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Security sales workers, also known as registered representatives, account executives, or brokers, link investors to the securities industry. Through securities salespeople, investors buy and sell stocks, bonds, shares in mutual funds, and other financial products.

Job description.Security sales representatives transmit customer orders to buy and sell securities to the market in which the trade occurs. They also offer clients a range of financial counseling services, including advice on the purchase of mutual funds, annuities, life insurance, and other investments.

Career path.Before being allowed to work with clients, securities sales reps must has a series of examinations given by the state, the Security and exchange Commission, the exchange on which they will trade, and often the brokerage firm for which they will work. On-the-job training is provided to help workers pass their tests. Once fully qualified, beginning securities reps concentrate on building their client contacts. As they gain experience, the number and size of the accounts they handle usually increase. Some experienced reps also take on managerial duties and supervise other salespeople.


The growing complexity of tax law creates a need for more accountants who can interpret it.

Job description.Tax accountants prepare a company’s tax returns and advise managers on the tax consequences of their decisions. Many specialize in particular areas, such as health care or real estate.

Career path.Same tax accountants work in-house; others are employed by accounting firms. Career paths vary according to the setting.


Actuaries provide the statistical information needed by the insurance industry. They also work in areas like pension planning.

Job description.Actuaries gather the data needed to determine the risk of losses of various job types and perform the statistical analyses that make such data usable to the insurance industry. They calculate the probability that people will die during the term of their life insurance policy, for example, and calculate the premium necessary for the company to insure them profitably. Some actuaries work for consulting firms or pension funds rather than for insurance companies.

Career path.Advancement in the actuarial industry depends on experience and on successful passing a series of exams given by the actuarial societies, which are broken down by specialty. Depending on the society, there are either nine or ten exams to pass, which usually take five to ten years to complete.


Underwriters analyze the risks to which insurance applicants are expected. Faster-than-average employment growth is expected within the nearest future.

Job description.Underwriters use the information provided by applicants for insurance, in conjunction with statistics provided by actuaries and other specialists, to assess the risk to which the applicant is exposed. They use this information to set the terms of the policy, premiums, and so forth. The underwriter makes sure the company does not assume too much risk (causing it to lose money) but that it also remain competitive with other insurance firms by not turning down too many policies.

Career path.New underwriters generally are supervised closely and are required to take further courses in underwriting. They first work with routine applicants and move to more demanding applicants as their ability grows. This career ladder extends to supervisory positions or to top management.


II. The development of Sakhalin oil, gas, and other industrial projects involve the new strengths of small businesses. In this section we will investigate some specific jobs in small businesses and franchising, as well as the attorneys and legal assistants who help people set up business.


Small business owners usually are involved in the conception, financing, and day-to-day operation of their enterprises.

Job description.Many small business owners are people who saw a consumer need for a specific good or service and decided to go into business to fill that need. Judging the marketability of a product involves conducting market research into such areas as location and pricing. Small business owners also must find the ways to finance their enterprises, which often involves working with banks, setting up partnerships, and submitting business plans to the Small Business Administrations. The day-to-day operation of a business entails keeping records, managing employees, advertising, and dealing with customers.

Career path.Many owners gained their experience working in other small businesses. Others worked for large corporations and decided they would rather work for themselves.


Many small business owners employ consultants to help them put their business on a sound footing.

Job description.Small business consultants help firms to develop a financial plan to attract investors or secure business loans. They also set up a marketing plan and accounting system to meet a firm’s day-to-day needs. In addition, consultants work with owners to establish employee benefit packages or provide needed advice or management techniques.

Career path.Many people in this field are employed by large consulting firms, while others operate their own consulting firms. Most business consultants have degrees in business. Many gains experience and develop a network of business contracts working for an established firm before becoming consultants.


Franchise directors, also known as franchisors, run operations on a local, state, or national level. They work with franchisees, who sell their good or service to the public.

Job description.Franchisors provide the franchisee with a proven product, management and marketing know-how, training, ongoing assistance, standardized operating procedures, and a common identity.

Career path.Many franchise directors gain experience in the franchise field by first working for other franchisors. Others start successful small businesses that have the potential for growth. They believe the best way to achieve this growth is through franchising.


Franchisees buy into ongoing franchise operations, which become their own small business.

Job description.Franchisees are independent business people who finance and manage their own firms. Because buying into an established franchise chain is often costly, franchisees must be prepared to work with banks and financiers to raise funds. Once the business is in operation, they face the same responsibilities as other small business owners. They also must establish an effective working relationship with a franchisor.

Career path.Franchisees share similar background to those engaged in other small businesses. One major difference is that franchisee buys an established business whose products are often already known to the public, while the small business owner goes into business without this support.


Venture capitalists provide an essential financing service to small business owners.

Job description.Entrepreneurs in need of start-up money often turn to venture capitalists for funds. Venture capitalists see ideas that might turn into profitable businesses and decide to back the entrepreneur with needed financing in exchange for a percentage of a business. Venture capitalists work closely with banks and other financing sources. They also work closely with entrepreneurs, who present financial and business plans for review.

Career path.Venture capitalists must have a strong background in finance. Many have worked in the finance department of large corporations.


Travel agencies are rapidly growing type of small business. These firms make travel arrangements for both business and individual clients. The Bureau of Labor Statistics expects faster-than-average growth in this employment field in the years ahead.

Job description.Travel agents provide an important service to their clients, saving both time and money in planning and arranging their trips. Travel agents must be very detailed oriented and able to work on a number of projects at once. Travel agencies use computer reservation systems to obtain airline tickets and hotel rooms. Agents also take phone calls from clients to determine their needs and contact vendors to work on special arrangements.

Career path.Beginning travel agents work directly for airlines as reservation agents or in the travel agencies handling relatively uncomplicated bookings. Their responsibility increases with experience and ability. At the top of the ladder, travel agents set up their own agencies.


Businesses have many legal needs that primarily are filled by attorneys specializing in corporate law.

Job description.About four-fifths of all attorneys go into private practice to represent small business people and other firms that require their assistance. Their practices often cover a range of commercial law.

Career path.New law-school graduates generally do research for experienced attorneys and handle small cases. As they gain experience, they take on increased responsibility. A law-firm partnership is the ultimate career step for attorneys in private practice.

(Based on:current statistics of Sakhalin labor market)




I. Here are the words describing skills and qualifications. They will help you within the process of creating your resume or C.V.; especially when you search for the job position through computer sources.

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