ТОП 10:

Кафедра иностранных языков с курсом латинского языка



Кафедра иностранных языков с курсом латинского языка

 

«УТВЕРЖДАЮ»

Заведующий кафедрой иностранных языков

с курсом латинского языка,

доцент_________________ В.В. Жура

«_____»_________________2012г

 

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ

для преподавателей по проведению практических занятий

по иностранному (английскому) языку

Медико-биологический факультет

Направление подготовки 020400 Биология

 

РАЗРАБОТЧИКИ:

доц. Третьяк С.В., ст.преп. Солдатенко В.А.

 

Волгоград-2012

 

Рецензент:

Черничкина Е.К. - зав. кафедрой теории и методики обучения иностранным языкам ВГСПУ, проф., д.ф.н.

 

Методические указания представляют собой учебно-методическое пособие, предназначенное для преподавателей английского языка. Цель пособия – учебно-методическое обеспечение процесса изучения английского языка студентами Медико-биологического факультета, направление подготовки 020400 Биология. Содержание пособия соответствует требованиям ФГОС к целям и задачам изучения дисциплины Иностранный язык.

 

 

Одобрено на заседании кафедры, протокол № __ от «___»______ 2012г

 

 

ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

 

РАЗДЕЛ 1 (I семестр, 36 часов). Вводно-коррективный курс – развитие навыков чтения и повседневного общения, развитие компетенций

ОК-7, ОК-10, ОК-11……………………………………………………… 4

Тема 1.1 О себе и своей будущей профессии. Биология, химия и биохимия

как естественные науки. Их взаимосвязь. (Занятия 1-4) ………… 5

Тема 1.2 Высшее образование в России, Великобритании, США.

ВолгГМУ. (Занятия 5-8) ..…………………………………………… 13

Тема 1.3Уровни организации жизни на Земле. Клетка как единица жизни.

(Занятия 9-13)………………………………………………………… 21

Тема 1.4 Принципы эволюции. История возникновения жизни на Земле

(Занятия 14-18) .......…………………………………………………. 26

 

РАЗДЕЛ 2 (II и III семестры, 81час). Развитие навыковчтения и перевода профессионально-ориентированных текстов, развитие компетенций ОК-7, ОК-10, ОК-11…………………………………………………………………. 30

Тема 2.1Генетика. Механизм наследственности. (Занятия 1-5) …………. 31

Тема 2.2Биологическое разнообразие. Классификация. Вирусы, бактерии

(Занятия 6-9) …………………………………………………………. 36

Тема 2.3. Анатомия человека. Системы организма. (Занятия 10-13)………40

Тема 2.4. Физиология человека. Функции систем организма.

(Занятия 14-18)………………………………………………………. 44

Тема 2.5. Биотехнологии (Занятия 1-6, III семестр)……………………….. 51

Тема 2.6. Великие учёные и их исследования (Занятия 7-12)…………….. 56

Тема 2.7. Экология и её влияние на живые организмы (Занятия 13-18)….. 61

 

РАЗДЕЛ 3 (IV семестр, 42 часа).Обучение профессионально-ориентированному общению, развитие компетенций

ОК-7, ОК-10, ОК-11……………………………………………………………

Тема 3.1. Здоровый образ жизни. Слагаемые ЗОЖ (Занятия 1-6) …………

Тема 3.2. Поведение человека и животных в среде обитания и факторы,

влияющие на него. (Занятия 7-12) ………

Тема 3.3. Биологическая безопасность. Биоэтика. Условия сохранения

биологического разнообразия (Занятия 13-18) ……………….

 

Тема 1.1.

О себе и своей будущей профессии.

Биология, химия и биохимия как естественные науки. Их взаимосвязь.

Занятие 1.

Этапы занятия:

I. Речевая разминка, устная речь. Направлено на формирование компетенции ОК-11

Интерактивная форма работы – Применение технологии диалогового обучения.

Студенты получают задание подготовить само-презентацию – небольшой рассказ о себе, своей школе, о целях изучения иностранного языка, опыте применения иностранного языка в повседневной жизнедеятельности и учебной деятельности. Для этого студенты делятся на пары. Они задают друг другу интересующих их вопросы в пределах данной темы и в ходе работы выясняют, какие языковые средства им понадобятся для построения высказывания, какую информацию о себе им необходимо предоставить.

Преподаватель даёт образец рассказа – рассказывает о себе и отвечает на вопросы студентов, чтобы в диалоговой форме предоставить эталон выполнения задания, а затем следит за работой каждой пары и помогает в решении поставленной задачи.

Lead-in. Tasks of the course. Rules and regulations on the course taking. Main activities during the classes and forms of progress evaluation. Self-presentation of the students according to the plan:

- place of birth, age;

- academic achievements in high school or college (especially in English);

- previous experience in language studying and using (success or failure);

- goals in studying English

 

Глагол to be

Задание 1. Прочтите информацию на стр 99

Задание 2. Выполните упражнения 4-6

Занятие 2.

Этапы занятия:

Притяжательные местоимения

Задание 2.Прочтите информацию на стр 101, выполнитеупр 8

 

Занятие 3.

Этапы занятия:

Наречия частотности

Задание 2.Прочтите информацию на стр 104-105, выполните упр 5 на стр 105

Занятие 4.

Этапы занятия:

I. Работа над грамматикой.

Общие вопросы и краткие ответы

Задание 1. Прочтите информацию на стр 105 учебника, выполните упр 6

 

Специальные вопросы

Задание 2. Прочтите информацию на стр 105-106 учебника, выполните упр 7

 

Глагол to have

Задание 3. Прочтите информацию на стр 106 учебника, выполните упр 8,9

 

Конструкция There + be

Задание 4. Прочтите информацию на стр 107 учебника, выполните упр 10-12

 

II. Краткое изложение содержания текста. Направлено на формирование ОК-7 и ОК-10. Применение технологии проблемного обучения. Студенты получают задание прочесть текст Biology as a science и сравнить содержание этого текста и предыдущего текста Biology and related sciences. Для этого необходимо проанализировать информативную значимость обоих текстов и языковые особенности каждого из них.

Задание. Прочтите текст, сравните содержание этого текста и предыдущего текста Biology and related sciences. Проанализируйте и сравните информативную значимость обоих текстов и языковые особенности каждого из них.

Biology as a science

Biology is a natural science which studies living organisms and how they interact with each other and their environment. It examines the structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, and distribution of living things. Also, it classifies and describes organisms, their functions, and how species come into existence. Four unifying principles form the foundation of modern biology: cell theory, evolution, genetics and homeostasis.

Biology as a separate science developed in the nineteenth century as scientists discovered that organisms shared fundamental characteristics. Biology is now a standard subject of instruction at schools and universities around the world, and over a million papers are published annually in a wide array of biology and medicine journals.

Most biological sciences are grouped by the type of organism they study: botany, the study of plants; zoology, the study of animals; and microbiology, the study of microorganisms. There are other fields within biology:

1. biochemistry examines the fundamental chemistry of life;

2. molecular biology studies the complex interactions of systems of biological molecules;

3. cellular biology examines the basic building block of all life, the cell;

4. physiology examines the physical and chemical functions of the tissues and organ systems of an organism; and

5. ecology examines how various organisms and their environment interrelate.

Medicine is basically biology, so medicine without biology would be like physics without math, swimming without water! Technically speaking, biology is essentially the name of the science that studies how living organisms function. It would be hard to practice medicine without the knowledge of biology.

Of course, there are alternative forms of medicine such as chiropractic, herbology and message therapy. However, even these practices are enhanced by the knowledge of biology and the most of such practitioners have a deep knowledge of biology.

 

III. Устная речь. Направлено на формирование ОК-7, ОК-11. Применение интерактивной методики – диалогового обучения.Студенты получают задание высказать своё мнение по поводу двух цитат в диалоге с другим студентом, используя речевые опоры.

Задание. Обсудите предложенные высказывания в диалоге с другим студентом. Согласитесь или опровергните следующие высказывания:

1. Once you start studying medicine you never get through with it. Charles H. Mayo

2. The aim of medicine is to prevent disease and prolong life; the ideal of medicine is to eliminate the need of a physician. William J. Mayo

Use the following phrases:

It is a well known fact that … Хорошо известно, что …

It is well understood that … Понятно, что …

No doubt … Несомненно …

Besides … In addition to… Кроме того …

Firstly… (secondly, thirdly) … Во-первых (во-вторых, в-третьих)

Fortunately (Unfortunately) … К счастью … (к сожалению) …

What is more … Более того …

And at last … И наконец …

As for me … Что касается меня …

It seems to me … Мне кажется …

I’m sure … Я уверен …

I’d like to add … Мне бы хотелось добавить …

Тема 1.2.

Высшее образование в России, Великобритании, США. Волгоградский государственный медицинский университет

Занятие 5

Этапы занятия:

I. Проведение лексико-грамматической итоговой работы по теме 1.1(см. Методические рекомендации по рубежному и промежуточному контролю)

II. Изучающее чтение.

Задание 1. Произнесите за диктором новые слова. Запомните их.

to grant – выдать, присвоить

post-diploma probation – последипломное образование

refresher training – повышение квалификации

framework – структура

to comprise – включать, заключать

internship интернатура (1 год последипломного

образования – в Великобритании и США)

clinical residency клиническая ординатура (практика в качестве ассистента врача)

postgraduate course - аспирантура

at the disposal – в распоряжении

to recognize – признавать

staff - персонал

faculty (Амер.) - преподавательский состав учебного заведения

to implement – проводить, претворять в жизнь.

 

Задание 2. Образуйте от следующих существительных:

а) существительное, обозначающее специалиста в данной сфере;

б) прилагательное.

Science, therapy, dentistry, stomatology, pharmacy, pediatrics, biology, psychology, research, rheumatology, pharmacology, acupuncture.

 

Задание 3. Прочтите и переведите текст

Задание 8. Направлено на формирование ОК-11.

Расскажите о своем университете, используя подстановочную таблицу:

 

Our university   The VolSMU   The structure of the university   Four educational buildings and five hospitals   The course of studies   The diploma of the VolSMU   The staff of the university   The medical colleges   Postgraduate training to be founded   to be granted   to have   to comprise   to be at the disposal   to vary   to be recognized   to consist of   to train   to involve in 1935;   Academy status in1993;   University status in 2003;   nine faculties…;   of the students;   of the University;   from 5 to 6 years;   in 80 countries;   by the WHO;   dental technicians, pharmacists, nurses;   internship, a clinical residency and a postgraduate course.  

 

Занятие 6

Этапы занятия:

I. Ознакомительное чтение

II. Работа над грамматикой

Занятие 7.

Этапы занятия:

I. Изучающее чтение.

 

Задание 1. Изучите раздел Active Words and Word Combinations, стр 263 Учебника 2 ( Здесь и далее имеется ввиду учебник Марковина, И.Ю. Английский язык: Учебник / И. Ю. Марковина, З.К.Максимова, М.В.Вайнштейн. - М.: ГЭОТАР-МЕД, 2010.).

 

Задание 2. Прочтите и переведите первую часть текста Medical education in Great Britain (стр 261, до абзаца “Beginning with the third year…”)

 

II. Работа над грамматикой.

Занятие 8.

Этапы занятия:

I. Изучающее чтение.

 

Задание 1. Ознакомьтесь с новой лексикой на стр 249-250 учебника 2.

Задание 2. Прочтите и переведите текст Medical education in the USA на стр 247-249 учебника 2

Задание 3.Кратко изложите содержание реплик д-ра Нелсона,дополнив предложения:

- After graduation from secondary school the candidate for a medical school must complete …

- A student applies to a medical school when he has completed…

- Academic achievements and the results of the admission test in biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics and English are the most important factors in…

- During the first 2 years students study…

- During the 2 clinical years the students have practical training in small groups and meet their teachers…

- At the end of the course the students receive …

- The period of residency is …

- After the residency, the graduate is…

 

Тема 1.3.

Клетка как единица жизни

Занятие 9.

Этапы занятия:

II. Изучающее чтение.

Задание.Прочтите и переведите текст, запомните перевод слов, выделенных жирным шрифтом.

Cells.

In 1665, Robert Hooke, using a compound microscope, discovered numerous small units of tissues. He called these units cells.The study of cellular structure and function, or cytology, is a part of the broader discipline of cell biology.

The human body contains trillions of cells. They are very small - a typical cell is only about 0.1 mm in diameter. Cells create and maintain all anatomical structures and perform all vital physiological functions.

The human body contains two general classes of cells: sex cells and somatic cells. Sex cells are also called germcells or reproductivecells. Somatic cells include all the other cells in the human body.

Our representative cell is surrounded by a watery medium known as the extracellular fluid. The extracellular fluid in most tissues is called interstitial fluid. A cell membrane is to separate the cell contents, or cytoplasm, from the extracellular fluid. The cytoplasm can itself be subdivided into the cytosol, a liquid, and intracellular structures known as organelles.

Five important properties of all cells are:

nutrition,

growth,

differentiation,

† communication with other cells by chemical signaling

† evolution.

For a cell to replicate itself, it must synthesize more than 1000 different protein molecules. The genes encode proteins that are most useful for growth or survival under the existing environmental conditions.

A cell must copy its genetic information for a new cell. Mistakes in copying are sometimes made; these mutations are usually harmful and kill the cell. However, they also provide a mechanism for cells to acquire new properties.

II. Работа над грамматикой

Занятие 10

Этапы занятия:

I. Работа над лексикой.

Задание 1.Переведите текст The building blocks of life на стр 34 учебника 1.

Задание 2.Ознакомьтесь с содержанием раздела Vocabulary notes на стр 35-36 учебника 1.

Задание 3.Выполните упр 1, 3, 4, 6 на стр 36-37 учебника 1.

 

II. Работа над грамматикой

Занятие 11

Этапы занятия:

I. Работа над лексикой.

Задание 1.Выполните упр 1-3 на стр 38 учебника 1.

The nucleus

 

When viewed under a microscope, the most prominent feature of a cell is the nucleus. While its shape, size, position and chemical composition vary from cell to cell, its functions are always the same, namely, to control the cell’s activity and to retain the organism’s hereditary material, the chromosomes. It is bounded by a double membrane, the nuclear envelope, the outer membrane of which is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum and often has ribosomes on its surface. The inner membrane has three proteins on its surface which act as anchoring points for chromosomes. It possesses many large pores (typically 3000 per nucleus) 40-100 nm in diameter, which permit the passage of large molecules, such as RNA, between it and the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm-like material within the nucleus is called nucleoplasm. It contains chromatin which is made up of coils of DNA bound to proteins. During division the chromatin condenses to form the chromosomes but these are rarely, if ever, visible in a non-dividing cell. The denser, more darkly staining areas of chromatin are called heterochromatin. Within the nucleus are one or two small spherical bodies, each called a nucleolus. They are not distinct organelles as they are not bounded by a membrane. They manufacture ribosomal RNA, a substance in which they are especially rich, and assemble ribosomes.

The functions of a nucleus are:

1. To contain the genetic material of a cell in the form of chromosomes.

2. To act as a control centre for the activities of a cell.

3. To carry the instructions for the synthesis of proteins in the nuclear DNA

4. To be involved in the production of ribosomes and RNA.

5. In-cell division

III. Работа над грамматикой

Занятие 12.

Этапы занятия:

I. Ознакомительное чтение.Прочтите текст, найдите информацию по различным видам микроскопов, их достоинствам и недостаткам.

Microscopy

Have you ever wished you could see little bit better - perhaps to read what someone else is writing from a distance or to recognize who exactly it is in the crowd at a football match? How frustrating it can be when you can't quite make out the print of the newspaper of the person opposite you on the train. This is how early scientists probably felt when they strained their eyes to decipher the detailed structure of organisms.

The light microscope opened up a new world of structural detail for biologists, but the wavelength of light limits the light microscope to distinguishing objects which are 0.2 µm or further from each other. This ability to distinguish two objects close together rather than to see them as a single image is called the resolving power or resolution.

So in 1933 the electron microscope was developed. This instrument works on the same principles as the light microscope except that instead of light rays, with their wavelengths in the order of 500 nm, a beam of electrons of wavelength 0.005 nm is used. This means that the electron microscope not only magnifies objects more, it also has a resolving power many thousands of times better than a light microscope.

The light microscope uses glass lenses to focus the light rays, and the electron beam of the electron microscope is focused by means of powerful electromagnets. The image produced by the electron microscope cannot be detected directly by the naked eye. Instead, the electron beam is directed on to a screen from which black and white photographs can be taken.

Занятие 13

Тема 1.4.

Принципы эволюции.

Занятие 14

Этапы занятия:

I. Изучающее чтение.

 

Задание 1. Прочтите слова Vocabulary на стр 27 учебника 1. Выучите их

 

Задание 2. Прочтите текст А “The theory of evolution”на стр 27 учебника 1.

Задание 3.Изучите содержание Vocabulary notes на стр 28-29

 

Задание 4. Выполните упр 1, 3 на стр 29

II. Работа над грамматикой

Прилагательные и наречия.

Задание 1.Прочтите информацию на стр 122-123 учебника 1

Задание 2.Выполните упр 1,2 на стр 124

Занятие 15

 

Этапы занятия:

I. Работа над лексикой

 

Задание 1. Выполните упражнения 4, 7, 8,9,10 на стр 30-31 учебника 1.

 

Задание 2. Перескажите текст The theory of evolution, используя в качестве речевых опор упр. 1 и 2 на стр 31 учебника 1.

 

II. Работа над грамматикой

Занятие 16

 

Этапы занятия:

I. Ознакомительное чтение.

 

Задание 1. Прочтите слова Vocabulary на стр 41 учебника 1.

Задание 2. Прочтите текст А “The difference between plants and animals” на стр 40 учебника 1.

Задание 3.Изучите содержание Vocabulary notes на стр 41-42

Задание 4. Выполните упр 1 на стр 45

 

II. Работа над грамматикой

 

Степени сравнения наречий

Задание 1.Прочтите информацию на стр 126 учебника 1

Задание 2.Выполните упр 6 на стр 127

 

Занятие 17

 

Этапы занятия:

I. Ознакомительное чтение.

 

Задание 1. Прочтите слова Vocabulary на стр 47 учебника 1.

Задание 2. Прочтите текст А “Plants life” на стр 47 учебника 1.

Задание 3.Изучите содержание Vocabulary notes на стр 48-49

Задание 4. Выполните упр 1, 3, 4, на стр 50-51

 

 

II. Работа над грамматикой

Числительные

Прочтите информацию на стр 49-50

 

 

III. Работа над лексикой

 

Задание. Выполните упр 1-3, 5 на стр 52-53

 

Занятие 18

Тема 2.1.

Занятие 1

Этапы занятия.

Изучающее чтение

Inheritance

 

The phenomenon of similarities between children and their parents is well-known. Our knowledge of the process of heredity enabled us to understand this mechanism. The offspring has two sets of genetic information - one from the mother and one from the father.

New species are formed by adaptation of existing forms. Natural selection is the mechanism by which these changes arise. Without this variety and selection species could not adapt to meet the changing demands of the environment.

The paradox of inheritance is how to reconcile the genetic stability needed to preserve useful characteristics with the genetic variability necessary for evolution. To satisfy both requirements it is necessary to have hereditary units which are stable, but which can be reasserted in an infinite variety of ways.

In 1944 Avery, McCarty and McCleod found out that nucleic acid carry genetic information. In 1952 Hershey and Chase proved that DNA is the hereditary material. And in 1953 Watson and Crick formulated the detailed structure of DNA.

DNA is a double helix of two nucleotide strands where the pentose sugar is always deoxyribose and the organic bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine, but never uracil.

All species possess different DNA and produce different enzymes. The DNA sequence must be a code that determines which proteins are manufactured. The part of the DNA molecule which specifies a polypeptide is termed a gene. One of the most significant scientific advances in recent years is the development of technology which allows genes to be manipulated, altered and transferred from organism to organism. Thanks to this we got the possibility to manufacture hormones, antibiotics, interferon and vitamins.

Задание 1. Образуйте однокоренные слова, используя префиксы и суффиксы:

Prefix Base word Suffix
In- Mis- Non- Re- Un- accuracy constancy evidence habitat hazard to adapt to compete to lead to predict resistance to suit to vary -able - al -ant -ate -ent -er - ety - ion, - tion - ity - ive -or - ous

 

II.Работа над грамматикой

 

Время Present Continuous

Задание 1.Прочтите информацию на стр 127-128 учебника 1

Задание 2.Выполните упр 1 - 3 на стр 127-128

 

III. Устная речь

 

Интерактивная форма – ролевая игра.Студенты получают задание: «Вам предложили провести занятие по теме Открытие законов репродукции. Проанализируйте таблицу Historical review of the main events leading to present-day knowledge of reproduction and heredity и подготовьте обзор по этой теме»

 

Name Date Belief/ Observation/ discovery
Aristotle 384-322 BC Mixing of male and female semen is like blending two sets of ingredients which gives ‘life’
General scientific belief Up to 17th century Simple organisms arise spontaneously out of non-living material
van Leeuwenhoek Discovered sperm – it was generally believed that these contained miniature organisms which only developed when introduced into a female
de Graaf 1670s Described the ovarian follicle (later called Graafian follicle)
Lamarck Proposed theory of evolution based on inheritance of acquired characterisrics
Darwin On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection was published
Pasteur Experimentally disproved the theory of spontaneous generation
Sutton Observed pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis and suggested these carried genetic information
Garrod Postulated mutations as sources of certain hereditary diseases
Johannsen Coined term ‘gene’ as hereditary unit  
Oparin Suggested theory of origin of life  
Avery, McCarty and McCleod Showed nucleic acid to be the chemical which carried genetic information
Hershey and Chase Showed DNA to be the hereditary material
Watson and Crick Formulated the detailed structure of DNA

 

Занятие 2

Этапы занятия:

I. Работа над лексикой

Задание 1. Переведите на русский язык


Similarity

heredity

offspring

genetic

species

selection

to arise

variety

inheritance

to preserve

variability

nucleic acid

DNA

double helix

nucleotide strands

enzymes

sequence

to alter


Задание 2. Ответьте на вопросы:

1) How many sets of genetic information does the offspring have?

2) How are new species formed?

3) What properties help the species adapt to the changing demands of the environment?

4) What is the paradox of inheritance?

5) What scientists found out the units of genetic information?

6) What substances compose DNA?

7) Do different species possess the same DNA?

8) What is a gene?

II. Работа над грамматикой

Занятие 3

Этапы занятия:

Занятие 4

Этапы занятия:

Работа над лексикой.

Выполните упр. 10 на стр 73, упр 5 на стр 75 и задание Speaking на стр 75

Занятие 5

Тема 2.2.

Вирусы, бактерии

Занятие 6.

Этапы занятия:

I. Изучающее чтение:

II. Работа над грамматикой

Bacteria

Bacteria are the smallest cellular organisms and are the most abundant. Such cells may vary in the nature of the cell wall. Bacteria may be coated with a slime capsule which is thought to interfere with phagocytosis by the white blood cells. Bacteria are generally distinguished from each other by their shape. Spherical ones are known as cocci (singular - coccus), rod-shaped as bacilli (singular - bacillus) and spiral ones as spirilla (singular - spirillum).

Cocci may stick together in chains, e.g. streptococcus, or in clusters, e.g. staphylococcus. Bacteria show considerable diversity in their metabolism. The majority are heterotrophic. They are responsible, with the Fungi, for decaying and recycling organic material in the soil. Other bacteria are autotrophic.

Bacteria reproduce by binary fission, one cell being capable of giving rise to over 4 × 1021 cells in 24 hours. Under certain circumstances conjugation occurs and new combinations of genetic material result. Bacteria may also produce thick-walled spores which are highly resistant, often surviving drought and extremes of temperature.

Economic importance of bacteria

It is easy to think of all bacteria as pathogens but it is important to remember that many are beneficial to humans. These benefits include:

1. The breakdown of plant and animal remains and the recycling of nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus.

2. Symbiotic relationships with other organisms. For example supplying vitamin K and some of the vitamin B complex in humans.

3. Food production, e.g. some cheeses, yoghurts, vinegar.

4. Manufacturing processes, e.g. making soap powders, tanning leather and retting flax to make linen.

5. They are easily cultured and may be used for research, particularly in genetics. They are also used for making antibiotics, amino acids and enzymes.

Занятие 7

Этапы занятия:

I. Изучающее чтение:

Задание 1. Прочтите слова Vocabulary на стр 56 учебника 1.

Задание 2. Прочтите текст А “Existence of viruses” на стр 55 учебника 1.

Задание 3.Изучите содержание Vocabulary notes на стр 56-57

Задание 4. Выполните упр 1, 3, 4, на стр 58-59

II. Работа над грамматикой

Предлоги времени

Задание 1.Прочтите информацию на стр 137 учебника 1

Задание 2.Выполните упр 6-7 на стр 137-138

 

Viruses

A virus is a tiny parasite living, growing and reproducing inside a host cell. When viruses damage or destroy the cells, they produce viral diseases: polio, smallpox and rabies are typical examples. Viruses are the smallest microbes. They are smaller than bacteria, ranging in size from about 20 nm to 300 nm. They cannot be seen through a light microscope and pass through filters which retain bacteria.

Viruses were first discovered in 1892 by a Russian scientist, D. Iwanowsky, who noted infective agents that passed through a filter for ordinary bacteria. Hence they were originally called filterable viruses. In 1901 Walter Reed and his associates found the virus that caused yellow fever in man. Since then, a great many viruses, all parasites on the cells of plants, lower animals or human beings, have been identified.

Viruses contain nucleic acids such as DNA or RNA and must therefore be considered as being on the border between living and non-living. Viruses are classified by their structure and nucleic acids types. Most viruses found in animal cells and those attacking bacteria (known as bacteriophages) have the nucleic acid DNA. Other animal viruses and plant viruses contain RNA. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction have shown viruses to be a variety of shapes such as spherical (e.g. poliomyelitis), straight rods (e.g. tobacco mosaic virus) or flexible rods (e.g. potato virus X).

Under certain circumstances of virus reproduction, they split apart and then join together again. This is much the same process that occurs when the chromosomes in the nucleus of a living cell split apart and rejoin to form new cells.

Viruses are spread in a variety of ways. Some virus diseases, like chickenpox and measles, are spread by contact or by droplets in the air. Rabies virus is transmitted only through a wound - the bite of a rabid animal. Many viruses are spread by insects. There is often a reservoir of virus infection in wild or domestic animals. Immune serum from people who have had one attack of the virus disease, is often used to provide a passive immunity. Prevention of virus infection, or its damaging effects, is very often achieved by vaccines, killed or attenuated, made from the original infection virus.

 

Занятие 8.

Этапы занятия:

I. Работа над лексикой

Выполнить упражнения 6-7, 10-11 на стр 58-60, упражнения 1-2 на стр 60.

II. Перевод текста “Virus structure”,стр 62

 

III. Устная речь.

 

Выполните упр 5 и задание раздела Speaking на стр 61

Занятие 9.

Подготовка к выполнению теста по теме.

Тема 2.3.

Занятие 10.

Этапы занятия:

Занятие 11

Этапы занятия:

I. Работа над лексикой:

Задание 1. Ответьте на вопросы:

1) What is the heart?

2) Where are the base and the apex situated?

3) What is the weight of the heart?

4) What main parts does the heart consist of?

5) Is there any difference between the atria or between the ventricles?

6) What fibrous bands form the muscular structure of the heart?

7) Does the vascular system consist of three groups of vessels? What are they?

Задание 2. Расскажите о строении сердечно-сосудистой системы, используя лексическую и смысловую опору:

The heart is …

The weight of the heart is…

The heart consists of…

The right atrium is larger…

The muscular structure of the heart consists of…

The vascular system consists of…

 

II. Изучающее чтение.

Задание 1. Изучить новые слова.


Lung - легкое

cavity - полость

mediastinum – средостение

pleura – плевра

border – граница, край

surface – поверхность

diaphragm – диафрагма

lobe – доля

coagulation – свертывание (крови)

coat - оболочка

layer – слой; листок (плевры)

parenchyma – паренхима (вещество легких)

to locate – располагать

to separate - отделять

to cover – покрывать

to extend – простираться, расширяться

respiratory – дыхательный

lateral – боковой

convex - выпуклый

external – наружный

serous – серозный

visceral – внутренний

subserous – подсерозный


The lungs

The lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system located in the lateral cavities of the chest. The lungs are separated from each other by the mediastinum. They are covered with the pleura. Each lung has the base, apex, two borders and three surfaces. The lung has the apex extending upward 3-4 centimetres (cm) above the level of the first rib. The base of the lungs is located in the convex surface of the diaphragm.

In the adults the weight of the lungs is about 1,350 g. The right lung consists of 3 lobes. It is about 15% heavier than the left one consisting only of two lobes. The vital capacity of the lungs is 3.5 litres.

The lungs take part in the production of physiologically active substances, in the regulation of blood coagulation and the metabolism.

The structure of the lung consists of an external serous coat, the visceral layer of the pleura, a subserous elastic tissue and the parenchyma or proper substance of the lungs.

III. Работа над грамматикой

Задание 1.Выполните упр 1 на стр 151

Задание 2.Прочтите информацию на стр 152

Задание 3.Выполните упр 2-3 на стр 152-153

Занятие 12

Этапы занятия:

I. Работа над лексикой.Дополните предложения, используя активную лексику из текста The lungs

1. The lungs are …

2. They are located….

3. The lungs are separated….

4. They are covered with….

5. The right lung consists of …. lobes. The left lung…

6. The lungs take part in …

7. The structure of the lung consists of…

 

II. Ознакомительное чтение.

 

Задание 1. Изучите Vocabulary на стр 63-64

Задание 2. Прочтите текст «How animals breathe» на стр 63

Задание 3. Выполните упр 1,2, 5, 7

Занятие 13

Выполнение теста по теме.

Тема 2.4.

Занятие 14

Этапы занятия:

I. Изучающее чтение.

Задание 1. Изучить новые слова.

contraction - cокращение

pump – (n) насос; (v) накачивать, нагнетать

beat (n) – толчок, удар, биение; (v) – бить(ся)б ударять(ся)

wave – волна, колебание

cycle – цикл

fluid – (n) жидкость; (adj) жидкий

plasma- плазма

corpuscle - частица

erythrocyte - эритроцит

leucocyte - лейкоцит

platelet – пластинка крови

thrombocyte - тромбоцит

hemoglobin – гемоглобин

volume – объем; емкость;

reservoir – депо крови

 

Задание 2. Прочтите текст

 

II. Работа над грамматикой

Задание 1. Измените залог предложения:

1) The septum divides the heart chambers.

2) The atrioventricular valves separate the atria from the ventricles.

3) The vessels carrying blood to and from the tissues of the body compose the general system.

4) The veins passing to the liver form the portal system.

5) Students passed a test yesterday.

6) A doctor will examine the patient tomorrow.

 

Задание 2. Поставьте глагол в нужной форме пассивного залога

1. The oxygen (to take up) from the air in the lungs. 2. This process (to call) external respiration. 3. A doctor found that the patient’s airways (to block) by a foreign body. 4. The respiratory activity (to govern) by the amount of carbon dioxide which previously (to eliminate) from the organism. 5. The lung X-ray (to perform) next week. 6. The movement of the air (to cause) by an increase in the volume of the thoracic cavity. 7. I am sure that during the operation the outer layer (to raise) to provide the necessary space. 8. The thorax (to separate) from the abdomen by the diaphragm.

Занятие 15

Этапы занятия:

I. Изучающее чтение.

Задание 1. Изучите новые слова

oxygen – кислород

carbon dioxide – углекислый газ

exchange – (n) обмен

alveolus – альвеола

pressure-давление

partial pressure –парциальное давление

transfer–(n) перенос (v) переносить

inspiration – процесс вдоха

expiration- процесс выдоха

to increase – увеличивать(ся)

to decrease – уменьшать(ся)

upward – вверх

due to – из-за, на основании

Задание 2. Прочтите текст Respiration

In the process of respiration oxygen passes into the blood and carbon dioxide passes into the atmospheric air. The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place in the alveoli of the lungs. It is due to the difference of partial pressure of these gases. Hemoglobin is that substance of the blood which transfers oxygen in the blood.

In the process of inspiration the volume of the chest increases and the lungs extend. The pressure in the lungs becomes less and the atmospheric air enters the lungs. In the process of expiration the volume of the chest decreases and the lungs contract. The pressure in the lungs becomes higher and the air goes out of the lungs.

II. Работа над грамматикой

Задание 1.Выполните упр 7 на стр 154

III. Перевод текста

 

Переведите текст «How plants make food and breathe» на стр 77

Занятие 16

Этапы занятия:

 

I. Изучающее чтение.

Задание 1. Изучитe новые слова.


Digestive

mouth

pharynx

esophagus

stomach

small intestine

large intestine

liver

gallbladder

gland

abdomen

capacity

to serve

to deliver

nutrients

to undergo

twofold

reduction

mastication

to accomplish

saliva

gastric juice

pancreatic juice

bile

constituents

 


Задание 2. Прочтите и переведите текст

Digestive system

The digestive system is formed by a canal which consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. The liver with gallbladder are the large glands of the alimentary tract. The stomach is a dilated portion of the alimentary canal. It is in the upper part of the abdomen under the diaphragm. It has a capacity of from 2 to 4 litres.

Digestive system serves to deliver nutrients to all organs and tissues of our body. The food we eat undergoes a twofold reduction – the mechanical and the chemical ones. The mechanicalreduction takes place in the mouth (it is called mastication) and then in the stomach (due to muscular movements). The chemical action is accomplished by the saliva, the gastric juice, the pancreatic juice and the bile. The principal organ of absorption is the small intestine. The useful constituents of food are absorbed by the small intestine, while the useless move into the large intestine

II. Работа над грамматикой.

Найдите в тексте Digestive system предложения, в которых сказуемое употреблено в Passive voice. Переведите эти предложения и перефразируйте их содержание в Active voice.

III. Аннотирование текста. Направлено на развитие ОК-7 и ОК-11

 

Прочтите текст. Изложите содержание каждого абзаца в 2 предложениях.

 

The stages of digestion

The alimentary canal begins above with the cavity of the mouth and terminates below at the anus, traversing in its course the length of the thoracic and abdominal cavities. After the entrance into the mouth the food undergoes a twofold reduction: amechanicalone and a chemical one. The mechanical process is called mastication. The chemical action taking place in the mouth is accomplished by means of the first digestive secretion, the saliva.

The sight, smell, and thought of food may elicit salivary and gastric secretion. In the form of bolus the food mass softened with mucus moves down to the stomach. Due to muscular movements, the food is mixed with the gastric juice. The reaction of the gastric juice is acid. The most important constituents are hydrochloric acid, mucin, pepsin, rennin and gastric lipase.

As a result of muscular movements the gastric contents is reduced to a semifluid, creamy mass called chyme. At intervals portions of the chyme are ejected through the pylorus into the duodenum. In the duodenum the food is treated by the pancreatic juice and the bile, an important external secretion of the liver. The liver is the largest gland in the body which has the most powerful influence upon all the metabolic functions of the body.

The principal organ of absorption is the small intestine. The function of the small intestine is to separate the useful from the useless constituents of the food. The fats, in the form of a fine emulsion, are taken up by lymph vessels and reach the blood, while sugars, salts, and amino-acids formed from proteins pass directly into the small blood-vessels of the intestine.

Food materials are absorbed almost exclusively by the small intestine. The large intestine, or colon, absorbs water and salts. The indigestible residue, together with various waste substance excreted from the liver and intestinal walls, is cast out of the body in the stools.

 

 

Занятие 17

Этапы занятия:

 

II. Изучающее чтение.

Задание 1. Изучитe новые слова.


Brain

nerve

flow

stimulus (pl-stimuli)

spinal cord

sense organs

vision

hearing

motor cortex

hypothalamus

to provide

to supply

to restore


Задание 2.Прочтите и переведите текст

The Brain

Nervous system regulates and coordinates all body activities. The brain is the main organ of the nervous system. Its weight is from one to two kg (kilograms). It consists of about 12 billion (миллиард) cells. Each cell of the brain is connected to the other by nerve fibres.

The brain is the centre of a wide system of communication. A constant flow of stimuli comes into the brain through the spinal cord. The stimuli come to the brain from our eyes, ears, and other sense organs. When all the received stimuli are summarized and analysed the brain sends orders through the nerve fibres in the spinal cord to different parts of the human body. A lot of investigations helped scientists to determine those areas of the brain which control vision, hearing, physical movements and even emotions.

The motor cortex controls many body movements of the human being. The hypothalamus controls such functions as blood pressure. To provide a proper work of the brain the nervous cells must be well supplied with oxygen and feeding substances. And for this purpose any human being must have regular complete rest. When one sleeps the vital activity of the nervous system is restored.

Задание 3.Переведите словосочетания

-регулировать и координировать деятельность;

- посредством нервных волокон;

- система коммуникации;

- постоянный поток раздражителей;

- посылать команды;

- контролировать зрение, слух, движения и эмоции;

- двигательный отдел коры головного мозга;

- обеспечивать правильную (соответствующую, должную) работу;

- снабжать кислородом и питательными веществами

Задание 4.Составьте 10 вопросов к тексту таким образом, чтобы ответы отражали основное содержание текста.

 

Занятие 18

Кафедра иностранных языков с курсом латинского языка

 

«УТВЕРЖДАЮ»

Заведующий кафедрой иностранных языков

с курсом латинского языка,

доцент_________________ В.В. Жура







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