III. Find synonyms to the following words and word combinations and translate them into Russian. 

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III. Find synonyms to the following words and word combinations and translate them into Russian.

1. inside address

2. letterhead

3. opening salutation

4. subject line

5. closing salutation

6. cc-copies circulated

7. enclosure

a. salutation

b. compliment close

c. attachment(s)

d. receiver’s address

e. letter heading

f. subject heading

g. carbon copies


IV. Read, translate and discuss the following.


P.COOK&CO. LTD. 123 King’s Crescent, Brighton, BR3 6JF Tel: 0222 123 456, Fax: 022 123 655 www.CookCatering.com  
Your ref: RT/rt Our ref: JJ/iu/90/34   27th May, 2011   Luxury Foods Ltd. 100 South Road London SE1 3PL   Attn: Mr J.Green     Dear Mr Green   Contract # 123/42-PK   We thank you for your letter of 11th May, and would like to inform you that we can deliver…. …   We look forward to hearing from you in the near future.     Yours sincerely,   Jenifer Jason Jenifer Jason   Managing Director   cc P.Cook, T. Hudson   Enc.






Addressee’s address

Zip Code

Attention line

Opening salutation

Subject line



Body of the letter



Closing salutation


Sender’s name

Sender’s designation or department

Copies circulated



Sender’s address


125 Kalinin St. Bryansk Russia   Mr J.Green Luxury Foods Ltd. 100 South Road London SE1 3PL GREAT BRITAIN    



Inside address




Mr J.Green Luxury Foods Ltd. 100 South Road London SE1 3PL GREAT BRITAIN  



Inside address


125 Kalinin St. Bryansk Russia 2, 121309, Moscow, ul. Alyabieva, 67/3-12 INTERPOST  


Sender’s address

V. Read and translate the text.



Business letters are usually typed on notepaper bearing a specially designed heading which provides the reader of the letter with essential information about the organization sending it.

The letterhead or heading usually includes the name, address, telephone and facsimile number, telex code, e-mail address, logotype and some other information about the company.




References are usually printed below the letterhead or on the same line as the date, but on the left. They are quoted to indicate what the letter refers to (‹‹your ref.››) and the correspondence to refer to when replying (‹‹our ref.››).

References consist of the initials of the person who sings the letter and those of the typist. Sometimes other letters or figures are added, according to whatever may suit the filing system of the firm in question.



Date is written under the references or on the same line but on the right. You should be very careful writing the date. In Britain, they write the day first, but in the United States they write the month first. So




is the tenth of February in Britain and the second of October in the United States. That is why to avoid any misunderstandings the date should be written like this:

February, 2012 or

February, 2012 or

February 10, 2012 or

February , 2012 or

10 Feb., 2012 etc.


Do not forget to use capital letter for the month. Writing th, rd, nd or st after the day is considered to be old-fashioned but still is widely used. Abbreviations of the names of months are not very frequently used in Britain. If they are used, however, they are as follows: Jan., Feb., Apr., Jun., Jul., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov. and Dec. Some firms still insist on a comma before the year, but others consider this unnecessary.




The name and the address of the firm written to should be typed on the left against the margin. You do not have to indicate the name of the person you are writing to in the inside address.

Messrs., an abbreviation for Messieurs, the French word for Gentlemen is used mostly when a partnership (usually the name of firm consists of family names) is being addressed.

For example: Messrs. Wilson and Spencer

Hill Street

London W1M 5RN


The address should be written in the following way:


1.The addressee’s name (not necessary) Mr. A.J. Fisher
2. The name of the firm Great Furniture Ltd.
3. The building number, the name of the street 18 Hill Street
4. The name of the town or city*, post code London W1M 5RN
5. Country Great Britain


Note: If you are writing a letter to a non-English speaking country care should be taken to keep the address of the addressee absolutely identical to that given to you by your partner.


When you address your letter to an individual the attention line can be typed after the address, but it is rarely used.

* In case of large towns and cities in the United Kingdom the name of the country is not required. When the firm addressed is situated in a smaller town, the country name is necessary. If you are writing a letter to the United States the state name after the name of the town or city is essential.


Below the inside address double space is left and opening salutation is typed against the left-hand margin. There are several types of opening salutation:

Dear Sirs -to a company
Dear Sir -to a man if you do not know his name
Dear Madam -to a woman if you do not know her name
Dear Sir or Madam -to a person if you know neither the name, nor sex
Dear Mr. Green -to a man
Dear Mrs. Green -to a married woman
Dear Miss Green -to an unmarried woman
Dear Ms. Green -to a married or unmarried woman
Dear Peter -to a friend or someone you know well
Gentlemen: -the most common salutation in the United States


Note: It is wrong to open a letter with «Dear Mr Peter Green» or «Dear Mr Peter»


Subject line or subject heading appears below the opening salutation and says what the letter is about. It is helpful but not necessary.



A question frequently asked is: «How long should a good letter be?» The answer is: «As long as it is necessary to say what has to be said». The manner of interpreting this varies with the writer, and also with the nationality of the writer and, of course, it depends on the subject of the letter. It is a question of how much information you put in the letter. Your letter should be neither too long nor too short. The right length includes the right amount of information. Still it is better to include too much information than too little.

As well as containing the right amount of information, your letter should also make all the necessary points in a logical sequence, with each idea or piece of information linking up with the previous one in a pattern than can be followed.

The way to get the right amount of information in your letter, and to get it in right order, is by planning your letter in advance. This four point plan provides a useful but simple framework for structuring all business communications:



1. Introduction (Background and Basics) Why are you writing? Refer to a previous letter, contact or document.
2. Details (Facts and Figures) Give instructions Ask for information Provide all relevant details Separate into paragraphs for separate themes Ensure a logical flow
3. Response? Action? What action is necessary by the recipient? What action will you take? A conclusion
4. Close A simple, relevant closing sentence is all that is often necessary  


The first sentence or paragraph of a letter is an important one since it sets the tone of the letter and gives your reader his first impression of you and your company. Generally speaking, in the first paragraph you will thank your correspondent for his letter (if replying), introduce yourself and your company if necessary, state the subject of the letter, and set out the purpose of the letter.

Here are some ways to begin a letter:

We are writing to enquire about… Настоящим просим сообщить о… Нас интересует информация о…
We are writing in connection with… Мы обращаемся к Вам в связи с…
We are interested in… and we would like to know… Мы заинтересованы в… и хотели бы узнать…
Thanks you for your letter of(date), Благодарим Вас за Ваше письмо от… We have received your letter of(date), Мы получили Ваше письмо от…   asking if… enquiring about… в котором была выражена просьба… enclosing… содержащее… concerning… касающееся…
In reply to your letter dated(date) we… В ответ на ваше письмо от…, мы…
We acknowledge receipt of your letter dated(date)… Подтверждаем получение Вашего письма от…

Middle paragraphs are the main part of your letter and will concern the points that need to be made, answers you wish to give, or questions you want to ask. It is in the middle paragraphs of the letter that planning is most important, to make sure that your points are made clearly, fully and in a logical sequence.

When closing the letter, your should thank the person for writing, if your letter is a reply and if you have not done so at the beginning. Encourage further enquiries or correspondence and mention that you look forward to hearing from your correspondent soon.


Here are some ways to end a letter:


We look forward to hearing from you soon. Мы рассчитываем получить от Вас ответ в ближайшее время.
We look forward to receiving your reply/order/products/etc. С нетерпением ждем (рассчитываем на получение) от Вас ответа/заказа/товаров и т.д.
Pleasу acknowledge receipt. Пожалуйста, подтвердите получение.
Your soonest reply will be appreciated. Мы будем благодарны за скорейший ответ. Мы хотели получить Ваш ответ как можно скорее.
We hope that this information will help you. Надеемся, что эта информация Вам поможет.
Please do not hesitate/feel free to contact us if you need any further information. Пожалуйста, без колебаний обращайтесь к нам для получения дополнительной информации.
We hope to heat from you soon. Надеемся на получение Вашего скорого ответа. В ожидании Вашего скорого ответа.


Commercial correspondence often suffers from an old-fashioned, pompous style of English, which complicates the message and gives the reader the feeling that he is reading a language he does not understand. Your style should not, however, be so simple that it becomes discourteous. It is important to try to get the right “tone” in your letter. This means that you should aim for a neutral tone, avoiding pompous language on the one hand and informal or colloquial language on the other hand.

Abbreviations can be useful because they are quick to write and easy to read. Both parties need to know what the abbreviations stand for. If you are not absolutely sure that an abbreviation will be easily recognized, do not use it. And you should remember that contractions of auxiliary verbs are not allowed.





Closing salutation or complimentary close depends on opening salutation you used.

Dear Sirs Dear Sir Dear Madam Dear Sir or Madam   -Yours faithfully/Faithfully yours
Dear Mr Green Dear Mrs Green Dear Miss Green Dear Ms Green   -Yours sincerely/Sincerely yours
Dear Peter -Best wishesOR Yours sincerely/Sincerely yours
Gentlemen: -Truly yoursOR Yours faithfully/Faithfully yours


Signature is put under the complimentary close. The name of the person signing the letter is typed below the space left for the signature and it is followed on the next line by his or her position in the company or by the name of the department he or she represents.

Sometimesp. p. or «for» signatures are used. P.P. or «per pro» (lat. per procurationem) means «in the place of/for and on behalf of», «p.p.» or «for» should be put immediately before the typed name of the employee responsible for the letter.



If there are any enclosures with the letter they should be mentioned in the body of the letter and abbreviation «Enc.» («Encs.», «Encl.», «Encls.») should be typed against the left-hand margin at the bottom of the letter.


This layout has become firmly established as the most popular way of setting our letters, fax messages, memos, reports – in fact all business communications. The main feature of fully blocked style is that all lines begin at the left-hand


Open punctuation is usually used with the fully-blocked layout. This means that no punctuation marks are necessary in the reference, date, inside address, opening and closing salutations. Of course essential punctuation must still be used in the text of the massage itself. However, remember to use commas minimally today; they should only be used when their omission would make the sense of the message unclear.

Consistency is important in layout and spacing of all documents. It is usual to leave just one clear line space between each section.

Most people agree that this layout is very attractive, easy to produce as well as businesslike.

Although fully blocked layout is now used by many organizations, some still prefer to adopt their own in-house style for document layout. Whichever layout you use for your business documents, the most important rule is consistency, i.e. ensuring that all documents are displayed in the same format.



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