Заполните пропуски, используя следующие слова: economically, improve, principles, influence, rural.

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Заполните пропуски, используя следующие слова: economically, improve, principles, influence, rural.


1. People often have economic or political ... 2. Measures should be ... justified. 3. The government tries to ... living conditions of people. 4. The presentation of the basic ... is given. 5. Land use planning is used in ... regional development.


Поставьте 4 вопроса к тексту 4А.



13. Определите, к какой части речи относятся следующие слова:


Responsibility, define, political, development, invest, implement, measures, conditions, try, particularly, responsibly, conciliation, rural, support, exact, implementation.


14. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:


1. How is land use planning stated? 2. What is land use planning based on? 3. Does land use consider only production? 4. What cases does land use planning deal with? 5. Do national authorities intervene in land use planning? 6. Is land use planning used in rural regional development? 7. Is land use planned in all cases or not? 8. What functions does land use planning have?


15. Перескажите текст 4A "Land use planning as an instrument of the technical co-operation".

Прочтите и переведите текст 4В.

Text 4B

Different Views


Land use planning in the technical co-operation is an iterative process based on the dialogue amongst all participants. It is aimed at the definition of decisions on a sustainable form of land use in rural areas and the initiation of the appropriate measures for implementation and monitoring.

Even fundamental concepts of land use planning are perceived differently within each project. Whereas some of them consider an approach which gives these directives on how land related subjects should be organized in a definite region, others will promote a process of organization and learning.

The first model of land use planning follows the sense of a rational model of planning. It is assumed that the optimization of the set of planning tools in connection with rationalization of the planning organization will result in the best possible solution to the problem to be solved. Any social conflicts are disregarded in this process (technical planning approach).

The objective of the latter concept is to create a social platform for solving problems and settling conflicts. Land use planning is thereby described as a political process in which the constellation of forces is crucial to the result. In this type of planning process the stakes of different groups with different power potential and different influence meet one another. In this process the mechanisms of conflict resolution and forming a consensus are the major political factors (participatory planning approach).

The dialogue-oriented learning and negotiation process amongst the participants leads to the development of their planning capacities and to sustaining co-operative relations at local level.

Participants in land use planning are direct and indirect land users, as well as those affected by the consequences of land use activities. Another group is formed by people who often have political or economic influence; this includes authorities, organizations, middlemen and women, processing industries for agricultural products, etc. However, the most important target group in land use planning is made up of the direct land users.

Rural areas, in contrast to urban areas are characterized by agricultural and forestry production having relatively low population and building densities. Infrastructure, facilities or services have a relatively low importance.

Land use planning is an iterative process; it is the flexible and open reaction based on new findings and changing conditions. Land use planning is more than preparation of a planning document; it is an iterative process. Iteration is both the principle and the method simultaneously. New developments and findings are specifically observed and incorporated into the planning process. It may lead to the revision of decision and the repetition of steps already taken. This can render superfluous both analyses and data bases which would have been set up at some expense. Iterative planning requires flexibility in planning, but in no way constitutes a "concealed lack of planning".

"Iteration" means putting the result of the decision-making process into practice and converting it into a situation specific step-by step planning. It is repeated or recurring process that seeks to reach an optimal solution.


17. Прочтите текст 4С и раскройте содержание текста на английском языке:


Text 4C

Core of land use planning

The core element in land use planning is the dialogue amongst all participants to reach decisions based on consensus. A major task of land use planning is to accompany and motivate the participants and those affected in order to attain a conciliation of interests concerning land resources, types and extent of land use.

The land use planning process covers all steps extending from the collection of data and information through its processing, analysis, discussion and evaluation right up to the negotiation for a consensus concerning the form of land use to be practiced. This includes the prerequisites for preparing, initiating and implementing the plan.

Land use planning is first and foremost a process of clarification and understanding between people who together wish to change something and prepare future actions systematically. In the process, the elements of a plan are worked out co-operatively. The core part of a planning process is therefore a commonly desired objective to be achieved by implementing the plan. Time planning is linked to the physical/geographic/ecological planning of areas, and the two are mutually dependent.

Land use is considered to be sustainable when it is both socially and environmentally compatible desired by the society, technically viable and when it makes economic sense. This means social justice, long-term sustainability of natural resources, acceptance and social compatibility, economic efficiency, viability.

Land use planning creates the prerequisites required to achieve a type of land use, which is sustainable, environmentally compatible, socially desirable and economically sound.


18. Прочтите и письменно переведите на русский язык текст 4Д:


Text 4D

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