Cadastre in Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe

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Cadastre in Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe


Between Scandinavian countries, Denmark has the system most similar to the Western European ones. Denmark has long had a comprehensive cadastral map, covering the whole country and connected to a common reference system. Cadastral surveys for subdivisions, etc., are made by private surveyors. However, the records are kept, and the cadastral maps are maintained by a central government office in Copenhagen. The cadastre is closely integrated with the land registration system, which is of the title registration type.

The same close integration is also found in Sweden and Finland, which both have systems of title registration based on cadastral units. In these countries the cadastre has developed gradually from simple taxation records loosely linked to maps, to a comprehensive system with a high degree of reliability. In Sweden, the urban cadastres were linked with large scale maps at an early date. Later, a photo map in the scale of 1:10000, showing all land units in rural areas with their boundaries, was established as a registration index map.

In Sweden the cadastre has been further integrated with the land register through automation. One single agency, the Central Board for Real Estate Data, collects and transforms selected cadastral and land register information for automatic data processing. The regional cadastral and land registration offices are still responsible for data collection. They have on-line links with the Central Board, and are empowered to change the records in case of subdivision, transfer of ownership, etc. This Board is responsible for issuing all certificates as well as for all communications with other authorities using real-estate data. Duplication of effort is thereby avoided. The time needed to produce the legal documents and distribute them to those concerned has also been shortened substantially. The system is now operational in the greatest part of the country, and will be complete in about 5 years.

Norway has not previously had a proper cadastral system, relying instead on old tax records, only partially supported by maps. The country has, however, decided to establish an automated system providing data on land units, addresses and buildings. Its main purpose is to provide information, not to serve as a legal basis for taxation, land registration, etc.

Spain and Italy were also influenced by the Napoleonic cadastre, and adopted basically similar systems. However, they were only partially developed, and the Spanish system especially does not provide comprehensive, national coverage. The link between cadastre and land registration is weak. The two records are administered by different authorities, and the descriptions of the land in the land register do not always refer to the cadastral units. The link between cadastre and register is, therefore, not primarily the parcel designation, but rather the name of the owner. This is, of course, an obstacle to further integration.

The fiscal nature of the cadastres is more predominant in Southern than in Western Europe. As buildings are important objects for taxation, Italy has established a modern building register as a part of the cadastre.

Greece does not have a comprehensive, homogeneous, national cadastre, but the problem has been studied, and a governmental decision to establish a nationwide system appears forthcoming.


Прочтите и письменно переведите текст 8Д


Text 8D

Some European experience


The main development of cadastral and land registration systems has taken place in Europe. Even though times and conditions have changed, some lessons might be drawn from these European experiences.

The cadastre will be largely worthless unless it is substantially complete within a particular geographical area. One of the greatest achievements of the Napoleonic cadastre was that from the very start, and regardless of the nature of the land, it provided a complete record of all land units within the area – including unique identification – and defined these units on comprehensive maps. To attain this goal, cadastres and land registers must be kept simple, and must be concentrated on the essentials. Furthermore, the work must have a solid foundation. Even if conditions are changed over time, if new aspects have become relevant, if new political winds have started to blow, the process must still continue along the same main lines until it is finished. Costs must be kept reasonable in relation to expected medium-term benefits. This is more important than producing a product which is technically perfect. There are many examples in Europe of cadastral systems which have been stopped or delayed because of faltering political support. Even in France – the cradle of the European cadastre – it was difficult to complete and maintain the cadastre.

Cadastres were created with the aim of improving the basis for land taxation, and land register were established to make land transactions more secure. Initially they were independent of each other, but they have become increasingly interrelated, and are used with increasing frequency for purposes other than the original ones. It has taken a long time, however, for most European countries to reach this point. Difficulties arose since the original records were not designed as parts of common information systems, and because their maintenance was entrusted to different organizations. It is, therefore, essential that the goals of multiple usage and integration will be adopted the conception of a modern cadastral/land information system.

If land records develop along these lines, the chosen cadastral unit will become important in many connections. If legal land registration, as well as other land records are based on the same unit, the unit will assume considerable legal and practical importance. In most countries with well-developed cadastral/land information systems, subdivision or other changes in the cadastral unit require formal legal proceedings and, as a rule, re-surveying. Private changes or subdivisions made without formal proceedings are not accepted or given legal status. A conclusion drawn from European experiences is that the land unit tends to become a legal entity protected by law.

A cadastre/land register must cover an entire geographical area in order to provide essential benefits from a public point of view. Seen from the viewpoint of the private owner, even a sporadic register can be useful, as it can provide protection for his interests.

Finally, the rapid rate of change in existing European systems, especially during the last two decades, shows clearly that the design of cadastral/land registration systems must be future oriented. This applies to technical aspects as well as to the fundamental principles of the system. Less-developed countries must, therefore, carefully consider and evaluate all experiences which can be obtained from other countries. An example is automation. It is often doubtful whether it should be introduced from the beginning. Today's systems and structures must be planned in such a way that necessary changes are easy to make tomorrow.








1. Прочитайте следующие слова:


Multipurpose, revenue, guarantees, collection, private, tax, correspondence, user, mortgage, urban, grid, benchmarks, features, link, registration, subdivision, broker, title.


2. Прочитайте и переведите следующие группы слов:


Registry service, property registry, unique parcel, private investors, multipurpose tool, city revenue, urban certificates, tax collection, own purposes, individual demands, geodetic grids, real estate, information users, comprehensive census of owners and occupants.


3. Запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:


according to – в соответствии с

agree (v.) – соглашаться

ancillary (adj.) – дополнительны

benefit (n.) – выгода, польза, прибыль

census (n.) – перепись

collateral (adj.) – побочный, второстепенный

corresponding title – соответствующий учет

create (v.) – создавать

distribution (n.) – распределение, распространение

emphasize (v.) – подчеркивать, делать ударение

equity (n.) – равенство

farther (adj.) – дальнейший

fringe (n.) – окраина, опушка (леса)

indigenous (adj.) – местный

informal sprawling settlements – неформально расползающиеся поселения

incentive (adj.) – побудительный

interfere (v.) – мешать, вмешиваться

long-term credit – долгосрочный кредит

lose (v.) – терять

maintenance (n.) – поддержка, обеспечение

mortgage (n.) – ипотека, заклад, закладная

notary (n.) – нотариус

objective (n.) – цель

occupant (n.) – житель, временный владелец, арендатор

override (v.) – задавить, отвергать

owner (n.) – собственник, владелец

peri-urban (adj.) – периферийный

property tax – налог на недвижимость

provider (n.) – поставщик, снабженец

real estate property – недвижимость

reluctant (adj.) – вынужденный

represent (v.) – представлять собой

salary (n.) – зарплата

scale (n.) – масштаб

shanty towns – грязные, жалкие городки

strengthening (n.) – укрепление

stakeholder (n) – акционер, имеющий долю капитала в предприятии

transaction (n.) – сделка

unilateral (adj.) – односторонний



4. Прочтите и переведите следующий текст:


Text 9A

What is an urban cadastre


An urban cadastre is the physical description of the land and real estate tenure in a city. It contains graphic and textual information. Graphic information includes the description of each individual parcel and building, topographic features such as roads, rivers, contour lines, additional information such as cartographic grids, geodetic benchmarks, etc. Textual information includes names of owners or occupants, names of streets or areas of specific interest, main characteristics of each parcel or building such as the area, the fiscal value, the associated urban certificates, etc. Both types of information are linked together and managed in a system known as а cadastral information system.

Most of the time, the cadastre is integrated with the property registry, the legal registration of land and real estate property. Integration of the cadastre with the registry creates a parcel based registry or a legal cadastre. This guarantees the exact correspondence between physical and legal ownership. In other words, wherever there is a parcel or building, there are the corresponding titles or "legal tenure documents" registered in the property registry, and respectively, wherever there are registered titles, there is a unique parcel corresponding to it. This is technically permitted by a unique identification number that links unilaterally the parcel or the building to the title.

We can identify two categories of stakeholders involved in the maintenance and use of cadastral information: information providers and information users. Information providers include cadastral and registry services as well as private surveyors and notaries. The former are responsible for the systematic production and maintenance of the information, the latter generally intervene for day to day individual demands, such as private utility and facility companies that would produce and need data for their own purposes like water tax collection. Information users include the private individual users, municipalities and local communities, public and private investors, banks, real estate and mortgage brokers, etc.

The successful urban cadastre depends upon legal frameworks, the social assessment and participation as well as use of new technologies.


5.Найдите синонимы среди следующих слов:


Unsafe, local, indigenous, framework, ancillary, justice, additional, dangerous, fairness, stakeholders, limiting, shareholders.


6. Образуйте от данных слов антонимы при помощи отрицательных префиксов:

Ir-: respective, repairable, responsibility, rational, regular, reclaimable, recoverable, recognizable.

Im-: patible, mobile, movаbility, perfection, movable, possibility, penetrability, police.


7. Переведите следующие сочетания слов с русского языка на английский:


Описание участка, топографические черты, дополнительная информация, городской сертификат, уникальный опознавательный номер, 2 категории акционеров, пользователь информации, поставщик информации, правовые рамки, увеличить доступ, устранить напряженность, дальнейший анализ, перепись владельцев, безопасность недвижимости.


8. Переведите следующие предложения с русского языка на английский:


1. Городской кадастр должен содержать физическое описание земли и недвижимости в городе. 2. Городской кадастр включает графическую и текстовую информацию. 3. Информационные провайдеры и пользователи - 2 категории акционеров. 4. Городской кадастр должен иметь список владельцев. 5. Новые технологии уже решили старые проблемы. 6. Я только что зарегистрировал свою недвижимость. 7. К концу следующего года моя недвижимость будет уже построена. 8. Правовые рамки уже четко определили распределение обязанностей между земельным агентством и агентством недвижимости.


9. Образуйте 3 формы от следующих глаголов:


To identify, to feel, to make, to impact, to accompany, to give, to vary, to understand, to equip, to computerize, can, to train.


10. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения глагола "to have":


1. The staff of this firm has been trained to maintain the computerized technology system. 2. You have to know everything about textual and graphic information. 3. Each city has urban cadastral maps. 4. Most of the countries have almost finished capturing cadastral textual information. 5. European countries have understood the importance of linking the property registries or mortgage books with the cadastre. 6. Every day I have dinner at 12 o'clock. 7. Recently, the European Union, has conducted a comparison of European cadastres.


11. Образуйте прилагательные от следующих существительных:


Investigation, administration, prosecution, communication, comparison, danger, science, confidence, base, history.



12. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам:

1. The social assessment and participation have required innovative approaches. 2. There have been three technical steps for the rapid technological evolution. 3. The European countries have understood the importance of the cadastre. 4. The staff has already been trained to maintain the system. 5. You have to stem lessons from a technical comparison of European cadastral systems.


13. Используйте глаголы, стоящие в скобках, в соответствующей форме:

1. Recently we (to receive) the textual information. 2. We just (to prepare) the map of this city. 3. He (to be) to use graphic information. 4. By the end of this week the report (to write). 5. They already (to see) this information.


14. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:


1. What is an urban cadastre? 2. What does textual information include? 3. What categories of stakeholders do you know? 4. Is integration of the cadastre with the registry so important? 5. Will use of new technologies solve old problems? 6. What have you to do when preparing a cadastre? 7. Should the legal framework provide a clear distribution of responsibilities between land and real estate agencies? 8. Will the field data acquisition process be governed by population participation?


15. Перескажите текст 9А "What is an urban cadastre?"


16. Прочтите, переведите текст 9В и сформулируйте основную мысль каждого абзаца:


Text 9B

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