ТОП 10:

II. Работа над грамматикой. Modal verbs



Задание 1.Прочтите информацию на стр 138-141

Задание 2.Выполните упр 1, 3, 5, 6 на стр 139-142

 

 

Занятие 13

Повторение изученного лексико-грамматического материала.

Выполнение теста по теме.

Тема 2.4.

Физиология человека. Функции систем организма

Занятие 14

Этапы занятия:

I. Изучающее чтение.

Задание 1. Изучить новые слова.

contraction - cокращение

pump – (n) насос; (v) накачивать, нагнетать

beat (n) – толчок, удар, биение; (v) – бить(ся)б ударять(ся)

wave – волна, колебание

cycle – цикл

fluid – (n) жидкость; (adj) жидкий

plasma- плазма

corpuscle - частица

erythrocyte - эритроцит

leucocyte - лейкоцит

platelet – пластинка крови

thrombocyte - тромбоцит

hemoglobin – гемоглобин

volume – объем; емкость;

reservoir – депо крови

 

Задание 2. Прочтите текст

 

Physiology of the cardiovascular system

The contractions of the heart pump the blood through the arteries to all the parts of the body. In the adult the heart makes from 60 to72 beats per minute. Each wave of heart contraction and a period of rest following it compose a cardiac cycle. Blood is a fluid tissue with many various functions. Blood is composed of plasma and the corpuscular elements which are called red corpuscles or erythrocytes, white corpuscles or leucocytes and blood platelets or thrombocytes. Red cells contain red colouring substance or hemoglobin.

The total blood volume is divided into circulating and reservoir volumes. The average human blood volume is 8-10% of the body weight. When we listen to the heart we can hear two or sometimes three sounds.

 

Задание 3. Переведите словосочетания:

Сокращения сердца, нагнетать кровь, делать 60 ударов в минуту, волна сокращений, сердечный цикл, жидкая ткань, содержать гемоглобин, окрашивающее вещество, общий объём крови, циркулирующий объём, депо крови, средний объём.

 

II. Работа над грамматикой

Задание 1. Измените залог предложения:

1) The septum divides the heart chambers.

2) The atrioventricular valves separate the atria from the ventricles.

3) The vessels carrying blood to and from the tissues of the body compose the general system.

4) The veins passing to the liver form the portal system.

5) Students passed a test yesterday.

6) A doctor will examine the patient tomorrow.

 

Задание 2. Поставьте глагол в нужной форме пассивного залога

1. The oxygen (to take up) from the air in the lungs. 2. This process (to call) external respiration. 3. A doctor found that the patient’s airways (to block) by a foreign body. 4. The respiratory activity (to govern) by the amount of carbon dioxide which previously (to eliminate) from the organism. 5. The lung X-ray (to perform) next week. 6. The movement of the air (to cause) by an increase in the volume of the thoracic cavity. 7. I am sure that during the operation the outer layer (to raise) to provide the necessary space. 8. The thorax (to separate) from the abdomen by the diaphragm.

III. Устная речь Направлено на формирование ОК-11.

Представьте себе, что вам необходимо рассказать о сердечно-сосудистой системе (на экзамене, на занятии, школьнику). Расскажите о функции сердечно-сосудистой системы, используя лексическую и смысловую опору:

The contractions of the heart pump….

Each wave of heart contraction and a period of rest following it compose…

Blood is…

Blood is composed of….

Red cells contain…

The total blood volume is divided into….

When we listen to the heart we can hear….

 

Занятие 15

Этапы занятия:

I. Изучающее чтение.

Задание 1. Изучите новые слова

oxygen – кислород

carbon dioxide – углекислый газ

exchange – (n) обмен

alveolus – альвеола

pressure-давление

partial pressure –парциальное давление

transfer–(n) перенос (v) переносить

inspiration – процесс вдоха

expiration- процесс выдоха

to increase – увеличивать(ся)

to decrease – уменьшать(ся)

upward – вверх

due to – из-за, на основании

Задание 2. Прочтите текст Respiration

In the process of respiration oxygen passes into the blood and carbon dioxide passes into the atmospheric air. The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place in the alveoli of the lungs. It is due to the difference of partial pressure of these gases. Hemoglobin is that substance of the blood which transfers oxygen in the blood.

In the process of inspiration the volume of the chest increases and the lungs extend. The pressure in the lungs becomes less and the atmospheric air enters the lungs. In the process of expiration the volume of the chest decreases and the lungs contract. The pressure in the lungs becomes higher and the air goes out of the lungs.

II. Работа над грамматикой

Задание 1.Выполните упр 7 на стр 154

III. Перевод текста

 

Переведите текст «How plants make food and breathe» на стр 77

Занятие 16

Этапы занятия:

 

I. Изучающее чтение.

Задание 1. Изучитe новые слова.


Digestive

mouth

pharynx

esophagus

stomach

small intestine

large intestine

liver

gallbladder

gland

abdomen

capacity

to serve

to deliver

nutrients

to undergo

twofold

reduction

mastication

to accomplish

saliva

gastric juice

pancreatic juice

bile

constituents

 


Задание 2. Прочтите и переведите текст

Digestive system

The digestive system is formed by a canal which consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. The liver with gallbladder are the large glands of the alimentary tract. The stomach is a dilated portion of the alimentary canal. It is in the upper part of the abdomen under the diaphragm. It has a capacity of from 2 to 4 litres.

Digestive system serves to deliver nutrients to all organs and tissues of our body. The food we eat undergoes a twofold reduction – the mechanical and the chemical ones. The mechanicalreduction takes place in the mouth (it is called mastication) and then in the stomach (due to muscular movements). The chemical action is accomplished by the saliva, the gastric juice, the pancreatic juice and the bile. The principal organ of absorption is the small intestine. The useful constituents of food are absorbed by the small intestine, while the useless move into the large intestine

II. Работа над грамматикой.

Найдите в тексте Digestive system предложения, в которых сказуемое употреблено в Passive voice. Переведите эти предложения и перефразируйте их содержание в Active voice.

III. Аннотирование текста. Направлено на развитие ОК-7 и ОК-11

 

Прочтите текст. Изложите содержание каждого абзаца в 2 предложениях.

 

The stages of digestion

The alimentary canal begins above with the cavity of the mouth and terminates below at the anus, traversing in its course the length of the thoracic and abdominal cavities. After the entrance into the mouth the food undergoes a twofold reduction: amechanicalone and a chemical one. The mechanical process is called mastication. The chemical action taking place in the mouth is accomplished by means of the first digestive secretion, the saliva.

The sight, smell, and thought of food may elicit salivary and gastric secretion. In the form of bolus the food mass softened with mucus moves down to the stomach. Due to muscular movements, the food is mixed with the gastric juice. The reaction of the gastric juice is acid. The most important constituents are hydrochloric acid, mucin, pepsin, rennin and gastric lipase.

As a result of muscular movements the gastric contents is reduced to a semifluid, creamy mass called chyme. At intervals portions of the chyme are ejected through the pylorus into the duodenum. In the duodenum the food is treated by the pancreatic juice and the bile, an important external secretion of the liver. The liver is the largest gland in the body which has the most powerful influence upon all the metabolic functions of the body.

The principal organ of absorption is the small intestine. The function of the small intestine is to separate the useful from the useless constituents of the food. The fats, in the form of a fine emulsion, are taken up by lymph vessels and reach the blood, while sugars, salts, and amino-acids formed from proteins pass directly into the small blood-vessels of the intestine.

Food materials are absorbed almost exclusively by the small intestine. The large intestine, or colon, absorbs water and salts. The indigestible residue, together with various waste substance excreted from the liver and intestinal walls, is cast out of the body in the stools.

 

 

Занятие 17

Этапы занятия:

 

II. Изучающее чтение.

Задание 1. Изучитe новые слова.


Brain

nerve

flow

stimulus (pl-stimuli)

spinal cord

sense organs

vision

hearing

motor cortex

hypothalamus

to provide

to supply

to restore


Задание 2.Прочтите и переведите текст

The Brain

Nervous system regulates and coordinates all body activities. The brain is the main organ of the nervous system. Its weight is from one to two kg (kilograms). It consists of about 12 billion (миллиард) cells. Each cell of the brain is connected to the other by nerve fibres.

The brain is the centre of a wide system of communication. A constant flow of stimuli comes into the brain through the spinal cord. The stimuli come to the brain from our eyes, ears, and other sense organs. When all the received stimuli are summarized and analysed the brain sends orders through the nerve fibres in the spinal cord to different parts of the human body. A lot of investigations helped scientists to determine those areas of the brain which control vision, hearing, physical movements and even emotions.

The motor cortex controls many body movements of the human being. The hypothalamus controls such functions as blood pressure. To provide a proper work of the brain the nervous cells must be well supplied with oxygen and feeding substances. And for this purpose any human being must have regular complete rest. When one sleeps the vital activity of the nervous system is restored.

Задание 3.Переведите словосочетания

-регулировать и координировать деятельность;

- посредством нервных волокон;

- система коммуникации;

- постоянный поток раздражителей;

- посылать команды;

- контролировать зрение, слух, движения и эмоции;

- двигательный отдел коры головного мозга;

- обеспечивать правильную (соответствующую, должную) работу;

- снабжать кислородом и питательными веществами

Задание 4.Составьте 10 вопросов к тексту таким образом, чтобы ответы отражали основное содержание текста.

 







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