Matching land use requirements with land qualities



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Matching land use requirements with land qualities



 

A kind of land use should be described in terms of its products and management practices. The description must be sufficiently detailed to assess its land use requirements and to plan the necessary inputs. It must include the description of conditions which are potential constraints for production.

The physical requirements of a specific land use type are water, nutrients, temperature regime, salt tolerance. Based on the identification of limiting values which are critical for yield levels, we divide yield levels into classes according to growth requirements and potential changes in external inputs in the land use system.

Land use requirements should be identified according to the following criteria:

- The land should be able to support the land use on a sustained basis;

- The use should yield benefits that justify the inputs.

To meet land suitability a land use planner is to be able to separate suitable land from unsuitable according to sustainability and profitability. Trials and experience of land users must be used choosing the plot of land.

Land suitability classes reflect degrees of suitability. Lands are subdivided into classes according to their degree of suitability and magnitude of changes required to achieve a satisfying level of productivity. Land suitability subclasses reflect kinds of limitations, or main kind of improvement measures required within classes. A land use planner is to identify limitations which may be reduced by specific improvements. E.g. land unit evaluated as subclass S2e means erosion hazard and land unit evaluated as subclass S2w means inadequate water availability.

After matching land qualities and land use requirements, we can prepare options for development in the form of land use system, which include descriptions of bio-physical requirements and the socio-economic characteristics of different land use types.

Land use system includes the combination of a land unit and a land use type. Outputs are presented to land users and decision makers as land suitability maps and descriptions of land use types.

 

UNIT 2. LAND CADASTRE

Lesson 5. STATEMENT ON LAND CADASTRE

 

1. Прочтите следующие слова:

Parcel, data, management, right, purposes, assist, up-to-date, improvement, legal, establishment, location, responsibilities, mortgage, jurisdiction, satellite, implementation, description, supervise.

 

2. Прочтите и переведите следующие группы слов:

 

Different forms, land parcel, equitable taxation, legal purposes, coordinate system, geometric description, land registry, cadastral data, land redistribution, different role, better access, private interests, land disputes, to maintain the equipment.

 

 

access (n.) – доступ

accuracy (n.) – точность

achieve (v.) – достигать

aerial photography – аэрофотосъёмка

circumstances (n.) – обстоятельства

constraint (n.) – разногласие, противоречие

conveyancing (c.) – составление нотариальных актов о передаче имущества

custody (n.) – хранение

customary land tenure – обычное землевладение

define (v.) – определять

demand (n.) – спрос, требование

(v.) – требовать

demarcation (n.) – разграничение, демаркация

easement (n.) – удобство, облегчение

encompass (v.) – охватывать

environment (n.) – окружающая среда

equipment (n.) – оборудование, аппаратура

government (n.) – правительство

joint venture – совместная компания, акционерное общество

leasehold (n.) – арендатор

lower the costs – понижать затраты

offer (v.) – предлагать

organizational arrangements – организационные структуры

mortgage (n.) – ипотека, закладная

parcel of land – участок земли

promote (v.) – содействовать

protection (n.) – защита

reliable (adj.) – надёжный

responsibility (n.) – ответственность, обязанность

restriction (n.) – ограничение

satellite position fixing – спутниковое определение местности

security (n.) – безопасность

trained personnel – обученный персонал

unfortunately (adv.) – к сожалению

utilities (n.) – коммунальные услуги, удобства

valuation (n.) – оценка, величина

value (v.) – оценивать

 

4. Прочтите и переведите текст 5А:

Text 5A

What is Land Cadastre

 

A Cadastre is normally a parcel based and up-to-date land information system containing a record of interests in land (e.g. rights, restrictions and responsibilities). It usually includes a geometric description of land parcels linked to other records describing the nature of the interests, and ownership or control of those interests. It often describes the value of the parcel and its improvements. It may be established for fiscal purposes (e.g. valuation and equitable taxation), legal purposes (conveyancing), to assist in the management of land and land use for planning and other administrative purposes. The Cadastre enables sustainable development and environmental protection. Cadastral Reform is concerned with the improvement of cadastral systems.

The Land Cadastre encompasses such information as land resource capacity, land tenure, land ownership and different land uses. The Cadastre provides:

- information identifying those people who have interests in parcels of land;

- information about those interests, e.g. land duration of rights, restrictions and responsibilities;

- information about the parcel, e.g. location, size, improvement, value.

Land tenure is concerned with the rights, restrictions and responsibilities that people have with respect to the land. The Cadastre may record different forms of land tenure such as ownership, leasehold, easements, mortgages and different types of common, communal or customary land tenure.

The Surveyor undertakes different roles in different countries in relation to the establishment and maintenance of the Cadastre. The Surveyor may be responsible for:

- cadastral surveying and mapping;

- recording of cadastral information;

- land valuation;

- land use planning;

- management of both the graphic and textual cadastral data bases ;

- resolving land disputes;

- custody and supply of cadastral information.

Modern technology, such as up-to-date survey instruments, satellite position fixing (Global Positioning System – GPS), aerial photography and photogrammetry can offer new possibilities to increase the speed and lower the costs for cadastral reform. Computer technology can usually provide better access to information, better manipulation of cadastral data, better quality, and better legal and physical security. To fully utilize modern technology it is important to have trained personnel and facilities to maintain the equipment. Unfortunately this infrastructure is not found in many countries, thereby limiting the use of modern technology.

5. Найдите синонимы среди следующих слов:

 

Costs, deal, dispute, immediately, exact, transaction, sporadically, modern, ground, accurate, up-to-date, discussion, land, expenses.

 

6. Найдите антонимы среди следующих слов:

 

Informal, start, unfortunately, finish, partner, enemy, formal, fortunately.

 

 

7. Переведите следующие сочетания слов с русского на английский язык:

 

Разные страны; правительственные органы; обмен информацией; правовые вопросы; земельная регистрация; различные обстоятельства; организационные структуры; свободно доступный; лучшие манипуляции; новые возможности; систематический подход; перераспределение земли; надёжная информация; рынок земли.

 

8. Переведите следующие предложения с русского на английский язык:

 

1.Регистрация земли - это часть кадастровой системы. 2. Кадастр - это основное средство обеспечения информации о земле. 3. Землеустроители играют важную роль в различных странах. 4. Современный кадастр включает геометрическое описание земельных участков. 5. Специалисты должны проводить оценку земли. 6. Физическая демаркация на земле определяет границы участков.

 

9. Образуйте причастия настоящего времени от данных ниже глаголов. Составьте предложения, используя причастия в разных функциях:

 

To control, to establish, to improve, to assist, to use, to undertake, to find, to connect, to consider, to make, to promote, to increase, to protect, to allocate, to rely.

 

10. Переведите предложения на русский язык, определите функцию причастия настоящего времени:

 

1.All European countries are working today on the problem of automating land records. 2. This is what is now happening in the most countries. 3. Utilities such as water, sewerage, electricity and telecommunication are becoming more complex. 4. Starting with the most highly urbanized area, the cadastral maps are increasingly being digitized. 5. Soil damaging utilities must not be used. 6. Demands for efficient maintenance and management are increasing. 7. The Cadastre provides information identifying those people who have interests in parcels of land.

 

11. Заполните пропуски предлогами:

1.A land use planner undertakes different roles ... different countries. 2. Modern technology can offer new possibilities ... lower the costs ... cadastral reforms. 3. A parcel can be an area ... land with a particular type ... land use. 4. Land registration is the official recording ... legally recognized interests ... land. 5. Cadastre helps ... avoid duplication.

 

12. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам:

 

1. A land use planner plays different roles in different countries. 2. A surveyor is responsible for recording cadastral information. 3. Computer technology offers better access to information. 4. Limit of trained personnel restricts the use of modern technology. 5. Aerial photography and photogrammetry offer new possibilities to lower the costs for cadastral reforms.

 

13. Заполните пропуски, используя глаголы, данные в скобках:

1. A land use planner ____ different roles in different countries (to undertake). 2. Modern survey instruments ____ new possibilities (to offer). 3. The Cadastre ____ in the management of land and land use (to assist). 4. The Cadastre ____ different forms of land tenure (to record). 5. A successful Cadastre ____ reliable information at low cost (to provide).

 

14. Ответьте на следующие вопросы по тексту:

 

What is а Cadastre? 2. What role does a land use planner play in different countries? 3. What is a land use planner responsible for? 4. Can computer technology provide better access to information? 5. Is it necessary to make careful investigation for cadastral reforms? 6. What kind of modern technology do you know? 7. Why should the Cadastre be managed by the government? 8. Is Cadastral Reforms concerned with the improvement of cadastral systems?

Перескажите текст 5А

16.Прочтите, переведите текст 5В и сформулируйте основную мысль каждого абзаца:

 

Text 5B

Different Cadastral Issues

 

There are a number of legal, technical, and operational cadastral issues that must be resolved according to the needs and constraints of each country or jurisdiction. Some of these are:

Documentation of informal or customary rights is sometimes connected to the establishment of land markets. In other cases the aim can be a document of а customary tenure system for land management purposes without changing the nature of the system or tenure relationships. In both cases it is essential that such reforms are only started after careful investigations of the need for and the consequences of the reform.

Land registration is the official recording of legally recognized interests in land and is usually a part of a cadastral system. From a legal perspective a distinction can be made between deeds registration, where the documents filed in the registry are the evidence of title, and registration of title, in which the register itself serves as the primary evidence. Title registration is usually considered as more advanced registration system, which requires more investment for introduction, but provides in principle greater security of tenure and more reliable information. Title registration usually results in lower transaction costs than deed registration systems thereby promoting a more efficient land market.

Land registration (land titling) can be undertaken sporadically at the time of each legal transaction or systematically, area by area. While the sporadic approach gives more immediate benefits to individual land holders, the systematic approach provides a wider range of benefits more quickly, especially if the land registry is a part of a more comprehensive land information system.

The basic unit in a Cadastre is known as the parcel. A parcel can be an area of land with a particular type of land use, or an area exclusively controlled by an individual or a group. A property may consist of several parcels. The flexibility of the definition of a parcel makes it possible to adapt the cadastral system to various circumstances, for instance to include large parcels to represent the interests of land use in traditional tenure systems.

 

17. Прочтите, переведите текст 5С и раскройте содержание рассматриваемых в нем проблем:

 

Text 5C



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