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Vera Tolstoy, Descendant of Author Leo Tolstoy

1. Countess Vera Tolstoy, the granddaughter of Russian author Leo Tolstoy (3) died (2) March 29 at home in New Smyrna Beach. Fla. (4)(5), of complications related to injuries suffered in an auto accident last November (6). She was 95 (4)(1).

(1) т., СФЕ-монор.; (2) днт. экв., комп. ур., монор.; (3) т., перенос в зачин информ. из правостор. части текста; (4) т., внешнее члене­ние, добавл. темы., и объедин. высказ.; (5) мжк. экв., дескр. ур., транскр. с поясн. дополн.; (6) т., внешн. членение, добавл. темы.

2. Countess Vera Tolstoy was one of the last surviving grandchildren of Count Tolstoy (2), the author of such classics as "War and Peace" and "Anna Karenina" (1) and she was the last (3) of the Tolstoydescendants (4) to have a personal memory (5) of life on the Tolstoyestate of Yasnaya Polyana (6) when her grandfather was still alive (7).

(1) т., информ., переносимая в зачин; (2) днт. экв., комп. ур., пере-

нос ремы (surviving) в конец русск. высказ.; (3) т., объедин. выска-

зыв., метод однор. сказ; (4) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., компрессия се- мант, избыт, комп; (5) днт. экв., комп. ур., словосочет., смена

частей речи и членов предл.; (6) т., внутр. членение, добавл. темы;

(7) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., опущен, семант. избыт, комп.

3. As a child (2). she often sat on his lap (1) and played with his beard (3) while he told her stories (4).

(1) публ. ст., личности, характер высказ., замена подлеж.; (2) днт.

экв., сит. ур., конкретиз.; (3) мжк. экв., дескр. ур., компрессия; (4) т.,

объедин. высказ., однор. сказ.

4. She (1) was born in Dubrovka. Russia. (2) and was 7 when LeoTolstoy died in 1910 (3)(4)(5). In 1920 she fled (6) her homeland in the wake of the Bolshevik Revolution (7).

(1) т., кореферент. цепочка; (2) мжк. экв., дескр. ур., транскр. с по-

ясн. добавл.; (3) т., внешн. членение; (4) днт. экв., комп. ур., перестан.

обстоят предл. в тему; (5) т., объедин. высказ., свёртыв. предл. в

словосочет.; (6) эмот. экв., квант, ур., контекст, обусловл. снижение

экспр.; (7) мжк. экв., дескр. ур., пресуппоз., поясн. перевод.

5. She did not return to Yasnaya Polvana until 1991 (1), when three

generations of Tolstoy descendants gathered for a family reunion

at the estate where Russia's greatest writer spent much of his adult

life(2)(3).

(1) днт. экв., сит. ур., антоним, перевод; (2) т., внешн. членение; (3) днт. экв., комп. ур., монор. В

середине текста.

6. During the intervening seven decades (1), she (2) spent 20 years in Washington "working (3) with the Russian broadcasting section of the Voice of America (4), where she specialized (5)(6) in news broadcasts and feature stories for listeners in the Soviet Union.

(1) т., поясн. добавл. для естеств. перехода между высказ.; (2) т., корефер. цепочка; (3) т., членение, добавл. темы; (4) мжк. экв., дескр. ур., реалия, калька с добавлением; (5) т., объед. высказ., однор. сказ.; (6) днт. экв., сит. ур., глагольн. метонимия, прич. — следств.

7. For much of the 1920s she lived in Yugoslavia (1). In 1923, she married a man named Vladimir Bakovsky, but the marriage was annulled. They had a son, Sergey Tolstoy (2)(3).

(1) днт. экв., комп. ур., перест. комп. высказ.; (2) т., врем, послед, действ., перест. высказ. и пояснение смысловой связи между ни­ми с помощью добавления; (3) днт. экв., сит. ур., дирема, тема — предложи, дополн.

8. In the 1930s, she (1) lived in Prague. As she traveled across Europe, she acquired various languages (2) and customs (3). She sang gypsy ballads in night clubs, directed the Barbara Gould Salons (4) in Paris and, after Warld War II, sang for American soldiers in Germany and the Netherlands.

(1) т., кореферент. цепочка; (2) днт. экв., форм, ур., словосочет., общ. семант. параметр и опора на синоним, ряд; (3) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., добавл.; (4) мжк. экв., пнт. ур., генерализ.

9. She came to the United States in the 1950s at the invitation of her aunt Alexandra Lvovna Tolstoy, the youngest daughter of Leo Tolstoy and the founder of the Tolstoy Foundation. She sold perfume in New York for Elizabeth Arden (1) (2) before (3) coming to Washington with Voice of America (4).

(1) т., добавл. для поясн. связи между высказ.; (2) мжк. экв., пнт. ур., генерализ.; (3) т., контекст, знач. предлогов; (4) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., добавл.

10. Returning to Russia for the 1991 family reunion at Yasnaya Polyana (1), Countess Vera Tolstoy was the unofficial matriarch (2) of Leo Tolstoy's 187 direct descendants (3)(4). Only one of her grandfather's 13 children had remained in Russia (5). The others had scattered over four continents after the Russian Revolution (6).

(1) публ. ст., личности, характер высказ., смена подлеж.; (2) днт. экв., сит. ур., глагольн. метоним, прич. — следств.; (3) т., внутр. членение; (4) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., добавл. (5) днт. экв., комп. ур., монор.; (6) эмот. экв., ур. цл. общ., метод экспресс, идиоматики.

The gender profile of Russia

1. The evolution (1) of Russia's economy and political system over the last decades was associated (2) with changes in all spheres of life (3). It (4) opened up new development prospects (5) but, at the same time, generated a variety of new problems, a major one being growth of gender inequality (6).

(1) днт. экв., форм, ур., множеств, соотв. (развитие, изменение, рост); (2) днт. экв., сит. ур., гл. метон., прич. — следств.;(3) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., дополн., синтакс. сочет.; (4) днт. экв., сит. ур., ди-рема, тема — обет, прич.; (5) днт. экв., комп. ур., словосочет., пе-рест.; (6) т., абс. констр., внутр. членение.

2. This process is taking place despite the principle of gender equality written in the Russian Constitution (1). All countries of the world

(2) are facing a certain degree of gender asymmetry of employment and labor market, gender disparity in the enjoyment of rights (3) and expression of political interests.

(1) т., внутр. членение; (2) днт. экв., сит. ур., дирема., тема — косв. дополн.; (3) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., словосочет., добавл.

3. The Russian situation is somewhat unique (1) because women's gender issues were accompanied (2) by pronounced "male" problems (3) — in particular (4), very low life expectancy (5), increasing gap (6) in educational attainment (7), high prevalence of asocial behavior and devaluation of fatherhood (8).

(1) публ. ст., номинализ. сказ.; (2) днт. экв., сит. ур., гл. метон., прич. — следств.; (3) эмф. экв., квант, ур., повыш. эмф. — констр. «не только... но и»; (4) т., внешн. членение; (5) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., словосочет., добавл.; (6) днт. экв, форм, ур., множ. соотв. (ин­тервал, промежуток, расстояние); (7) днт. экв., комп. ур., словосо­чет., перест., смена частей речи; (8) днт. экв., сит. ур., конкретиз.

4. At the same time, as recent history clearly demonstrates, gender issues create serious obstacles to (1) sustainable economic, social and political development and frustrate efforts towards (2) poverty elimination (3). This is why any further reform in Russia must comprise a gender component reflecting the fact that men and women are not exposed to new social and economic risks in the same way (4).

(1) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., восстановл. отглаг. сущ; (2) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., семант. избыточн., компрессия; (3) днт. экв., комп. ур., словосочет., перест.; (4) днт. экв., сит. ур., антоним, перевод.

5. As has been mentioned, the principle of gender equality is promoted (1) by the RF Constitution and by many federal laws. In reality, however, deviations from this principle are wide-spread (2), and women suffer more than men from violation of their rights (2).

(1) днт. экв., сит. ур., гл. метон., прич. — следств.; (2) днт. экв., сит. ур., гл. метон., следств. — прич.

6. Discrimination is prohibited by law, but no single legislative act contains definition of this concept (1) and procedural guarantees against discrimination are not sufficient. Gender stereotypes propagated through mass media contribute to the persistence of discrimination (2).

(1) днт. экв., сит. ур., дирема, тема — предложи, доп.; (2) днт. экв., комп. ур., монорема.

7. Gender roles in Russia are distributed (1) in a traditional way: domestic work remains predominately female occupation, while paid employment is dominated by men. Reforms of the previous years were accompanied by "naturalization of households" (2), which resulted in increasingly heavy domestic and overall burdens (3) falling on women.

(1) публ. ст., номинализ. сказ.; (2) днт. экв., сит. ур., дирема, тема — обет, врем.; (3) днт. экв., комп. ур., словосочет., сохр. следов, элемент., смена част. речи.

8. Women work in their households (1) more than three times as much as men do (2). Given the fact that women account for 48.5% of economy-wide employment (3), it means that they actually work double time (4). Women in rural and low-income families (5) that depend on subsidiary plots or farms (5) face a "triple" working day (4). (1) публ. ст., номинализ. сказ.; (2) днт. экв., сит. ур., метонимия, прич. — следств.; (3) днт. экв., сит. ур., номинат. метоним., дея-тельн. — деятель; (4) днт. экв., сит. ур., дирема, тема — предл. доп.; (5) днт. экв., сит. ур., номинат. метон., часть — целое.

9. As the value of housework is not recognized by society (1)(2) women suffer (3) in employment and pension entitlements. In the years of reform, deterioration (4) of living standards and human development potential (5) led to feminization of poverty.

(1) публ. ст., номинализ. гл. сказ., перех. гл.; (2) т., объедин. вы-сказ.; (3) днт. экв., сит. ур., следств. — прич.; (4) днт. экв., дирема, тема — обет, прич.; (5) днт. экв., комп. ур., словосочет., перест.

10. Gender inequalities (1) in the area of health are usually studied within the context of an overall (2) crisis of the national health system (3), with medical services and Pharmaceuticals becoming too expensive (4) for large population groups.

(1) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., добавл., передача грамм, категории чис­ла лексич. средствами; (2) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., семант. избыточн., компрессия (раз кризис системы, значит общий); (3) т., добавл., поясн. смысл, связи между комп. высказ.; (4) т., объедин. абсолютн. констр. с главным составом и её свёрт. в обстоят, оборот.

11. Federal programs (1) presently cover only 20% of the expenses (2) necessary to protect women's health. Reproductive health (3) of the Russian population has fallen to a critical level.

(1) днт. экв., сит. ур., дирема, тема — косв. доп.; (2) днт. экв., сит. ур., номинат. метон., действ. — объект действ.; (3) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., восстановл. отглаг. сущ.

12. One of the major "male" gender problems in Russia is low life expectancy of men (1). This situation results primarily from social and economic factors (2)(3). But the public health reform does not include measures to insure health protection of men as a gender group (4)(5).

(1) днт. экв., сит. ур., дирема, тема — сост. имен, сказ.; (2) днт. экв., сит. ур., дирема, тема — обет, прич.; (3) т., добавл., поясн. смысл, связи между высказыв.; (4) днт. экв., сит. ур., дирема,тема — обет, образа действ., прямой порядок слов; (5) днт. экв., сит. ур., анто­ним, перевод.

13. Attempts to smoothen (1) gender asymmetry of decision making (2) have been frustrated (3) by political, economic and cultural obstacles.

(1) публ. ст., номинализ. гл. формы; (2) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., словосочет., перест. элемент, и добавл.; (3) днт. экв. сит. ур., гл. ме­тон., следств. — прич.

14. The Ministry of Labor and Social Development has recently designed a Gender Strategy of the Russian Federation, which defines goals and objectives of Government's gender policy (1) — a major step (2) towards resolving the issues in questions (3).

(1) днт. экв., сит. ур., дирема, тема — обет, места; (2) т., внешн. членение; (3) днт. экв., сит. ур., глаг. метон., прич. — следств.

Russian agricultural policy

1. In an appropriate economic policy there is no question (1) that Russian agriculture (2) could prosper and make a substantial contribution to the national and global economy (3). Its (4) productive potential is enormous (5), first, because its area is vast (6).

(1) днт. экв., комп. ур., перест. обстоят, оборота в тему; (2) днт. экв., комп. ур., словосочет., перест. и смена частей речи; (3) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., восст. отгл. сущ.; (4) днт. экв., сит. ур., метон., отделён, признак; (5) днт. экв., форм, ур., множ. соотв. (громадный, огром­ный, грандиозный, чудовищный, беспредельный); (6) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., свёрт. предлож. в словосочет.

2. In addition, the fertility of its soil, its climate in many areas (2) and its human capital (3) combine to make its capacity (1) for efficient production (5) among the greatest of any country in the world (4).

(1) днт. экв., дирема, тема — обет, прич.; (2) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., словосочет., добавл.; (3) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., восст. отгл. сущ.; (4) эмф. экв., ур. цл. общ., оборот с форм, выраж. равенства; (5) днт. экв., комп. ур., перенос ремы в конец русск. высказ.

3. Given its promise, agriculture could be a solid foundation (1) for economic growth and poverty abolition (2). In particular, income growth (2) in agriculture could play a key role in alleviating (3) poverty in rural areas, where the living standards have plummeted (4).

(1) днт. экв., форм, ур., словосоч., множ. соотв. (крепкий, прочный, массивный) + общ. сем. парам.; (2) днт. экв., форм, ур., словосочет., перест.; (3) публ. ст., номинализ.; (4) днт. экв., комп. ур., монор. в серед, текста.

4. Through increased (1) technical and economic efficiency (2) Russia should be able to restore its position as a major producer and even exporter of many crops (3) and thereby integrate itself (4) into world food markets.

(1) публ. ст., номинализ. причастия II; (2) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., словосочет., добавл.; (3) днт. экв., сит. ур., номин. метон., часть — целое; (4) днт. экв., сит. ур., гл. метон., процесс — его начало.

5. This (I) would eliminate the pressure (2) for food aid (3) from foreign donors (4). Notwithstanding the benefits (5) from enhanced agricultural growth, the gap between possible and actual productivity remains wide.

(1) днт. экв., сит. ур., дирема., тема — обет, прич.; (2) днт. экв., форм, ур., множ. соотв. (неотложность, безотлагательность); (3) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., восст. отгл. сущ.; (4) днт. экв., сит. ур., номин. метон., деятель — место его нахожд.; (5) днт. экв., форм, ур., мно­жеств, соотв. (польза, благо).

6. То design appropriate policies to reduce this gap (1), it is important to understand that it is not new (2), and to understand this, the distinction must be clearly drawn (3) between production levels, on the one hand, and productivity (or production efficiency), on the other.

(1) т., внешн. членение; (2) т., добавл., поясн. логич. связи между высказ.; (3) днт. экв., комп. ур., словосочет., перест. и смена членов предл.

7. In Soviet times (1), production was high (2) mainly because it was heavily subsidized (3)(4), not because it was efficient (3).

(1) днт. экв., сит. ур., конкретиз.; (2) публ. ст., номинализ. сказ.; (3) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., компр., свёрт. прид. предл.; (4) днт. экв., комп. ур., перенос ремы в конец русск. высказ.

8. The Soviet emphasis (2)(3) on production volume and self-efficiency at any cost — some of which attitude (4) survives today — is clearly inappropriate in an increasingly global world (1).

(1) днт. экв., комп. ур., перест. обстоят, обор, в поз. темы; (2) днт. экв., форм, ур., множ. соотв. (подчёркивание, ударение, акцент); (3) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., добавл., словосочет.; (4) днт. экв., форм ур., множ. соотв. (позиция, отношение, установка).

9. In light of the highly subsidized nature of the sector (1) and the unsuitability of production per se (2) as a policy goal (1)(3), some of the Russian agriculture contraction (3) in the transition period was explicable — and even desirable.

(1) т., членение, разверт. словосочет. в предл.; (2) эмот. экв., ур. цл. общ., иностр. заимств.; (3) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., словосочет., пе-рест. и добавл.

10. By the early 21st century Russia has achieved the economic framework for a market-based agricultural sector (1). It (1) has generally eliminated price control (2), privatized most agro-industry and marketing channels (3) and adopted relatively moderate trade tariffs.

(1) днт. экв., сит. ур., дирема, тема — обет, места; (2) днт. экв., комп. ур., словосочет., перест.; (3) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., словосо­чет. добавл.

11. This new policy (1) has brought about real change on the ground (2). However, much agricultural policy (3) is made (4) at the regional level, and here the explicit price and trade policy distortions (5) are significantly worse than at the federal level.

(1) днт. экв., сит. ур., дирема, тема — обет, прич.; (2) днт. экв., комп. ур., перест. обет, в тему; (3) днт. экв., комп. ур., словосочет., смена чл. предл.; (4) днт. экв., сит. ур., конкретиз. широкозн. гл.; (5) днт. экв., комп. ур., словосочет., перест.

12. The principle of decentralized economic policy (2) is not bad per se (1)(3), but the support mechanisms (5) chosen by the regions (4) have too often been of a kind that create price differentials (6) with other regions, and must therefore be reinforced (7) by restrictions on interregional trade.

(1) эмот. экв., ур. цл. общ., иностр. заимств.; (2) днт. экв., комп. ур., словосочет., смена части речи без перест.; (3) эмф. экв., скрыт, эмф.; (4) публ. ст., замена страд, залога действ.; (5) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., словосочет., добавл.; (6) днт. экв., комп. ур., словосочет., пе­рест.; (7) днт. экв., сит. ур., гл. метон., прич. — следств.

13. Some of the most serious problems (1) are created by the regional commodity credit schemes (2)(3).

(1) днт. экв., сит. ур., дирема, тема — косв. доп.; (2) эмф. экв., скрыт, эмф.; (3) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., словосочет., перест., добавл.

14. At the federal level, the most complicated policy issues (1) are not with pricing or trade policy, but rather with legal and regulatory framework, continued state domination (2) of some markets (3) and administration of the limited subsidies in ways that undermine (4) market development.

(1) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., словосочет., перест., добавл.; (2) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., словосочет., перест., смена част, речи, добавл.; (3) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., перед, формы множ. числа лексич. средств.; (4) днт. экв., сит. ур., гл.. метон., прич. — следств. (2), alter the succession to the throne, or redefine the relationships

(2) of the two houses.

(1) публ. ст., болып. категор. русск. высказ., замена страдат. залога действит.; (2) днт. экв., сит. ур.; контекстуально обусл. конкретиз.

3. It could also deprive (1) citizens of their rights, nationalize all private property, abolish the monarchy, and take over or censor the press. Some, though not all (2), of these things (3) it also did, but only in time of war.

(1) эмот. экв., квант, ур., контекстуально обусловл. сниж. ур. экспр. при перев. эмоц. окраш. лексики; (2) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., компрессия, опущение компон. высказ., дубл. друг друга; (3) днт. экв., конкретиз., слово широкой семант.

4. The fact that Parliament could legally do (1) any of these things only meant that there was no written constitution which limited Parliament's powers, and that the judges of British courts disclaimed the power to declare Acts of Parliament legally void for any reason whatever.

(1) днт. экв., сит. ур., гл. метон., следств. — прич.

5. It is not to say that if Parliament in fact tried to do any of these things in peacetime (1) it would succeed. There is a point (2) beyond which citizens and officials — perhaps even judges — might simply

(3) refuse to obey Parliament.

(1) днт. экв., комп. ур., перест. обет, в тему; (2) днт. экв., форм, ур., множ. соотв. (порог, край, грань); (3) эмф. экв., форм, ур., леке. экв., сниж. ур. экспр. при перев. эмоц. окраш. леке; (7)днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., поясн. добавл.; (8) днт. экв., сит. ур., гл. метон., прич. — следств.

7. When the United Kingdom joined the European Union this result may not have been clearly anticipated (1)(2)(3). The fact remains (4) that in 1991 English courts declared (5) an (6) Act of Parliament invalid because it conflicted with the European Union Treaties (7). (1) днт. экв., комп. ур., перест. прид. обет, предл. в рему; (2) т., объ-ед. высказ.; (3) публ. ст., большая категор. русск. высказ., замена страд, залога действит., смена подл.; (4) т., добавл. словосочет. «тем не менее» для поясн. смысл, связи между высказ.; (5) днт. экв., сит. ур., гл. метон., следств. — прич.; (6) т., перев. неопр. ар­тикля; (7) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., словосочет., дополн.

8. This was legally a revolutionary decision — it was the first time for more than 300 years that (1) an English court had declared an Act of Parliament to be unenforceable in law. What this means therefore is that English law (2) is now subject to the European Union law (2).

(1) эмф. экв., ур. цл. общ., констр. с форм, подл it, перенос в рему;

(2) днт. экв., сит. ур., номинат. метон., целое — часть.

9. If there is a conflict between them (1), the English law may, and sometimes must, be declared invalid (2) by English courts. In a sense, therefore, Britain now has acquired a written, though limited. Constitution (3) consisting of various European Treaties.

(1) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., добавл., поясн. перевод; (2) днт. экв., сит. ур., гл. метон., прич. — следств.; (3) днт. экв., сит. ур., дирема, те­ма — предл. доп.

10. So the sovereignty of Parliament seems (1) to have been dethroned

(2) from its pivotal point at the centre of the British judicial system. In this respect the European Union resembles a federal system of law, like that of the USA or Canada or Russia, where there is a federal government and a federal legislature, on the one hand, and regional governments and legislatures, on the other.

(1) публ. ст., ббльш. категор. русск. высказ., снятие модальн.; (2) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., компр., опущ. компон. высказ., дубл. друг друга.

11. There are two sets of laws, each valid within its own sphere, but federal entity laws which conflict with federal laws are invalid (1).

(1) днт. экв., сит. ур., гл. метон., сост. — действ.

12. In a strict legal sense, the situation in the European Union is thus similar (1) to a federal state, although the Union is (2) not yet a political federation. It does not have a federal judicial system (3).

(1) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., дополн., синтаксич. сочетаемость; (2) днт. экв., сит. ур., конкретиз., широкозн. гл.; (3) т., объедин. высказ., однор. сказуемые.

 

Editor's letter

 

1. Let's hope (1) that the record cold snap of late January is by now just a faint memory (2)(5) to those who are reading (4) this February issue of our magazine (3).

(1) публ. ст., использ. стандарты, зачина в соотв. русск. текстах; (2) днт. экв., комп. ур., перенос ремы (memory) в конец русск. вы-сказ., а темы (those who are reading) в начало; (3) т., членение; (4) днт. экв., сит. ур., номин. метон., действ. — деятель; (5) днт. экв., сит. ур., генерализ.

2. It takes two weeks to print and distribute the magazine (1)(2) after it goes to press (3)(4).

(1) днт. экв., комп. ур., монор. с форм. подл, it; (2) публ. ст., функц. стилист, отнес, номинализ. гл. в функции дополн.; (3) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., компрессия, семант. избыт.; (4) т., добавл. высказ., пояс­нение смысл, связи с поел, высказ.

3. But during the week before all that (2), when I usually write this column (1)(3)(4), the temperature (5) outside my window in downtown Moscow was (6) less than -30 С and much, much lower (7) than that in Siberia (7)(8).

(1) днт. экв., комп. ур., перенос обет, предл. в тему; (2) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., компр., свёрт. словосочет. в более короткое; (3) днт. экв., сит. ур., генерализ.; (4) т., членение, добавл. предл.; (5) днт. экв., сит. ур. номин. метон.; (6) днт. экв., сит. ур., широкозн. гл., конкре-тиз.; (7) т., членение; (8) эмф. экв., усилит, оборот.

4. Not to brag, but I have experienced (1) -40 С in Chicago along with a moist Lake Michigan wind chill (3) that makes it feel even worse (2). But I won't rub it in (4).

(1) днт. экв., сит. ур., дирема, тема — косв. доп.; (2) т., членение; (3) днт. экв., комп. ур., словосочет., перест., смена част, речи и членов предл.; (4) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., описат. перевод.

5. (1) Too many times this week Russian friends of mine have enjoyed (2)(3) stating (4) proudly in a patriotic tone that "you Americans now (3) know what real Russian winter feels like."

(1) т., добавл., поясн. смысл, связи с пред. высказ.; (2) днт. экв., сит. ур., дирема, тема — косв. доп.; (3) эмф. экв., скрытая эмф.; (4) днт. экв., сит. ур., конкретиз.

6. (1) If it makes them happy (2), I'm big enough (3) to let my Russian friends think (2) that -30 С only happens (4) in the land of "Dr. Zhivago" (5) and that when it comes to cold and snow (6), Russia is truly unique (7).

(1) т., добавл., поясн. смысл, связи с пред. высказ.; (2) днт. экв., сит. ур., гл. метон., следств. — прич.; (3) днт. экв., гл. метон., прич.— следств.; (4) днт. экв., сит. ур., конкретиз.; (5) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., словосочет., добавл.; (6) эмф. экв., скрыт, эмф.; (7) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., свёртыв. предл. в словосочет.

7. One thing for sure (1), this week the Russian winter was newsy (2) enough to make the top half-a-dozen stories (3) or so each day on international TV (3).

(1) т., членение, развёрт. словосочет. в предл.; (2) публ. ст., замена разг. леке, книжн.; (3) днт. экв., сит. ур., номин. метон., целое — часть.

8. Most of the reporting revolved around human interest (1) (2) (3). How cold (4) was it? What is (5) the record? How are the homeless keeping warm (6)? Can city services cope with all the burst hot water heating pipes (7)?

(1) днт. экв., сит. ур., дирема, тема — предл. доп.; (2) днт. экв., сит. ур., гл. метон., следств. — прич.; (3) днт. экв., форм, ур., продолж. синоним, ряда «интерес, значение»; (4) днт. экв., сит. ур., номин. метон., физ. явл. — способ его измер.; (5) днт. экв., сит. ур., широ-козн. гл., конкретиз.; (6) днт. экв., сит. ур., гл. метон., прич. — следств.; (7) днт. экв., сит. ур., генерализ.

9. CNN (I) even did a report from an (2) outdoor market in which the reporter demonstrated how potatoes left in the cold (3) froze hard as rocks (4).

(1) мжк. экв., дескр. ур., реал, с поясн. добавл.; (2) т., перев. артик­ля; (3) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., компр., семант. избыт, компон. вы-сказ.; (4) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., свёрт. предл. в словосочет.

10. (1) Не wore no hat, his coat was wide open at the neck (2) and I'm sure (3) the quiver in his voice was (4) genuine (5).

(1) т., добавл., поясн. врем, связи с пред. высказ.; (2) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., свёрт. предл. в словосочет.; (3) публ. ст., снятие личности, оценки; (4) эмф. экв., ур. цл. общ., скрытая эмф.; (5) днт. экв., форм, ур., синон. ряд «подлинный, истинный, настоящий».

11. (1)1 waited (2) for (3)(4) a (5) local babushka to burst in on the taping (6) and start lecturing the reporter the dangers of frost bite (7).

(1) т., добавл., поясн. смысл, связи с пред. высказ.; (2) днт. экв., сит. ур., дирема, тема — косв. доп.; (3) т., синт. комплекс, внутр. чле­нение; (4) эмф. экв., скрыт, эмф.; (5) т., перев. артикля; (6) днт. экв., сит. ур., номин. метон., действ. — его содерж.; (7) днт. экв., ур., цл. общ., иной способ описания предм. сит.

12. But the most interesting TV interview I observed (1) this week was a CNN Evening Business Report (2)(3)(4) that gave Gasprom (5) a beating (6) for diverting some of its Europe-bound gas back to Russia.

(1) публ. ст., снятие лчностн. оценки; (2) днт. экв., сит. ур., дирема, тема — прям, доп.; (3) эмф. экв., скрыт, эмф.; (4) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., словосочет., перест., добавл.; (5.) днт. экв., сит. ур., дирема, тема — предл. доп.; (6) публ. ст., замена разг. леке, книжн.

13. Russia's gas monopoly did it for a good reason (1): it (4) needed to defend the Motherland (i. e. Gasprom's Russian customers including family apartments (5), hospitals and schools) from freezing stiff (2)(3).

(1) днт. экв., комп. ур., перенос обет, в тему; (2) днт. экв., комп. ур., перенос фразы в тему; (3) днт. экв., сит. ур., гл. метон., следств. — прич.; (4) публ. ст., снятие личн. оценки, безл. предл.; (5) днт. экв., сит. ур., генерализ.

14. But CNN tried to make the story a cause celebre (1) to revisit (2) Gasprom's decision of three weeks earlier to turn off the gas tap (4) for a day or two (3) to force its Ukrainian counterpart to negotiate new prices (5).

(1) эмот. экв., ур. цл. общ., иностр. заимств.; (2) публ. ст., номина-лиз. гл.; (3) т., членение; (4) днт. экв., сит. ур., номин. метон., часть — целое; (5) днт. экв., сит. ур., прич. — следств.

15. Of course when you're talking about providing heat and electricity in weather that can freeze potatoes in the open-air market as hard as rocks (1), you do (2) have to be a little politically correct (3).

(1) днт. экв., сит. ур., дирема, тема — обет. обр. действ.; (2) эмф. экв., усилит, гл. do, (3) мжк. экв., форм, ур., реалия, калька.

16. Chicago's utility services can (1) shut off the heat in your apartment if you (2) don't pay your bill.

(1) эмф. экв., ур. цл. общ., скрыт, эмф.; (2) днт. экв., сит. ур., гене­рализ.

17. But by law they cannot do so (1) if the temperature has fallen below a certain level. The politicians who make such laws (2H3) don't want to be blamed for people's death (4).

(1) публ. ст., снятие личности, оценки; (2) эмф. экв., скрыт, эмф.; (3) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., свёрт. предл. в слово; (4) днт. экв., сит. ур., дирема, тема — косв. доп.

18. Now, if you will excuse me (1), I need (2) to dress (3) in four layers of clothing (4) and venture out for the third time this week to vainly try to(5) start (6) my six-year-old Russian car.

(1) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., иное описание предм. сит.; (2) днт. экв., сит. ур., дирема, тема — косв. доп.; (3) днт. экв., сит. ур., конкре-тиз.; (4) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., компр., свёртыв. словосочет. в сло­во; (5) т., внешн. членение; (6) днт. экв., сит. ур., конкретиз.

19. Until this -week (1), my Lada has been as trusted in the cold (2) as a team of Huskies (3)(4). This week (5), however, I would have preferred to have had the Huskies (6).

(1) днт. экв., сит. ур., генерализ.; (2) днт. экв., сит. ур., номин. ме­тон., часть — целое; (3) днт. экв., сит. ур., антоним, перев.; (4) мжк. экв., пнт. ур., функц. аналог; (5) т., добавл., поясн. связи с пред. вы-сказ.; (6) публ. ст., снятие личности, оценки.

 

Historic Bath

 

1. Bath (2) is something of a paradox among other English cities (1). It sits as comfortably as a sleepy cat in a curve of the River Avon, but it probably owes as much to ancient Rome (3) as to the surrounding green English countryside (4). Its stone (7) reflects sunshine more happily (8) than it absorbs soft English rain (5)(6). It is a honey-colored stone which has played a unique part in the architectural history (9) of Britain.

(1) днт. экв., комп. ур., монорема; (2) мжк. экв., реалия, поясн. до-полн., (3) днт.. экв., сит. ур., номин. метон., целое — часть; (4) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., словосочет., добавл., компрессия; (5) днт. экв., комп. ур., пернос словосочет. в тему и смена синт. функц.; (6) мжк. экв., пнт. ур., функц. аналог; (7) днт. экв., сит. ур., номин. метон., матер. — сдел. из него предм.; (8) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., словосо­чет., перест., добавл.; (9) днт. экв., комп. ур., словосочет., перест. и смена част. речи.

2. An accident of geology was responsible for the founding of Bath (2) more than 2. 000 years ago, when some early man (3), one of the Celts (4) who measured time by darkness and marked their lives by the seasons (5), first came upon a place where snow never lay (6) and a strange vapour hung (7) over oozing waters (8). Hot springs fed them (2)(1).

(1) СФЕ-дирема; (2) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., добавл., плюс перенос поел, высказ. СФЕ; (3) публ. ст., снятие личности, оценки, смена подл.; (4) т., членение, добавл. темы; (5) днт. экв. ур. цл. общ., до­бавл., (6) т., внешн. членение; (7) днт. экв., сит. ур., конкретиз.; (8) днт. экв., сит. ур., номин. метон., часть — целое.

3. It was a place of magic power (1), and so it was dedicated (2) to the Celtic deity Sul, to whose name the Romans later linked that (3) of their goddess Minerva. And when the Roman Empire fell, the sacred baths fed (4) by the steaming waters (5) were restored by men of another faith: Christianity (6).

(1) днт. экв., сит. ур., гл. метон., сост. — действ.; (2) днт. экв., сит. ур., гл. метон., прич. — следств.; (3) т., когерентн. цепочка, указат. местоим.; (4) днт. экв., сит. ур., гл. метон., прич. — следств.; (5) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., словосочет., добавл.; (6) днт. экв., сит. ур., номин. метон., вера — верующие.

4. The monks of the Benedictine monastery ran (1) the hot baths for several centuries, attracting increasing numbers of people (2)(3) who believed (2)(4) in the healing qualities of the (5) water. By the end of seventeenth century the city council had taken over responsibility for them (6), and it was becoming aware (7)(8) of their profitable potential (9).

(1) днт. экв., форм, ур., множеств, соотв. (руководить, управлять, вести); (2) т., внешн. членение; (3) днт. экв., сит. ур., гл. метон., прич. — следств.; (4) эмф. экв., скрыт, эмф.; (5) т., перев. артикля; (6) днт. экв., комп. ур., монор.; (7) т., объедин. высказ.; (8) днт. экв., сит. ур., гл. метон., прич. — следств.; (9) т., членение.

5. New attractions were offered (1)(2) besides the sometimes dubious one of dressing up in yellow canvas and being immersed in often unsavory green water (3). Gambling, by then a national fever, began to flourish in the city (4).

(1) публ. ст., зам. страдат. залога действит.; (2) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., добавл., синт. сочет.; (3) т., членение, добавл. темы; (4) днт. экв., сит. ур., метон., отдел, признак, смена подл.

6. People of fashion with money and time to spend (1) sought summer diversion out of London (2), and found (3) it in Bath. Georgian Bath (4) was beginning and it lasted almost a century (5).

(1) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., компрессия; (2) т., внутр. членение; (3) днт. экв., сит. ур., гл. метон., следств. — прич.; (4) мжк. экв., дескр. ур., пресуп., поясн. перев.; (5) т., объедин. высказ.

7. Thereafter Bath suffered something of a decline into (1) shabby gentility frequented by elderly aunts and liverish retired colonels (2)(3) (1) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., глагол с послелогом, добавл.; (2) эмот. экв., ирония; (3) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., добавл.

8. Not until recent years has (1) it been restored (2) to its original beauty, with more than a century of blackening soot cleaned from the porous grey and amber limestone (3)(4). Damage done during war time bombing (7) and subsequent decisions of insensitive city planners (7) have to a large extent been restored (5)(6).

(1) эмф. экв., ур. цл. общ., инверс; (2) днт. экв., сит. ур., гл. метон., прич. — следств.; (3) т., абс. констр., внешн. членение; (4) днт. экв., сит. ур., номин. метон., часть — целое; (5) днт. экв., комп. ур., мо­нор.; (6) т., членение; (7) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., словосочет., добавл.

9. Bath is in fashion (1) once again. This time it is not simply a place for the amusement of the bored and wealthy or the healing (2) of the sick and hypochondriac, but for everyone (3) who appreciates the beauty of a city which is a constantly refreshing delight to the eye and the spirit (4).

(1) днт. экв., сит. ур., гл. метон., сост. — действие; (2) днт. экв., сит. ур., номин. метон., действ. — место действ.; (3) т., внешн. члене­ние, добавл. темы; (4) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., словосочет., добавл.

10. The history (1) of Bath begins about 150 million years ago, when shallow seas moved (2) across the great mass of the earth (2) that incorporated what was to become Britain (2). If you (3) look closely at the stone of "which the city is built, it is possible to see grains of sand, shells and sometimes tiny fossils.

(1) днт. экв., сит. ур., слово широк, семант., конкретиз.; (2) т., внешн. членение; (3) публ. ст., снятие личности, оценки, смена подл.

11. They are a reminder that this soft, pale stone was once part of shifting sediments beneath those remote oceans (1). Gradually, as lime in the water coated the sand grains, fragments of shells and the bones of microscopic animals, they build up to become (2) the massive Jurassic beds of stone (3) that run from Portland in Dorset

(4) to the Yorkshire moors.

(1) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., компрессия; (2) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., компр., свёрт. словосочет. в слово; (3) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., слово-сочет., добавл.; (4) мжк. экв., дескр. ур., транслит. с дополн.

12. Such stone is called "freestone" (1). It must be laid -within the wall of a building the same way as it lay in the earth. When first cut (2) it is white, but soon turns to its typical tones of gray, ochre and amber.

(1) публ. ст., замена страдат. залога действит.; (2) т., номинализ.

13. There are still Bath-stone quarries around the city (1), although many of the old Georgian ones (2)(3) have long been closed and covered over. At the city museum in Bath there is (4) a permanent exhibition of Bath stone (1), which vividly describes its formation and its subsequent use for building.

(1) днт. экв., комп. ур., монор.; (2) т., когерентн. цепочки, неопр. мест.; (3) мжк. экв., дескрипт. ур., пресуп., поясн. перевод; (4) днт. экв., сит. ур., глаг. широк, семант., конкретиз.

14. It is through the fissures that separate the blocks of Jurassic lime­stone (1) that the hot springs emerge (2) at a constant temperature of about 49 С and at a fairly constant flow (3)(4). The King's Spring

(5) produces well over a quarter of a million gallons daily (6) from the Roman invasion until the present times (7).

(1) эмф. экв., ур. цл. общ., постановка в рему; (2) эмот. экв., ур. цл. общ., экспресс, лексич. конкретиз.; (3) т., внешн. членение, добавл. темы; (4) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., добавл.; (5) днт. экв. форм, ур., вне-контекст. леке, соответств., калька; (6) мжк. экв., галлон = 4,5 л., day — сутки; (7) днт. экв., комп. ур., пост. обет, в тему.

15. No one can (1) know when the hot springs first emerged from the earth, but it was probably more than 100,000 years ago, and the water we can (1) drink today is likely to have fallen as rain about 10,000 years ago. It seeped down through strata in the stone and was heated deep within the earth, slowly bubbling upwards again into the sunlight (2).

(1) публ. ст., снятие указ. на восприним. лицо и модальн.; (2) днт. экв., ур. цл. общ., добавл.

 


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