Bottom-up and top-down planning

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Bottom-up and top-down planning


There are two different planning strategies. Bottom-up land use planning assumes a concept which understands rural development to be a process based on self-help and self-responsibility.

The population should actively participate in the process of land use planning. The result of planning and the implementation of measures can only be sustainable if plans are made with and by the people, not behind them or even against them. Planning is therefore not just a matter for experts, but should be carried out together with those affected by it. To ensure a feeling of ownership concerning self-help activities, people who are affected have to be involved in the planning process from the early beginning.

Starting at the local level, bottom-up planning means active participation of the land users who will eventually implement the land use plan already at the identification of the land use problem. The other stages of the planning cycle, help to identify and prioritize between different options.

In some cases, especially in situations involving large areas or large investments it might be more efficient to focus land use planning at higher administrative level. It is called top-down land use planning. It allows to get results of planning which will be integrated with existing planning administration and legislation.

The two planning strategies each have their own advantages and disadvantages and care should be taken not to rely upon only one strategy. Sometimes there are such actual planning situations when one should choose the most appropriate strategy to follow and often mix both of them to get the most satisfying result.

There are some of the advantages of bottom – up land use planning. They include local targets, management and benefits: people will be more enthusiastic about a plan seen as their own. More popular awareness of land use problems and opportunities are available. Plans can pay close attention to local constraints: natural resources or socio-economic problems. Better information is fed upwards for higher levels of planning.

But there are also different disadvantages. Local interests sometimes can conflict with regional or national interests. Difficulties occur in integrating local plans within a wider framework. There is limited technical knowledge at the local level. Technical agencies need to make a big investment in widely scattered places. Local efforts may collapse because of a lack of higher-level support.


Прочтите и письменно переведите текст 2Д.


Text 2D

Implementing Land Use Planning in

Development Co-operation


Land use planning is implemented in order to make decision for present problems (e.g. soil erosion, insufficient agricultural production and low income in rural households) with the planning towards long-term conservation and sustainable use of land resources. Therefore such planning is based on precautions and is future-oriented based on the interests, viewpoints and problem solving potential of the participants.

Land use planning has an integrated character because experience has shown that problems in the field of land resources management can't be solved by sectoral measures only. It is necessary to find appropriate combinations of different measures in technical, economic and social fields and to define them in harmony with each other. This can be achieved through wise land use planning.

Land use planning is used in order to find solutions to conflicts among various groups of the population, among different villages, between villages and authorities or large companies, between farmers and pastoralists, etc. In this process rules of using the land are negotiated between the parties involved in the conflict.

The different approaches reflect the spectrum of contributions to solutions expected from a process in land use planning. The examples show, participation-oriented land use planning has already a notable success in projects of the technical co-operation. Integrated land use planning should be applied when the biophysical dimension has to be combined with social, political, cultural, economic and legal aspects. In other words, land use planning is applied when social conflicts whose origins often lie in the nature of the current land use or in the form of access to resources must be settled.

Various obstacles are placed in the path which may hamper the achievements of the objectives. Creative, realistic, and professional handling of the tools in land use planning are required to cope with all obstacles. Land use planning only makes sense if the contributions to the solutions in the development co-operation can be anchored in a sustainable way, and there is a prospect of applying the approach not only locally but also at larger scales.




1. Прочтите следующие слова:


Border, elimination, soil, protection, waste, establishment, researching, connect, pollution, certificate, restoration, boundary, site, substances, conduction, estimation, carry out, researchers.


2. Прочтите и переведите следующие группы слов:


Technical registration, wind erosion, waste products, tilled soils, radioactive substances, projects for reclaiming the soils, country boundaries, elimination of inconveniences, arrangement of land, irrationally used, publicly discussed, interfarm land use planning, number of interconnected elements, land property.


3. Запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:


adjacent (adj.) – примыкающий, смежный

adjoin (v.) – примыкать, граничить, соединять

allocation (n.) – распределение, размещение

arrangement (n.) – приведение в порядок, устройство, организация

bogging (n.) – заболачивание

border (v.) – граничить

boundary (n.) – граница

cartographical researches – картографические исследования

citizen (n.) – горожанин

citizenship (n.) – гражданство

complex (adj.) – сложный

(n.) – комплекс

crop (n.) – с/х культура, урожай

customer (n.) – заказчик, покупатель

delimination (n.) – разграничение

designation (n.) – назначение

district (n.) – район, округ

drawing (n.) – проект

equal rights – равные права

flooding (n.) – наводнение

irrespective (adj.) – независимый

land relations – земельные отношения

landslide (n.) – оползень, обвал

law (n.) – закон

mudflow (n.) – грязевой поток

participate (v.) – участвовать

participation (n) – участие

preparation (n.) – подготовка

preservation (n.) – сохранение, предохранение

proprietor (n.) – собственник, владелец

radioactive and chemical substances – радиоактивные и химические вещества

reclaimed lands – восстановленные земли

researcher (n.) – исследователь

revealing unused areas – выявление неиспользованных площадей

rules of thumb – правила подчинения

science (n.) – наука

substantiation (n.) – доказательство, обоснование

survey (n.) – съёмка, исследование, изыскание

(v.) – проводить съёмку, исследовать


4. Прочтите и переведите следующий текст:


Text 3A

Land use planning activity


The basic directions of land use planning in Russia include:

- development of federal and regional forecasts, programs of use and protection of land resources, a scheme of land use planning in view of town-planning, ecological, economic and other features of the territory;

- survey with establishment (restoration) on land the borders of administrative-territorial formations, the borders of land sites owners under general state system and their technical registration;

- drawing up new land use planning projects, existing landed properties and land uses ordering with elimination of inconveniences in the arrangement of land;

- delimitation of the land areas, establishment of borders and allotment of land sites on district, registration of plans (drawings) of borders, preparation for the certificate of rights to the land sites;

- development of the projects for reclaiming the tilled soils, soil protection from water and wind erosion, mudflow, landslides, flooding, bogging, pollution by waste products of manufacture, chemical and radioactive substances, for improvement of agricultural lands, for development of new areas, preservation and increase of soil fertility;

- substantiation of borders accommodation and establishment of especially protected territories;

- fixing and change on district of city, country and rural settlements boundaries;

- conducting topographical and geodetic, cartographical, soil, agro-chemical, geo-botanical, historical, cultural and other researching work;

- development of land use planning documents connected with estimation of resources, use and protection of land, preservation and development of historically used economic activities of small peoples and ethnic groups;

- drawing up maps and atlases of land resources conditions and use;

- land inventory, regular revealing unused, irrationally used, areas used not on a special-purpose designation.

Land use planning activity is carried out in all areas irrespective of their special-purpose designation and forms of ownership according to scientifically proved, publicly discussed and in accordance with established order authorized by land use planning documentation (including forecasts, programs, schemes and projects, materials of inspections and researches).



5. Найдите синонимы среди следующих слов:

Activity, regulation, particular, work, special, order, define, arrangement, organizing, determine.


6. Найдите антонимы среди следующих слов:

Misunderstanding, natural, irregular, legal, understanding, unnatural, regular, respective, illegal, irrespective.


7. Переведите следующие сочетания слов с русского на английский язык:


Защита почвы от эрозии; установление границ; материалы проверок и исследований; целевое назначение; улучшение с/х земель; этнические группы; публично обсужденные проблемы; опись (инвентаризация) земли; основные средства; земельные площади; в соответствии с; равные права; компьютерная наука; детальные топографические исследования.


8. Переведите следующие предложения с русского на английский язык:

1. В России существуют основные направления землеустроительных работ. 2. Разработка землеустроительных документов связана с оценкой земли. 3. Этнические группы используют и сохраняют свою землю. 4. Землеустройство это правильная организация земельных ресурсов. 5. Компьютеры широко используются в землеустройстве. 6. Землеустроители решают топографические и картографические вопросы каждый день. 7. Законодательные и правовые акты определяют правильное использование земель. 8. Пользователи земли и собственники участвуют в землеустроительной работе.


9. Определите, к какой части речи относятся следующие слова:


Arrangement, proprietor, management, worker, specialist, user, government, legislation, administration, citizenship, designation.


10. Образуйте имена существительные от следующих глаголов:


Depend, improve, operate, direct, measure, consider, compose, arrange, participate, manage.


11. Заполните пропуски, используя следующие слова: estimation, used, administrative, conducts, responsible.


1. Land use planning is financed by ... bodies. 2. A land use planner ... topographical and geodetic works. 3. Maps and atlases are ... by specialists. 4. A land use planner is ... for revealing unused lands. 5. ... of resources is the main task of a land use planner.


12. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам:

1. Bodies of the government are the customers of land use planning work. 2. The state guarantees equal rights and protection for citizens. 3. Maintenance of steady landscapes is obligatory for all proprietors. 4. Local land use planning allows to receive operation designs. 5. A land use planner estimates development of a site.

13. Образуйте 3 формы от следующих глаголов:


To be, to have, to go, to begin, to increase, to direct, to provide, to change, to own, to till, to depend, to define, to arrange.


14 .Ответьте на следующие вопросы:


1. How many kinds of land use planning do you know? 2. What are they? 3. What is the purpose of land use planning? 4. Are there the basic directions of land use planning activity? 5. Land use planning activity is carried out in all areas, is not it? 6. What tasks does local land use planning solve? 7. What laws does land use planning study? 8. Who can participate in land use planning work?


15. Перескажите текст 3A "Land use planning activity".


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