ТОП 10:

EUROPEAN UNION: THE HISTORY OF FOUNDATION



For centuries, Europe was the scene of frequent and bloody

wars. In the period 1870-1945 France and Germany fought each

other three times, with terrible loss of life. A number of European

leaders became convinced that the only way to secure a lasting

peace between their countries was to unite them economically and

politically. That’s why in 1950 the French Foreign Minister Robert

Schumann proposed integrating the coal and steel industries of

Western Europe. As a result in 1951 the European Coal and Steel

Community (ECSC) was set up with six members: Belgium, West

Germany, Luxembourg, France, Italy, and the Netherlands. The

power to take decisions about the coal and steel industry in these

countries was placed in the hands of an independent international

body called „The High Authority”. Jean Monnet was its first President.

The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was such a

success that within a few years the above mentioned six countries

decided to go further and integrate other sectors of their economies.

In 1957 they signed the Treaties of Rome, creating the European

Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) and the European

Economic Community (EEC). The member states set about

removing trade barriers between them and forming a "common

market".

In 1967 the institutions of the three European communities

were merged. From this point on, there was a single Commission

and a single Council of Ministers as well as the European Parliament.

Originally, the members of the European Parliament were

chosen by the national parliaments but in 1979 the first direct elections

were held, allowing the citizens of the member states to vote

for the candidate of their choice. Since then, direct elections have

been held every five years.

The Treaty of Maastricht (1992) introduced new forms of co35

operation between the member state governments – for example

on defense, and in the area of "justice and home affairs". By adding

this intergovernmental cooperation to the existing "Community"

system, the Maastricht Treaty created the European Union

(EU).

Economic and political integration between the member

states of the European Union means that these countries have to

take common decisions on many matters. So they have developed

their policies in a very wide range of fields – from agriculture to

culture, from consumer affairs to competition, from the environment

and energy to transport and trade.

In the early days the focus was on a common commercial

policy for coal and steel and a common agricultural policy. Other

policies were added as time went by, and as the need arose. Some

key policy aims have changed in the light of changing circumstances.

For example, the aim of the agricultural policy is no longer

to produce as much food as cheaply as possible but to support

farming methods that produce healthy, high quality food and protect

the environment. The need for environmental protection is

now taken into account across the whole range of EU policies.

The European Union’s relations with the rest of the world have

also become important. The EU negotiates major trade and aid

agreements with other countries and is developing a Common

Foreign and Security Policy.

It took some time for the Member States to remove all the

barriers to trade between them and to turn their "common market"

into a genuine single market in which goods, services, people and

capital could move around freely. The Single Market was formally

completed at the end of 1992, though there is still work to be

done in some areas – for example, to create a genuinely single

market in financial services.

During the 1990s it became increasingly easy for people to

move around in Europe, as passport and customs checks were

abolished at most of the EU’s internal borders. One consequence

is greater mobility for EU citizens. Since 1987, for example, more

than a million young Europeans have taken study courses abroad,

with support from the EU.

In 1992 the EU decided to go for economic and monetary union

(EMU), involving the introduction of a single European currency

managed by a European Central Bank. The single currency

– the euro – became a reality on 1 January 2002, when euro notes

and coins replaced national currencies in twelve of the 15 countries

of the European Union (Belgium, Germany, Greece, Spain,

France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal

and Finland).

The EU has grown in size with successive waves of accessions.

Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom joined in 1973

followed by Greece in 1981, Spain and Portugal in 1986 and Austria,

Finland and Sweden in 1995. The European Union welcomed

ten new countries in 2004: Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia,

Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia.

Bulgaria and Romania expect to follow in 2007; Croatia and Turkey

are beginning membership negotiations in 2005.The insurance

that the enlarged EU was still efficient needed a more streamlined

system for taking decisions. That is why the Treaty of Nice lays

down new rules governing the size of the EU institutions and the

way they work. It came into force on 1 February 2003. It would be

replaced, in 2006, by the new EU Constitution – if all EU countries

approve this.

Vocabulary notes:

to convince – переконувати(ся);

to vote – обирати шляхом голосування;

joint – спільний, загальний;

to merge – об’єднувати;

consumer – споживчий, торговий;

circumstances – обставини;

range – ряд;

to negotiate – домовлятися, вести переговори;

to abolish – скасовувати;

consequences – наслідки;

currency – валюта, гроші в обігу;

accession – вступ, приєднання;

efficiently – продуктивно, ефективно.

Practical Exercises:

Read the following statements and decide whether they

are true or false:

1. In the period 1870-1945 France and Germany fought each

other three times, with terrible loss of life.

2. A number of European leaders decided that the only way

to secure a lasting peace between their countries was to unite them

financially.

3. In 1951 the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)

was set up with six members: Belgium, West Germany, Luxembourg,

France, Italy and Great Britain.

4. In 1957 the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM)

and the European Economic Community (EEC) were

created.

5. Since 1967 there has been a single Commission a Single

Council of Ministers and the European Parliament.

6. In 1967 the first direct elections to the European Parliament

were held.

7. The Treaty of Maastrict (1992) created the European Union

(EU).

8. Some key policy aims of EU have changed in the light of

changing circumstances.

9. Since 1992 more than a million young Europeans have

taken study courses abroad with support from the EU.

Read the text and answer the questions using your own

knowledge of history and the information given:

1) What was the reason for the European Coal and Steel

Community (ECSC) foundation?

2) What countries formed the ECSC in 1951?

3) When and why were the European Atomic Energy Community

(EURATOM) and the European Economic Community

(EEC) created?

4) When was the European Union formed?

What do you know about further merge of the Union?

5) What was the importance of the treaty of Maastricht?

6) What are the key policy aims?

7) What does „Common market” mean?

8) What was euro, the common currency, created for?

9) Which countries joined the EU after 1973?

10) What can you tell about your native country attitude towards

the EU?

3. Complete the sentences:

1. For centuries, Europe was the scene . . .

2. That’s why in 1950 the French Foreign Minister Robert

Schumann proposed . . .

3. The power to take decisions about coal and steel industry

in these countries was placed in . . .

4. In 1957 they signed the Treaties of Rome . . .

5. The Treaty of Maastricht introduced new forms of cooperation

. . .

6. . . . that these countries have to take common decisions on

many matters.

7. . . . but to support farming methods that produce healthy,

high quality food and protect the environment.

8. . . . as passport and customs checks were abolished at most

the EU’s internal borders.

9. . . . involving the introduction of a Single European currency

managed by the European Central Bank.

Compose a chronological table according to the facts

And dates given.

ECSC

a single Commission

a single Council of Ministers

the European Parliament

Creation of the EU

the Single Market

5. Points for discussion in micro groups:

1. The history of foundation of the EU.

2. New forms of cooperation between the member State

Governments.

3. Key policy aims of the EU.




Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-04-07; Нарушение авторского права страницы

infopedia.su не принадлежат авторские права, размещенных материалов. Все права принадлежать их авторам. Обратная связь - 54.166.199.178