to (v.) – выходить на первый план

grades of property – качество, класс, расположение недвижимости

gravity flow – основной сток

gross handiwork – ручная работа в чистом виде

haphazard (adj.) – случайный, бессистемный, сделанный наугад

heavily trafficked street – сильно запруженные улицы

imply (v.) – подразумевать, значить

in respect to – с учётом

intersect (v.) – пересекать

invariably (adv.) – неизменно, устойчиво

margin (n.) – край

mortar (n.) – известковый или строительный раствор

obtain (v.) – получать

obviate (v.) – устранять, избавляться

pave (v.) – мостить

provision (зд.) (n.) – 1. обеспечение, снабжение; 2. положение

radiate (v.) – исходить из центра

rectangular (adj.) – прямоугольный

setting (n.) – окружающая обстановка, окружение, художественное оформление

show (v.) – показывать

sidewalk (n.) – тротуар

spinnies and glades – рощицы и поляны

spirit (n.) – дух

spoil (v.) – портить

the great architect of the universe – великий архитектор вселенной

thoroughfare (n.) – проезд, оживленная улица, главная артерия города

turmoil (n.) – cуматоха, шум, беспорядок

ultimately (adv.) – в конечном счетe

unconscious (adj.) – несознательный, бессовестный

undulation (n.) – неровность

wantonly (adv.) – беспричинно, безответственно, бессмысленно

worthy (adj.) – достойный, подобающий

 

4. Прочтите и переведите следующий текст:

Text 11A

Town planning

 

Aristotle is said to have defined a City as a "place where men live a common life for a noble end" which implies an end or aim.

Unfortunately in the majority of cases the aim has been an unconscious one with the result that cities have grown in a haphazard manner, and many beautiful spots turned into an ugly accumulation of bricks and mortar.

A careful study of what wise town planning, the liberal provision of attractive amenities can do, and has done for some of the cities of Europe will convince the greatest anti-town-planner of the wisdom of looking well ahead. It invariably happens that town planning is not thought of or put into operation until a certain amount of development has taken place.

A city attractive by its beauty, by its artistic symmetry and design and by the amenities and conveniences which it offers will gain a reputation and an individuality which not only its Council and its landowners, but also its citizens, may be proud.

What then should be the aim of every City? And to answer that question we are at once thrown back upon the question of what should be the individuality by which the City should be marked and known. Bacon says in his "Essay of Gardens", that "God Almighty first planted a garden. And indeed it is the purest of human pleasures, it is the greatest refreshment to the spirit of men without which buildings and palaces are but gross handiwork." Surely then the aim should be the one implied by the term "Garden City", beautiful, well planted and finely laid out, known and characterized by the charm and amenities which it can offer to those who seek a residence or dwelling removed from the turmoil, stress and discomforts of a manufacturing district.

The various system of planning which have been adopted in the past are rectangular, radial and circumferential; but the latest schemes for town planning are generally a combination of all three, which allows for the best fulfilment of town planning ideals.

The problem then for the town planner is to consider his scheme in respect to the configuration and undulations of the site; direction of main radial and circumferential avenues and boulevards; the layout and construction of avenues and boulevards; open spaces, parks and recreation grounds; tramways; civic centre.

The limitation of the number of houses per acre and height and identical character should be provided. Factories and works must also be placed in the special areas.

 

5. Найдите синонимы среди следующих слов:

Crowd, wanton, irresponsible, intersect, congestion, cross, turmoil, noise, pavement, sidewalk.

 

6. Найдите антонимы среди следующих слов:

 

Helpful, invariably, unconscious, ugly, helpless, variably, beautiful, wanton, responsible, conscious.

 

 

7. Переведите следующие сочетания слов с русского языка на английский:

Великий Архитектор Вселенной; привлекательные удобства; цель каждого города; ручная работа в чистом виде; вдали от суматохи, стресса и дискомфорта; сочетания лучших идей; неровности места (под застройку); кольцевые бульвары; план и строительство авеню; парки и места для отдыха; общественный центр; салон красоты; сильно запруженные улицы; устранить перенаселенность.

 

8. Переведите следующие предложения с русского языка на английский:

1. Необходимо учитывать направление основных кольцевых бульваров. 2. Город привлекателен своей красотой. 3. Всемогущий Бог первым долгом посадил сад. 4. Город должен быть хорошо спланирован. 5. В крупных городах существуют прямоугольная, радиальная и кольцевая системы планирования. 6. Место для отдыха и парков должно учитываться при планировании города. 7. Фабрики и заводы должны размещаться в особых зонах. 8. В центре старинных городов необходимо предотвращать скопление машин.

 

9. Образуйте имена прилагательные от следующих слов:

 

Vary, thank, wonder, beauty, power, help, use, situation, type, finance.

 

10. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на функции инфинитива:

1. It is difficult to estimate future demands. 2. Each route should be linked up one with the other to form easy and suitable means of transit from every part of the city. 3. By carefully planning it can generally be arranged to place a church, a public building, or artistically designed residence to break the monotony of long streets. 4. In order to obviate overcrowding it is essential to limit a number of houses per acre. 5. Land use planner must study all subjects to know his speciality well. 6. To become a good specialist is very important. 7. These are the land use planners to place new parks and recreational grounds.

 

11. Заполните пропуски предлогами:

1. People's Parks are universally provided ... the continent. 2. The secondary business avenues should have sidewalks ... a minimum width ... 10 feet. 3. All sewer, water, electric and other mains are made ... underground conduits. 4. A city is attractive ... its beauty. 5. ... planning the future growth ... existing and new cities one can avoid the enormous expense occasioned ... the lack ... planning.

 

12. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам:

 

1. People's Parks are universally provided on the continent. 2. The traffic is inconvenienced by opening for repairs. 3. Factories and works should be placed in special areas. 4. The whole system of public utilities will ultimately become parts of a completed whole. 5. The circumferential routes connect the various parks and open spaces, streets and avenues, squares and boulevards.

 

13. Преобразуйте предложения, изменив форму глаголов-сказуемых из действительного залога в страдательный:

1. The regulation respects the most important parts of a town planning system. 2. Centres fix shops, schools, churches, etc. 3. A land use planner makes different schemes for proper use of land. 4. God Almighty first planted a garden. 5. The circumferential route connects the various parks and open spaces, streets and avenues.

 

14. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

 

1. How did Aristotle define a City? 2. Have cities grown up in a haphazard manner in the majority of cases? 3. What is a city attractive by? 4. What is the aim of every city? 5. What systems of city planning can you name? 6. Should the town planner consider direction of main radial and circumferential avenues? 7. Must the limitation of the number of houses per acre be provided? 8. Where should factories and works be placed?

 

15. Перескажите текст 11A "Town planning".

 

16. Прочтите и переведите текст 11B и сформулируйте его основную мысль:

 

Text 11B



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