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Inspectors and compliance officers are responsible for enforcing the rules and regulations that protect the public in such matters as health, safety, trade, and immigration.

Job description.Health inspectors work in the area of consumer safety, food, agricultural quarantine, and environment health. Regulatory officers work in the areas of immigration; customs; postal office, aviation safety; railroads; motor vehicles; occupational safety and health; mines, wage and hour compliance; and alcohol, tobacco, and firearms.

Career path.Because their functionsare so diverse, qualifications for these jobs differ greatly. A qualifying exam generally is required. Successful candidates receive on-the-job-training. A career ladder with regular promotions is available to all employees.


Most industrial development specialists are state government employees, but a few industrial development specialists also work for utility companies. The aim of industrial development is to create jobs and increase the tax base of a state.

Job description.These specialists work with businesses in an attempt to persuade them to locate them within a state. They work with state’s tax department to provide corporate tax incentives and with other government agencies to provide adequate facilities for offices and plants. Industrial development specialists, especially in high-tech companies, also seek the cooperation of educational institutions, which can offer business qualified employees.

Career path.Industrial development specialists often gain experienced working in state commerce department offices. They must have a strong background in finance as well as strong negotiating skills.


Import-export specialists plan and supervise the flow of products to and from other nations. They are important contributors to international business.

Job description.Import-export specialists deal with various aspects of international trade; domestic customers and shippers, such as international freight haulers; and shipping, receiving and billing activities. They are also responsible for compliance with the various legal requirements of international trade.

Career path.Entry-level employees assist import-export managers in performing their functions. Import-export managers are usually middle-management positions reporting to an international manager.


Companies often set up a separate international unit to handle overseas affairs. International executives manage this unit and oversea its operations.

Job description.The exact job requirements for international management positions vary from firm to firm. These people perform all the tasks expected of other managers at their particular level.

Career path.International managers can be drawn from any department in an organization. They must be knowledgeable in international marketing, finance, law, and production. There are various levels of international management, usually ranging from middle management to top management. Many companies believe all candidates for top management slots should have international experience.


Large firms with important interests in local, state, or federal laws hire lobbyists to represent their positions. Lobbyists are typically attorneys or have backgrounds in public relations.

Job description.Lobbyists must monitor legal development and legislative developments that affect their clients.Most of their work is done when the relevant legislative body is in session. They keep legislators up-to-date on their client’s interests and needs and provide them with the information to justify positions, such as studies and research reports. They have formal and informal contacts with legislators and work to build relationships with those most important to their client’s interests.

Career path.Many lobbyists start with a public relations firm, which handle the public affairs of a number of firms.Others are attorneys with law firms that represent clients with interests in pending legislation. They begin by doing research or handling smaller issuers. With experience, they take on larger and more important clients. Top lobbyists often start their own firms.


Arbitrators use their knowledge of the law, as well as their own common sense to mediat6e and settle disputed issues.

Job description.Many arbitrators specialize in labor relations, providing an alternative to costly lawsuits as a means of solving disputes for businesses, unions, and other parties. They analyze the information submitted to them by their clients (both parties in dispute) and either render a judgment on the proper settlement or counsel the opposing parties in an effort to guide them to a mutually agreeable settlement.

Career path.Arbitrators often have a background in law and psychology. They generally begin with simple cases and as they gain experience, graduate to more complicated ones.


Outplacement consultants help people who are loosing their job skills and find new work.

Job description.The services offered by outplacement consultants vary widely. Some provide temporary offices and secretarial services for clients; others offer job-hunting seminars, skill assessment, and help with resumes. Some offer professional development programs for employees who still have jobs but must take on the duties of those who have left.

Career path.A bachelor’s degree and business experience are important; many consultants also have a master’s degree in business administration. Outplacement consultants may work for large consulting firms or small companies, or they may establish their own offices. Career paths vary according to the size of the company.


Health services managers are the business management level of the health-care industry. They work in hospitals, health maintenance organizations, clinics, public health departments, nursing homes, and other health-oriented units. The chief administrator typically reports to the board of directors or trustees of the unit.

Job description.Health services managers direct the full range of activities of a health-care facility. The professional medical staff makes treatment decisions concerning patients, but most of the operational decisions for the facility are made by its administrator. Health services managers also are involved in budgeting, fund raising, planning, and interacting with the public served by the unit. It also should be noted that individuals in the fields of long-term care or nursing homes pass a licensing examination.

Career path.Trainee and assistant administrator positions are available. Promotion comes with experience and effective performance.


The retail sector is comprised of a wide variety of store types: department stores, discounters, specialty shops, and so on. Thousands of managers are needed to operate these stores.

Job description.Store managers must perform a variety of tasks. They supervise personnel, plan the work schedule, oversee merchandising, make pricing decisions, and design promotions. They often work long hours and have the unlimited responsibility in many crucial business decisions.

Career path.Retail managers often begin as assistance managers, handling one department in a larger store. They can move up into areas such as merchandising or into managing an entire store or number of stores.


Sales managers supervise all or part of a company’s sales force. Sales managers exist in every firm that requires a sales force and at all levels in the distribution channel: production, wholesale, and retail.

Job description.Sales managers recruit, hire, train, organize, supervise, and control sales organizations. They report to the top marketing executives or to general management. Their job is to produce the company’s revenue. Effective interaction with sales personnel and customers is an important aspect of the job.

Career path.Sales managers begin as sales representatives. Successful experience may lead to being designated a senior sales supervisor. Upon promotion to district or division manager, the individual breaks away from selling per se and becomes a manager. It is possible to be promoted to even higher levels of sales management with additional responsibilities. A vice president of sales, or national sales manager, heads the entire sales organization.


Systems analysts are computer experts who plan and develop the computer-based information systems required by an organization. They work in al types of business organizations, governments, and consulting and service firms.

Job description.System analysts determine what information is needed to solve a problem and how best to obtain it. Once management approves the recommendations, the systems analyst instructs the organization’s computer programmers in how to implement the decisions.

Career path.Trainee positions are available in this career. Trainees work under the direction of senior personnel. Additional responsibilities come with experience. Management slots in this field may come later.


The growth of computer networks and the development of the information superhighway makes it important to for firms to hire people who understand how to tailor these technologies to the company’s needs.

Job description.A telecommunications manager is responsible for selecting and managing the various technologies that serve a firm’s information needs: data, images, voice and video signals.

Career path.A bachelor’s degree in telecommunications or business is necessary, along with technical knowledge. The growing importance of telecommunications can make successful managers candidates for executive position.


Computer programmers carry out the instructions of systems analysts. Programmers are required in computer installations in both the private and public sectors.

Job description.Working with the system analyst’s overall plan, computer programmers write the programs that provide the required information to run a program. Once it is tested and verified, the programmer turns the program over to computer operating personnel.

Career path.Entry-level programmers are assigned basic tasks, while experienced personnel work on more complex assignments. Advancement to supervisory positions is possible.


Marketing research is one of the fastest growing fields in business. Marketing research analysts study what consumers will and will not buy.

Job description.Marketing research analysts use a variety of techniques, such as surveys, personal interviews, and test markets, to assess consumer perception and interests. They try to learn, for example, what consumers think of a company’s product and how it is used in the home. These conclusions then are reported to marketing executives, who use them in their decision making. Marketing researches work in all kinds of business, government, non-profit organizations, advertising agencies, and marketing research firms.

Career path.Entry-level jobs in marketing research usually involve clerical duties or data-collection tasks. Once the individual is established as a marketing research analyst, he or she is assigned specific research projects. Advancement to supervisory position is possible. Ultimately, one may become director or marketing research or achieve an even higher management position.

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