ТОП 10:

II. Устная речь. Применение интерактивной технологии контекстного обучении. Развитие ОК-7,ОК-10, ОК-11



Подготовьте сообщение (доклад, реферат) об истории развития теорий наследственности. Какие наблюдения (открытия) стали, по Вашему мнению, наиболее значимыми? Используйте таблицу «Historical review of the main events leading to present-day knowledge of reproduction and heredity» на стр. 35.

Занятие 5

Повторение изученного материала по теме 2.1.

Выполнение лексико-грамматической итоговой работы

Тема 2.2.

Биологическое разнообразие. Классификация.

Вирусы, бактерии

Занятие 6.

Этапы занятия:

I. Изучающее чтение:

Biodiversity. Principles of classification.

 

The grouping of organisms is known as classification and the study of biological classification is called taxonomy. A good universal system of classification aids communication between scientists and allows information about a particular organism to be found more readily.

During the eighteenth century, the Swedish botanist Linnaeus devised a scheme of classification which has become widely accepted. In this scheme organisms are grouped together according to their basic similarities. Homologous characters are those that have a fundamental similarity of origin, structure and position, regardless of their function in the adult. Analogous characters are those that have a similar function in the adult but which are not homologous, i.e. they do not have the same origin.

It is convenient to distinguish large groups of organisms from smaller subgroups and a series of rank names has been devised to identify the different levels within this hierarchy. The rank names used today are largely derived from those used by Linnaeus over 200 years ago. The largest groups are known as phyla and the organisms in each phylum have a body plan radically different from organisms in any other phylum. Each class is divided into orders of organisms which have additional features in common. Each order is divided into families and at this level differences are less obvious. Each family is divided into genera and each genus into species. Every organism is given a scientific name according to an internationally agreed system of nomenclature, first devised by Linnaeus. The name is always in Latin and is in two parts. The first name indicates the; the second name indicates the species. This system of naming organisms is known as binomial nomenclature.

Living organisms are divided into 5 kingdoms: Prokaryotae, Fungi, Protoctista, Plantae and Animalia. It is difficult to fit viruses into this scheme of classification because they are on the border of living and non-living.

II. Работа над грамматикой

Способы выражения будущего времени

Задание 1.Прочтите информацию на стр 133-135 учебника 1

Задание 2.Выполните упр 1, 2, 3, 5 на стр 134-136

 

III. Письменный перевод текста

Bacteria

Bacteria are the smallest cellular organisms and are the most abundant. Such cells may vary in the nature of the cell wall. Bacteria may be coated with a slime capsule which is thought to interfere with phagocytosis by the white blood cells. Bacteria are generally distinguished from each other by their shape. Spherical ones are known as cocci (singular - coccus), rod-shaped as bacilli (singular - bacillus) and spiral ones as spirilla (singular - spirillum).

Cocci may stick together in chains, e.g. streptococcus, or in clusters, e.g. staphylococcus. Bacteria show considerable diversity in their metabolism. The majority are heterotrophic. They are responsible, with the Fungi, for decaying and recycling organic material in the soil. Other bacteria are autotrophic.

Bacteria reproduce by binary fission, one cell being capable of giving rise to over 4 × 1021 cells in 24 hours. Under certain circumstances conjugation occurs and new combinations of genetic material result. Bacteria may also produce thick-walled spores which are highly resistant, often surviving drought and extremes of temperature.

Economic importance of bacteria

It is easy to think of all bacteria as pathogens but it is important to remember that many are beneficial to humans. These benefits include:

1. The breakdown of plant and animal remains and the recycling of nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus.

2. Symbiotic relationships with other organisms. For example supplying vitamin K and some of the vitamin B complex in humans.

3. Food production, e.g. some cheeses, yoghurts, vinegar.

4. Manufacturing processes, e.g. making soap powders, tanning leather and retting flax to make linen.

5. They are easily cultured and may be used for research, particularly in genetics. They are also used for making antibiotics, amino acids and enzymes.

Занятие 7

Этапы занятия:

I. Изучающее чтение:

Задание 1. Прочтите слова Vocabulary на стр 56 учебника 1.

Задание 2. Прочтите текст А “Existence of viruses” на стр 55 учебника 1.

Задание 3.Изучите содержание Vocabulary notes на стр 56-57

Задание 4. Выполните упр 1, 3, 4, на стр 58-59

II. Работа над грамматикой

Предлоги времени

Задание 1.Прочтите информацию на стр 137 учебника 1

Задание 2.Выполните упр 6-7 на стр 137-138

 







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