Прочтите и письменно переведите текст 6Д.

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Прочтите и письменно переведите текст 6Д.


Text 6D

Entity of land records


The land unit tends to become a legal entity protected by law. The increasing importance of this can be demonstrated. In the past, cadastral and other records were usually arranged according to the names of the current owners. The records in many countries are still indexed in this way, which makes searches difficult as ownership changes. In Western countries the cadastres/land registers are increasingly being indexed according to the more enduring entity of the land unit itself, identified by maps and unit number.

A cadastre/land register must cover an entire geographical area in order to provide essential benefits from a public point of view. Seen from the viewpoint of the private owner, even a sporadic register can be useful, as it can provide protection for his interests.

To fulfil the public goal of establishing complete land records within the area in question, the inclusion of every land unit must be compulsory. Experiences show that voluntary registration is insufficient for establishing comprehensive land records, even in the long term. To satisfy the public goal, the establishment of the records must generally be undertaken systematically, area by area. In practice this means that the costs of establishing the records should be initiated mainly by the government. This is quite logical as comprehensive records are primarily a public interest, at least in the short term. This also applies to mapping. The preparation of comprehensive, registration index maps cannot be financed by private landowners.

In developing countries, the resources available for establishing different kinds of land information systems are usually meager. This was also true in many European countries during the nineteenth century. Therefore we have many examples of how cadastres/land registers were started in a very simple way, and then were developed progressively into smoothly operating systems. Sweden and Finland provide two such examples. The German adaptation of a system of titles instead of a system of deeds at the end of the nineteenth century is another example.

Every land information system must be able to adapt to new developments and new aims in the future. It must, therefore, be possible to add new types of data, and to make changes. This applies to the technical details as well. For example the numbering system of the land units must be constructed so as not to become too cumbersome to use even after long chains of subdivisions. This is unfortunately not always taken into consideration at the start and may be difficult to change later on.

One of the most important factor is that the registration of all transactions in land must be compulsory. For transactions involving a change in boundaries, there should be simple, but mandatory procedures to ensure that all changes are surveyed and mapped before registration takes place.




1. Прочтите следующие слова:


Epoch, sense, appreciate, well-known, magnificent, justify, cruel, compare, obligation, estate, century, peasant, wealthy, waterway, staff, medieval, similarity, archival, tremendous.


2. Прочтите и переведите следующие группы слов:


Few geographical surveys of cadastral character; late descriptions; introspective Moscow Rus; Great Reformer; pre-Petrine Russian culture; imperial ideology; the changes in the nature of a cadastre; feudal tax cadastre; low density; abundance of agricultural resources; unsuccessful attempts; hunting estates of tsars; vassal obligations; poll tax.


3. Запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:


ancient (adj.) – древний, античный

apiary (n.) – пасека

arable soil – пахотная почва

archbishop (n.) – архиепископ

at least (adj.) – по меньшей мере

attract (v.) – привлекать

be unable to satisfy – быть не в состоянии удовлетворить

carefully (adv.) – тщательно, аккуратно, заботливо

contemporary (n.) – современник

depend on prosperity – зависеть от процветания

due to (prep.) – из-за, благодаря (чему-то)

еndless forests – бескрайние леса

feudal state – феодальное государство

foreign ambassador – иностранный посол

forest doomsday – судный день леса

go astray – заблудиться

hayfield land – сенокос, луг

hereditary estates (votchiny) – наследственные состояния (вотчины)

hunting estates – охотничьи угодья

indirect evidence – косвенное доказательство

in order to compare – для того, чтобы сравнить

introspective (adj.) – самосозерцательная

land taxes – земельные налоги

lime-tree (n.) – липа

march (n.) – болото

medieval (adj.) – средневековый

merciless (adj.) – беспощадный

middle ages – средние века

mutual dependence – взаимная зависимость

noble (adj) – благородный, дворянский

old-fashioned methods – старомодные методы

orthodox faith – православная вера

pine (n.) – сосна

poll tax – подушный налог

presume (v.) – предполагать, допускать

resist (v.) – сопротивляться

rural parish – сельский округ

serfdom (n.) – крепостное право

timber (n.) – лесоматериал, древесина

treat (v.) – (зд.) рассматривать

treaty (n.) – договор

turning point – поворотный момент

unequal duties – неравные пошлины

virgin forests – девственные леса


4. Прочтите и переведите следующий текст:


Text 7A

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