Упражнение 15. Генерализация




ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Упражнение 15. Генерализация



Задание 1. Проанализируйте использование метода генерализации в следующем примере

British Parliament is legally supreme, unchecked by any external authority.

По закону парламент в Англии — высший государственный ор­ган, деятельность которого никем не контролируется.

Задание 2. Переведите следующие высказывания на русский язык, приме­няя метод генерализации

1. This would eliminate the pressure for food aid from foreign donors.

2. It would be wrong, however, to conclude that democracy can only be sustained where there is a high level of economic development.

3. Capital is more mobile than ever and inclined to fly from places that tax to places that do not.

4. There are examples of countries that have maintained open electoral competition over decades despite low levels of economic development.

5. To the extent that these arrangements persist, women will be denied equality of political opportunity.

6. The nongovernmental organizations' activities and objectives may change as those of the State, the market, and the personal and family world expand, contract or change.

Упражнение 16.Конкретизация. Широкозначные глаголы

Задание 1. Проанализируйте использование метода конкретизации при переводе широкозначных глаголов в следующем примере

Human beings have language, reason, culture and moral values.

Человек наделён разумом и способностью говорить, имеет опре­делённые нравственные ценности и культурные традиции.

Задание 2. Используйте метод конкретизации при переводе широко­значных глаголов в следующих высказываниях

1. The provisional date for the landing was April 22.

2. The texture of these troops would, by the late spring, be equal to those they will have to meet.

3. Lords took dues from their vassals, landowners took tolls from their merchants, gangsters took protection money from small businesses, governments took taxes from their citizens.

4. The hostile destroyer was quickly overwhelmed.

5. What makes people obey or tolerate real power is the instinct that power has a certain function.

6. Members of the Government are drawn from Parliament and remain accountable to it as long as they hold ministerial office.

Упражнение 17.Конкретизация. Широкозначные существительные, прилагательные и причастия

Задание 1. Проанализируйте использование метода конкретизации при переводе указанного вида широкозначных слов в следующем приме­ре

All citizens should be guaranteed those minimum necessities of life that are the condition for the exercise of any effective citizenship.

Всем гражданам должно быть гарантировано минимальное удовлетворение жизненных потребностей, без чего невозможно использование гражданских прав.

Задание 2. Используйте метод конкретизации при переводе широко­значных слов в следующих высказываниях

1. I sat down in the coolness of the arcade and ordered a drink.

2. We have a better case about Norway than it has been possible to convey to the House of Commons.

3. Neuchatel is an old city with a long history; it is a prosperous place — very dignified and select.

4. International Labor Organization annual report contains a review of the most challenging problems encountered by the ILO and a description of future work.

5. Through this system the managers obtain the most meaningful comparison of the data generated by the activities of their departments.

6. Perhaps the most striking evidence of this new trend is the agreement last month between two software heavyweights.

Упражнение 18.Конкретизация. Интернациональные слова, принадлежащие к группе «ложных друзей переводчика»

Задание 1. Проанализируйте использование метода конкретизации при переводе «ложных друзей переводчика»

The World Bank has undertaken a set of activities to raise public and political awareness of gender mainstreaming in the Russian social protection system.

Всемирный банк проводит ряд мероприятий в целях информи­рования общественности и руководителей госучреждений о ра­боте по интеграции тендерного аспекта в деятельности системы социального обеспечения РФ.

Задание 2. Используйте метод конкретизации при переводе «ложных друзей переводчика» в следующих высказываниях

1. In the 1980s the Conservative Party was driven by a much more radical government philosophy than had been seen in UK politics for many years.

2. There had been a history of harmonious industrial relations in these departments.

3. To make the decision intelligently at least six factors must be considered.

4. This requires an intimate understanding of the star behavior and the implementation of sophisticated theories.

5. The material in the remaining sections is somewhat speculative.

6. Three years later, the picture has changed dramatically.

Упражнение 19.Конкретизация. Добавление семы

Задание 1. Проанализируйте использование метода конкретизации по­средством добавления семы в следующем примере

According to internationally agreed definitions, there are fewer unemployed people in Britain than in most other Western European countries.

Согласно принятым в международном сообществе системам под­счёта, в Великобритании меньше безработных, чем во многих других западноевропейских странах.

Задание 2. Используйте метод конкретизации посредством добавления семы при переводе следующих высказываний

1. Private property can thus be seen as a central institution of civil society and as a protection for political liberty.

2. The exclusive use of any possession presupposes that the freedom of others to have access to it is restricted.

3. By any standards Britain is a prosperous country.

4. Thus, an immense German military potential was year by year coming into being.

5. Labor was returned to power with the biggest parliamentary majority of its entire 97 years of existence.

6. In short, the pattern of property distribution is a legitimate concern of public policy.

Упражнение 20.Конкретизация. Опора на широкий контекст

Задание. Используйте метод конкретизации посредством опоры на ши­рокий контекст при переводе следующих высказываний

1. He rebuked his son Oscar for waking him at seven to tell him the news. (Избрание маршала Гинденбурга президентом Германской республики после 1-й мировой войны).

2. Their chances of re-election to Parliament depend upon persuading local people to vote for them. (Речь идёт о членах английского парламента, выдвигающих свою кандидатуру для переизбрания на новый срок).

3. The party goers glisten with sweat. (Вечеринка с танцами).

4. The bird went higher in the sky and circled again. (В тексте гово­рится об орле).

5. Mr. Raymond sat up against the tree-trunk (Реймонд сидел под дубом).

6. You could hear him putting away his toilet articles (желательно назвать конкретные принадлежности).

 

Уровень цели общения

 

Упражнение 1.Добавления, обусловленные правилами синтаксической сочетаемости в русском языке

Задание 1. Проанализируйте перевод следующего высказывания на рус­ский язык, обращая внимание на добавления, обусловленные норма­ми синтаксической сочетаемости в РЯ

The heavy guns were never used but they were the last word of the time.

Тяжёлые орудия так и не были применены, но это было послед­нее слово техники того времени.

Задание 2. Определите, в каком из следующих вариантов перевода смысл оригинала воспроизводится недостаточно точно из-за несо­блюдения норм синтаксической сочетаемости в РЯ

Ministers made policy, not civil servants whose role was simply to advise and implement the ministers' decisions.

Политику определяли министры. А государственные чиновники всего лишь консультировали министров по разным вопросам и отвечали за реализацию принятых министрами решений. Политику делали министры, а чиновники только консультирова­ли и реализовывали решения, принятые министрами.

Задание 3. Переведите следующие ниже высказывания на русский язык, обращая особое внимание на необходимость поясняющих добавле­ний указанного вида

1. The German air strength in all theatres was very little greater than in 1940.

2. Every unit of search must be able to find, to catch and to kill.

3. All this turmoil produced a strong desire to turn to old Field Marshal von Hindenburg who was dwelling in dignified retirement.

4. The police fired, carefully avoiding the general.

5. When she had got down, she took me by the hand and led me into the kitchen.

6. He made neat corrections in green and red pencil.

Упражнение 2.Добавления, обусловленные правилами лексической сочетаемости в русском языке

Задание 1. Проанализируйте перевод следующего высказывания на рус­ский язык, обращая внимание на добавления, обусловленные прави­лами лексической сочетаемости в РЯ

Opponents of the current British political system argue that it has promoted the alternation in power of unresponsive governments which see no need to compromise with each other. Критики современной британской политической системы ут­верждают, что она приводит к власти правительства, которые оторваны от реальности и не желают идти на компромисс.

Задание 2. Определите, в каком из следующих вариантов перевода смысл оригинала воспроизводится недостаточно точно из-за нару­шения норм лексической сочетаемости в РЯ

Superior court judges are also often used for non-judicial tasks.

Члены высших судов также часто используются для выполне­ния несудебных задач.

Кроме того, члены высших судов могут выполнять обязанности, не связанные с их профессиональной деятельностью.

Задание 3. Переведите следующие высказывания на русский язык, обра­щая внимание на необходимость поясняющих добавлений при пере­воде подчёркнутых словосочетаний

1. Regional variations are another facet of the United Kingdom's electoral geography.

2. A number of authors argue that violence and patriarchy were late inventions rooted in Judo-Christian tradition.

3. Thirty-five years later rigidly respectable officers and civil servants of parliamentary democracies were planning exactly the same thing on a gigantic scale.

4. Recent research has confirmed that male bonding is in fact genetic and predates the human species.

5. What the United Kingdom has instead of the written constitution of other nations are constitutional conventions and norms.

6. The purpose of all this, public and private, was to bring to the state and its citizens the general blessings of rail-road-induced economic growth.

Упражнение 3.Восстановление отглагольного существительного

Задание 1. Проанализируйте перевод следующего высказывания на рус­ский язык, обращая внимание на добавление отглагольных сущест­вительных

From the early fifth century B.C. onward, each Athenian citizen had an equal right in discussions and votes on the laws and policies of the community.

С начала V века до н.э. все граждане Афин пользовались равны­ми правами на участие в дискуссии и голосовании по выработке законов и определении политики сообщества.

Задание 2. Определите, в каком из вариантов перевода смысл оригинала воспроизводится недостаточно точно из-за отсутствия отгла­гольного существительного

All the other MPs are subject to the constraints of strict party discipline.

Все остальные члены парламента ограничены жёсткой партий­ной дисциплиной.

Деятельность остальных членов парламента ограничивается жёсткими рамками партийной дисциплины.

Задание 3. Переведите следующие высказывания на русский язык, обра­щая внимание на необходимость добавления отглагольных суще­ствительных перед подчёркнутыми словами или после них

1. The greatest privilege was equality.

2. It remains to be seen how the government will resolve this tension between election promises and its convenience.

3. Equality of condition for all nationals had become the premise of the new body politic.

4. A large number of commodities, some of which were "war materials, were prohibited from entering Italy.

5. His short phase of romantic Georgian nationalism was long since over.

6. These developments need no special explanation because they are natural consequences of an eternal problem.

Упражнение 4.Добавления, вызванные отсутствием однословного рус­ского соответствия

Задание. Переведите следующие ниже высказывания на русский язык, обращая внимание на необходимость добавлений при переводе слов и словообразовательных форм, не имеющих однословного со­ответствия в РЯ

1. Не was a great entertainer.

2. After WW I the victorious allies had limited the German army to a hundred thousand men and conscription was forbidden.

3. Under the assault of these powerful forces the Posen group was finally blotted out.

4. Hindenburg who towered above his opponents was elected by less than a million majority.

5. Volunteers are often referred to as the "lifeblood" of the sector.

6. During the winter, I travel in cleaning utensils.

Упражнение 5.Добавления при передаче грамматических значений лексическими средствами

Задание. Переведите следующие высказывания на русский язык, обра­щая внимание на необходимость добавлений при передаче двух слов с разным управлением, английских временных форм и катего­рии числа

1. Even where the new cases are not quite the same as the old ones, the law has often developed by extension, or analogy, to the older decisions.

2. Of vital importance in verbal communication are a knowledge of. and a facility with, the pronunciation and intonation patterns.

3. The central figure of John O'Hara's new novel is Robert Lucas, playwright, a man of talent, wholly dedicated to. and driven by, art.

4. I had been roughing it for some time and was glad enough to have a rest.

5. Mr. Eden had been for some weeks in Geneva.

6. No woman has ever been appointed a lord or lady of appeal.

7. There are other philosophies of the past which give strong support to the humanist position

8. Many of the criticisms made by the British Road Federation report are fully justified.

9. The other Polish troops were only involved in the final disasters.

Упражнение б.Добавления, обусловленные иным способом описания предметной ситуации в РЯ

Задание 1. Проанализируйте перевод следующего высказывания на рус­ский язык, обращая внимание на добавление, обусловленное иным способом описания предметной ситуации

Almost twenty of the demonstrators were killed. Hitler threw himself upon the ground and presently escaped with other party leaders.

Около 20 демонстрантов было убито. Гитлер во время стрельбы бросился на землю, а затем исчез вместе с другими партийными лидерами.

Задание 2. Переведите следующие высказывания на русский язык, обра­щая внимание на необходимость более подробного описания соот­ветствующей предметной ситуации в РЯ

1. But as if by a miracle the wind brings us back on track.

2. There must be closer links between school and industry, with pupils spending time in industry.

3. In providing their services, British local councils compete for work with the private sector.

4. Ministers are expected to explain and defend their actions in Parliament.

5. The unlimited personal liability of councilors can be a cause of individual tragedy and wider bitterness.

6. The sky darkened through the trees outside the dining-room window.

Упражнение 7.Компрессия. Свёртывание словосочетания в слово илиболее краткое словосочетание

Задание 1. Проанализируйте следующий пример, обращая внимание на свёртывание подчёркнутого словосочетания

The United Kingdom system of government is, after all, a system which gives a great power to whichever party finds itself in control of Parliament and imposes few restraints on its policies.

Действительно, государственная система Соединённого Коро­левства предоставляет любой партии, получившей большинство в парламенте, огромную, почти неограниченную власть.

Задание 2. Переведите следующие высказывания на русский язык, обра­щая внимание на метод свёртывания словосочетания в отдельное слово или более компактное словосочетание

1. The old building is to be pulled down.

2. She popped the note into the fire and began to sing away more merrily than ever.

3. Changes in society's cultural life have brought to the limelight the utter absurdity of what seemed to be a norm throughout decades.

4. The significant progress China has made towards achieving these problems will be overshadowed by a host of other issues.

5. Scotland and Northern Ireland retain control over the education within their respective countries.

6. Because English law has been the source of one of the main systems of law operating today round the globe, this chapter will concentrate almost entirely on English law.

Упражнение 8.Компрессия. Свёртывание предложения в слово или

словосочетание.

Задание. Переведите следующие высказывания, используя метод свёртывания предложения в слово или словосочетание

1. Then I left the bar and went out where the telephones were.

2. As they developed into what would we today recognize as courts of law, they actually created the law.

3. All experiences which learners have both in and out of school and which contribute to the desired terminal behavior are included in the course curriculum.

4. It will be convenient in this chapter to cover the whole four years which lay between us and the outbreak of war.

5. However, no such state in practice realizes the two principles of popular control and political equality as fully as it might.

6. A fundamental difference between modern dictatorships and all other tyrannies of the past is that terror is no longer used as a means to exterminate and frighten opponents, but as an instrument to rule masses of people who are perfectly obedient.

Упражнение 9.Компрессия. Опущение одного из дублирующих компо­нентов высказывания

Задание 1. Проанализируйте следующий пример, обращая внимание на опущение в переводе подчёркнутого компонента английского вы­сказывания

The superior court judges enjoy many statutory protections to guarantee their independence and immunity from governmental pressure.

Судьям высших судебных инстанций законом гарантируется не­зависимость и защита от давления, которое на них могли бы ока­зывать органы власти.

Задание 2. Определите, в каком из следующих вариантов перевода смысл оригинала неясен вследствие сохранения семантически из­быточных элементов английского высказывания

Nearly all the work of the High Court is done by single High Court judges, sitting alone.

Почти вся работа Высокого суда осуществляется самими судья­ми, которые заседают самостоятельно.

Практически вся деятельность Высокого суда осуществляется судьями самостоятельно.

Задание 3. Переведите следующие высказывания на русский язык, обра­щая внимание на семантическую избыточность подчёркнутых слов и оборотов

1. Sir Thomas Inskip then gave a frank and able account, in which he did not conceal from us the gravity of the plight into which we had come.

2. The National Health service and the public education system "were reformed with the intention of improving their efficiency and offering greater choice to those who used them.

3. Senior judges tend to come overwhelmingly from the professional and managerial classes.

4. But the majority of British families buy their homes this way and on the whole see nothing threatening or strange about it.

5. The third son, Frank, after failing in attempts to be a doctor, a farmer, a businessman, a lawyer, and a journalist, left the country for the Bengal police.

6. So the sovereignty of Parliament seems to have been dethroned from its pivotal point at the centre of the English law.

Упражнение 10.Компрессия. Опущение признаков предметной ситуации в связи с иным способом её описания в РЯ

Задание 1. Проанализируйте следующий пример, обращая внимание на необходимость компрессии в связи с иным способом описания пред­метной ситуации в РЯ

In this critical situation, as it had now become, he showed himself an able manager.

В этой критической ситуации он проявил себя умелым руково­дителем.

Задание 2. Определите, в каком из следующих вариантов перевода смысл оригинала неясен из-за невыполнения правила о снятии при­знаков предметной ситуации, если в РЯ используется иной способ её описания

His own comrades were shouting slogans of fury against all he cared for on earth.

Его собственные товарищи выкрикивали яростные лозунги, про­клиная всё, что ему было дорого на земле.

Его собственные товарищи выкрикивали лозунги, яростно про­клиная всё, что ему было дорого.

Задание 3. Переведите следующие высказывания на русский язык, обра­щая внимание на избыточность подчёркнутых слов в связи с иным способом описания предметной ситуации в РЯ

1. When completed, they proved to be the strongest vessels afloat in the world.

2. As they developed into what we would today recognize as courts of law, they actually created a judicial system as they went along.

3. The marchers got within ten yards of their objective.

4. So at present there is no London Council, although this may soon be restored to its inhabitants.

5. Once elected local people become known as councilors and serve for a term of four years.

6. The other themes of nongovernmental organizations were manifest too: trade unions, working men's clubs, choral societies and football clubs all had their origin at that time in large numbers.

 

Текст

Упражнение 1.Когезия. Кореферентные цепочки

Задание 1. Проанализируйте следующие примеры, обращая внимание на передачу кореферентных цепочек, образованных различными вида­ми местоимений и глаголами-заместителями

1. The intention is to hold the agency chief executive accountable for its performance.

Суть в том, чтобы возложить на директора управления личную ответственность за работу его ведомства.

2. In a strict legal sense, the situation in the European Union is thus similar to that of a federal state.

В строгом юридическом смысле ситуация в Европейском Союзе напоминает ситуацию в федеральном государстве.

3. The new British Government will face many problems, both acute and chronic. Among the chronic ones will be inflation, rising prices and immigration policy.

Перед новым английским правительством стоит целый ряд про­блем, из которых одни сохраняют свою остроту, а другие носят хронический характер. К числу хронических проблем относятся инфляция, рост цен и иммиграционная политика.

4. They do not feel threatened because this is the way houses have been bought for many years. Their parents and grandparents did the same.

Они не видят в этом ничего рискованного, потому что такой поря­док покупки дома существует уже много лет. Их родители, а, может быть, и родители родителей покупали свои дома точно так же.

Задание 2. Переведите следующие высказывания на русский язык, ис­пользуя правила передачи кореферентных цепочек

1. At the centre of the United Kingdom government lies the Cabinet selected by the Prime Minister from among her or his senior party colleagues. It consists of twenty or so most senior ministers. In essence it is largely unchanged from its nineteenth century predecessors. It meets regularly at the Prime Minister's official residence to decide upon and coordinate the government's policies and plans.

2. Between Stalin's detailed policies and those of his rivals there was a good deal of overlapping.

3. It is rare for a person to be made a high court judge unless he has had at least fifteen years' experience as a barrister. Most have had much more.

4. No one worried about the fact that France would not fight, and that England would hold her back even if she would.

5. All the other institutions which wield political power in the United Kingdom, do so only because that power has been granted by Parliament.

6. There was a burst of applause from all parts of the audience. Never in my lifetime has applause done me the good that did.

Упражнение 2.Когезия. Местоименная антиципация

Задание 1. Проанализируйте следующий пример, обращая внимание на способ передачи местоименной антиципации

As they leave Washington, the four foreign ministers will be traveling together by plane.

Четыре министра иностранных дел вылетят из Вашингтона од­ним рейсом.

Задание 2. Переведите следующие высказывания на русский язык, следуя правилам передачи местоименной антиципации

1. When lie arrives in Paris next week the German Chancellor will have to spell out his position.

2. Like all its predecessors, this scheme is no more than a working hypothesis

3. But unless and until it develops the intellectual and emotional qualities which a fully developed art form demands, jazz will remain inferior to the music art of the last two centuries.

4. Although he clearly intends to keep a firm rain on foreign affairs the president does not consider them — or national defense — as domains reserved for the presidency.

5. To say that it could legally do any of these things only meant that there was no written constitution which limited Parliament's powers.

6. Beneath the setting sun we see them, their flotilla of small hand-built boats. They are wary of strangers. At our approach they split up and scatter. These are Mokens, a nomadic sea culture who migrated from China some 4 000 years ago.

Упражнение З.Когезия. Многозначность союзов в английском языке

Задание 1. Определите, в каком из вариантов перевода недостаточно точно передано значение английского союза

The rebels seized several towns and were defeated and their leader

was arrested after a sharp struggle.

Восставшие захватили несколько городов и были разгромлены, и

их лидер был арестован после жестокой борьбы.

Восставшие захватили несколько городов, но были разгромлены,

а их вождь после жестокой борьбы арестован.

Задание 2. Переведите следующие высказывания на русский язык, обра­щая внимание на передачу союзов

1. The Pact of Locarno was concerned only with peace in the West, and it was hoped, that an "Eastern Locarno" might be its successor.

2. He "wanted both armies, and to use each, as events required, to control the other.

3. There is much debate about what kind of chamber should replace the Lords, since enhancing its legitimacy through elections is bound to pose a greater challenge to the Commons.

4. The High Court of Justice is the direct ascendant of a number of old courts, some of them dating back to the twelfth century, which were never created by a deliberate act of law-making.

5. It also means that when the government is defeated in an election the Lord Chancellor must resign.

6. And the American public is too diverse to be led by some political or moral dogma.

Упражнение 4.Когезия. Передача видовременных форм

Задание. Переведите следующие высказывания на русский язык, обра­щая внимание на передачу видовременных форм

1. When I bought my house I borrowed most of the money from a bank.

2. This means that the accused will not be asked any questions in court.

3. Yet here, too, recent developments have put pressure on the old unwritten constitutional rules.

4. In the first place, it has been increasingly questioned whether the British electoral system provides an accurate reflection of political preferences.

5. The opponents of the current regime have been persecuted.

6. They were concerned to know that in the General Staff there sat a high ranking officer who had not yet adopted the principle that the end justifies the means.

Упражнение 5.Когезия. Передача артиклей

Задание 1. Проанализируйте следующий пример, обращая внимание на передачу артиклей

То put it in terms of linguistics a sentence is a concrete fact, the result of an actual act of speech. The sentence is an abstraction. В лингвистике отдельно взятое предложение рассматривается как объективно существующая реальность, результат конкрет­ного речевого акта. Понятие предложения, его схема, является абстракцией.

Задание 2. Переведите следующие высказывания на русский язык, обра­щая внимание на передачу дополнительных значений неопределён­ного артикля

1. In this story of the gold fields of Western Australia, I have tried to tell not only something of the lives of several people but to give also the story of an industry.

2. Is there a Henry in the whole world who could be insensible to such a declaration? Henry Tilny at least was not.

3. This financial plan proposes an allocation of resources between the private sector and the public sector.

4. It is also a Government — unlike its predecessor — with an overwhelming majority in the House of Commons which has little pragmatic need to make such reforms.

5. Question time in the House of Commons shows little about a minister's quality.

6. Austrian Nazis were trained in an Austrian legion organized in Bavaria.

Задание З. Переведите следующие высказывания на русский язык, обра­щая внимание на передачу дополнительных значений определённо­го артикля и сочетаний неопределённого артикля с определённым

1. Не would not have been the first revolutionary to kick down the ladder by which he had risen to exalted heights.

2. One is apt to wonder whether the records have been correctly interpreted.

3. It is deplorable that the first random selection has not yet been followed up by a more extensive publication of the material.

4. When Bernard Lazare published his first pamphlet on the miscarriage of justice, Jaures' paper carefully refrained from discussing its contents.

5. Do you think it will make a difference to us? A difference? It will make the difference.

6. This scheme is a division, not the division of the domain of linguistics.

Упражнение 6.Когерентность. Перестановка высказываний, выражаю­щих логический и временной порядок описываемых событий.

Задание 1. Определите, в каком из следующих вариантов перевода смысл оригинала неясен из-за невыполнения требований РЯ относительно логических и временных связей между высказываниями

Our definition says that democracy is not an all-or-nothing affair. It is not a property that an association possesses in full or not at all.

Наше определение демократии гласит, что общество необяза­тельно должно быть либо полностью демократическим, либо полностью недемократическим. Сообщества могут обладать этим качеством в разной степени.

Из нашего определения демократии следует, что то или иное со­общество может быть демократическим в разной степени. По­этому общество необязательно должно быть либо демократичес­ким, либо недемократическим.

Задание 2. Переведите следующие фрагменты текста на русский язык, обращая внимание на выражение логических и временных связей между образующими их высказываниями в русском тексте

1. I viewed the tosting with some caution. I was due back in Moscow at nine after this party, for more food and drink at Tvardovsky's flat.

2. In 1923 she married a man named Vladimir Bakovsky, but their marriage was annulled. They had a son.

3. The human tragedy reached its climax. After all the exertions and sacrifices of hundreds of millions of people we still have not found peace or security.

4. Three generations of Tolstoy descendants gathered for a family reunion at Yasnaya Polyana. This is the estate where Russia's great writer spent much of his adult life.

5. In 2001 Waldo sold his ranch. Waldo's wife had never much liked

their remote home, 6. Waldo nursed a sense of doom about the farm he loved. The grass

stood thigh-high and the whole place could burn down. The cattle

he ran had kept the valley grazed.

Упражнение 7.Когерентность. Добавление слов для пояснения смыс­ловой связи между соседними высказываниями

Задание 1. Определите, в каком из следующих вариантов перевода смысл оригинала недостаточно ясен из-за отсутствия добавлений, поясняющих характер смысловых связей между высказываниями

The problem of the Liberal democrats in Britain is that their vote is too thinly spread to win many constituencies. The Conservative and Labor parties, in recent history, have enjoyed such efficiently distributed support.

Проблема либеральных демократов в Британии заключается в том, что их избиратели не сосредоточены в определённых изби­рательных округах и не могут обеспечить там победу партии. В последние десятилетия избиратели консервативной и лейбо­ристской партии эффективно сосредоточены в определённых избирательных округах.

Проблема либеральных демократов в Британии заключается в том, что их избиратели не сосредоточены в определённых изби­рательных округах и не могут обеспечить там победу партии. В результате в последние десятилетия победу на выборах одержи­вали либо консерваторы, либо лейбористы, чьи избиратели пре­обладали в тех или иных округах.

Задание 2. Переведите следующие фрагменты текста на русский язык, обращая внимание на необходимость добавления слов для поясне­ния смысловой связи между высказываниями

1. For a long time the structure of oil and gas companies has remained virtually unchanged. In the last ten years, the industry has seen four major transactions and a host of smaller link-ups.

2. Although the judge directed the jury that the interests of the state required civil servants to act in accordance with the government policies, the jury found Ponting not guilty.

3. The old order, symbolized by the remote and arrogant companies, convinced of their own virtue and invincibility, is passing. The new order is neither comfortable nor predictable.

4. It was a vital issue for France. But she appeared unable to move without the concurrence of Britain. This is an explanation, but no excuse.

5. High Court judges are paid substantially more than Cabinet Ministers. Socially and even politically, much deference is paid to them.

6. The annulment caused a profound impression in Japan, and was viewed as the spurning of an Asian power by the Western World-Many links v/ere sundered which might afterwards have proved of decisive value for peace.

Упражнение 8.Когерентность. Тема-рематические отношения. Члене­ние высказываний. Развёртывание слов, словосочетаний и грамма­тических конструкций в отдельное предложение. Тема и рема те же, что и в оригинале

Задание 1. Переведите следующие высказывания, используя метод чле­нения при передаче подчёркнутых синтаксических комплексов

1. There were a number of letters he had to write for Mazzioli to copy up for Holmes to sign.

2. I, for my part, have known a five-pound note to interpose and knock up a half century's attachment between two brothers.

3. Mrs. June Makin woke up early to find two burglars carrying her TV set from her home.

4. Much, however, could have been done to make us better prepared and thus lessen our hazards.

5. The old man objected to his grandson smoking in his presence.

6. As the youngest man in the party I volunteered to call a taxi, only to find the elevator out of order.

Задание 2. Переведите следующие высказывания, используя метод чле­нения при передаче подчёркнутых абсолютных конструкций

1. The old building is to be pulled down, a new house to be built in its place.

2. The bicycle was then solid tired and grotesquely composed with one five-foot wheel and one tiny one.

3. Charles Dickens was born in Landport, Portsmouth, on February 7, 1812, Mr. John Dickens, his father, being a clerk in the Navy Pay Office at the seaport.

4. He fired two pans, the gun chattering and the empty shells pitching into the snow.

5. During the summer of 1934, Professor Lindemann wrote to The Times newspaper pointing out the possibility of decisive scientific results being obtained in our air defense research.

6. Nearly 23,000 books and 56,000 newspapers and magazine articles have been written about this man and his ideas; and his own writings fill 100 volumes — a gigantic amount for any man to have written.

Задание З. Переведите следующие высказывания, используя метод чле­нения при передаче подчёркнутых слов, словосочетаний и оборотов

1. Не sprang eagerly to arms at the outbreak of the war and served for four years "with a Bavarian regiment at the Western front.

2. Local government has been shaped by the national government, often as the by-product of a national political conflict, sometimes even as the intended outcome of such conflict.

3. The electors of Scotland repeatedly voted against the Conservatives, but found that this counted for little against Conservative dominance of the numerically greater English constituencies.

4. Eden was the Foreign Secretary of Mr. Baldwin, who, apart from his main well-known desire for peace and a quiet life, took no active share in foreign policy.

5. Almost as important as the effect of these ideological beliefs on the nature of the United Kingdom government has been the impact of the European Unity.

6. Films starring actress Elisabeth Tailor were estimated to have had the greatest box-office appeal.

Упражнение 9.Когерентность. Членение высказываний. Добавление темы или ремы

кивание 1. Проанализируйте приведённый пример, обращая внимание на добавление темы при членении английского высказывания

The failure of Parliament to force the resignation of the ministers involved in the British arms sales to Iraq was largely the result of the work of the Conservative party whips in twisting the arms of those on the Government side who might have rebelled. Парламент не смог добиться отставки министров, замешанных в скандале с продажей Великобританией оружия Ираку. Этому активно противодействовали парламентские организаторы Кон­сервативной партии. Они выкручивали руки тем членам парла­мента от своей партии, которые могли бы поддержать требова­ния об отставке виновных.

Задание 2. Переведите следующие высказывания, используя метод чле­нения с добавлением темы или ремы

1. In my younger and more vulnerable years my father gave me some advice.

2. The boat slows and finally stops, rolling on the swell in heavy silence.

3. Although some people will be splashing out on new Mercedes-Benzes and Gucci handbags, much of the growth in spending will come from more modest purchases that reflect an end to the belt tightening.

4. This made them, when completed, certainly the tallest buildings in the world.

5. It was a nebulous document guaranteeing mutual assistance over a period of five years.

6. The debate among politicians has not been so fierce among the civil service and judiciary.

Упражнение 10.Объединение высказываний

Задание 1. Проанализируйте следующие примеры, обращая внимание на различные виды объединения высказываний

1. In the United Kingdom, this policy has never been attractive. The demand for devolution is not great there.

В Соединённом Королевстве такая политика никогда не пользо­валась особой популярностью, как и сам принцип передачи час­ти полномочий центра регионам.

2. In April, he was demobilized and the expansion of the party absorbed his whole life.

В апреле он был демобилизован и весь отдался делу расширения рядов партии.

Задание 2. При переводе следующих фраз используйте метод объедине­ния высказываний, служащих для выражения тесно связанных меж­ду собой мыслей

1. There is a deeper reason, however, why buying a house this way does not seem strange.

2. Only one serious doubt was ever raised about this conventional view. The doubt concerned the power of the British Parliament to pass laws relating to Scotland.

3. Some councils have only a small number of committees while others have many more. The variety depends upon the political style of the council and the range of its responsibilities.

4. The result has been increased pressure for Scotland and Wales to be granted a big degree of self-government. This is likely to be met through the creation of devolved, elected assemblies.

5. The independence of the judiciary is not just a matter of formal law. There are other factors which have long been important as the law itself.

6. The Queen summoned the leader of the Labour Party and made a formal request that he should take office as Prime Minister and form a government.

Задание З. Переведите следующие высказывания, используя метод объ­единения с помощью однородных сказуемых

1. They did not form a class of their own and they did not belong to any of the classes in their countries.

2. Germany had fought nearly the whole world, almost single handed, and she had been defeated.

3. France has taken her case before the International Court and she asks for justice there.

4. He had gotten the gun to firing over the horse's back, and he fired two pans.

5. He had now become a politician. His campaign of coming to power had been opened.

6. It was a place of magic power and so it was dedicated to the Celtic deity Sul.

Упражнение 11.Перевод сверхфразовых единств — монорем и дирем

Задание 1. Переведите следующие СФЕ-моноремы на русский язык

1."The atomic power plant in Scotland could prove to be a most expensive — and destructive white elephant," says Wilfred Andrews, of the Royal Civil Servants Club, in the February issue of Reader's Digest.

2. New tariffs announced by the West Midland Gas Board yesterday will cost the Board 3,000,000 pounds a year but will mean cheaper gas for hundreds of factories and thousands of homes.

3. Thousands of Algerians tonight fled from the "dead city" of Orleanville after a 12-second earthquake had ripped through central Algeria killing an estimated 1,100 people.

4. A claim for a substantial wage increase and improved conditions for about 70,000 municipal busmen in little provinces was yesterday referred to a joint wages committee of the unions and employers which will meet on January 12.

Задание 2. Переведите следующие СФЕ-диремы на русский язык

1. With special permit to work in the Moken area I too am a nomad on these waters, having followed the Mokens for years to hear their stories and learn more about their culture.

2. Friedrich Engels anticipated the work of later feminists by positing the existence of a primordial matriarchy, which was replaced by a violent and repressive patriarchy only with the transition to agricultural societies.

3. Voluntary activities have been pragmatic in character in response to needs as they have been noticed, rather than as the product of any political or social philosophy. And it is only in very recent times — probably the last 30 years or so — that people have begun to conceive of this miscellaneous mass of ad hoc activity as a system and to conceptualize it as a "voluntary sector" with its own distinctive features and a distinctive place in the framework of British institutions.

4. In nearby North Carolina, where Black Beard met his grisly end, archeologists are probing a shipwreck for new clues to his life. Although the pirate struck terror from Pennsylvania to the Caribbean, it was along this coast that he found a welcome, that lingers to this day, his memory saluted in trinket shops, inns and bars. An audacious rapscallion, he came out of nowhere, never surrendered and went down in a hail of musket balls.

 





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