Местоимения little, few, much, many



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Местоимения little, few, much, many



 

Местоимения little и few могут выступать в качестве как местоимений-прилагательных, так и местоимений-существительных.

Little и few в качестве местоимений-прилагательных имеют значение "мало". Little, как и much, употребляется перед неисчисляемыми существительными, а few, подобно many, — перед исчисляемыми:

 

I have very little time.

There is very little ink in the inkpot.

Не has few friends.

There were very few people there.

 

В утвердительных предложениях little и few часто заменяются not much и not many, если только они не определяются одним из следующих слов: very, rather, too, so, as, how.

 

I haven’t got much time.

(вместо: I’ve got little time)

There aren’t many French books in our library.

(вместо: There are few French books in our library.)

 

N. B.

Little употребляется также в качестве прилагательного со значением "маленький, небольшой" и наречия со значением "мало":

I want the little box, not the big one. (прилагательное)

You rest too little. (наречие)

Little в качестве местоимения-существительного употребляется со значением "мало, немногое", а местоимение few — со значением "немногие":

Little has been said about it.

Many people were invited but few саmе.

 

Little и few могут употребляться с неопределенным артиклем: a little - немного и a few - немного, несколько:

 

Please give me a little water.

I have a few books on this subject.

 

A little - немного и а few - немного, несколько передают значение некоторое, хотя и небольшое количество, в то время как little и few - мало (недостаточно, почти нет):

 

I’ve got little time.

I’ve got а little time.

Не has few friends.

Не has a few friends.

У меня мало (недостаточно) времени.

У меня есть немного времени.

У него мало (почти нет) друзей.

У него есть несколько друзей.

 

N. B.

Неопределенный артикль перед little и few относится не к существительному, определяемому этими местоимениями, а к самим местоимениям, с которыми он составляет смысловое целое: a little - немного, a few - немного, несколько.

 

Little и few могут употребляться с определенным артиклем — the little со значением "то небольшое количество", а the few — со значением "те несколько, те немногие":

 

Nearly the whole cargo of wheat has been unloaded today. The little that remains will be unloaded tomorrow morning.

Не has read the few English books he has.

Почти весь груз пшеницы был разгружен сегодня. То небольшое количество, которое остается, будет выгружено завтра утром.

Он прочел те несколько английских книг, которые у него имеются.

Упражнение 1.Переведите на английский язык следующие пары слов.

Много тетрадей, много молока, много воды, много дней, много газет, много мела, много снега, много лет, много картин, много музыки, много мальчиков, много девочек, много чая, много лимонов, много мяса, много комнат, много учителей, много работы, много воздуха, много птиц, много машин.

Упражнение 2. Вставьте much или many.

1. I don't eat ... mangoes. 2. Не does not eat ... fish. 3. She ate so ... dessert that she is in bed today with a stomachache. 4. That man drank so ... wine, and he smoked so ... cigarettes that he has a terrible headache today. 5. Mary must not eat too ... food because she has a weight problem. 6. My mother says I eat too ... French fries and drink too ... beer. She wants me to be healthy. 7. There is not too ... space in my flat. 8. There are not ... pictures in this room. 9. There are so ... teachers at our school, but not... of them are men. 10. Not... of these books are new. 11. Thanks awfully for the books you sent me yesterday. — Don't mention it, it wasn't ... bother. 12. ... of her advice was not useful at all. 13. He had got so ...pairs of socks. 14. Please don't put ... pepper on the meat. 15. There were too ... plates on the table. 16.1 never eat... bread with soup. 17. Why did you eat so ... ice cream? 18. She wrote us not very ... letters from the country. 19. ... of these students don't like to look up words in the dictionary. 20. Do you drink ... coffee? —- Yes, a lot. Do you watch TV ...? — No, not... . 21. Not ... of the answers were correct. 22. How ... money did you spend last Friday? 23. The students enjoyed the concert very ... .

Упражнение 3. Переведите на английский язык следующие пары слов.

Мало домов, мало чая, мало чашек, мало яблок, мало окон, мало бумаги, мало кофе, мало статей, мало радости, мало супу, мало деревьев, мало травы, мало детей, мало игрушек, мало света, мало парт, мало колбасы, мало сока, мало книг, мало цветов, мало соли, мало друзей, мало дворцов.

Упражнение 4. Вставьте little или few.

1. He has got ... friends. 2. I drink ... coffee. I don't like it. 3. We must hurry. We've got very ... time. 4. This university offers very ... scholar-ships. 5. The Smiths have ... money. They aren't rieh. 6. The theatre was almost empty. There were very ... people there. 7. There was ... lemo-nade in the bottle. There were ... peaches in the basket. 8. I have ... time, so I can't go with you. 9. He has ... English books. 10. There is ... juice in my glass. Have you got any juice? 11. There are ... bears in the zoo. 12. Tom Canty was the son of poor parents and had very ... clothes. 13. There is too ... soup in my soup plate. Give me some more, please. 14. The children returned from the wood very sad because they had found very ... mushrooms. 15. There was too ... light in the room, and I could not read. 16. There are very ... people who don't know that the Earth is round. 17. I made very ... progress on this assignment. 18. There is very ... hope of getting financial support for the research project. 19. Fortunately, very ... passengers were injured in a traffic accident.

Упражнение 5. Вставьте much, many, little или few.

1. Robert wrote so ... letters that he's never going to write a letter again. 2. She ate so ... ice cream that she's going to have a sore throat. 3. His father didn't earn ... money, but he enjoyed his Job. He loved teaching English very ... . 4. There are ... Cookies in the box. I should have bought them last Monday. 5. Does your sister read ... ? — Yes, she does. And your brother? — Oh, he doesn't. He has so ... books, but he reads very ... . 6. Do you have ... work to do today? — No, not very ... . 7. Walk quicker, please. We have very ... time. 8.1 am sorry to say, I have read very ... books by Walter Scott. 9. My brother is a young teacher. Every day he spends too ... time preparing for his lessons.10. I know very ... about this writer. It is the first book I am reading. 11. The pupils of our class ask so ... questions at the lesson. They want to know everything. 12. You do not make ... mistakes in your spelling. Do you work hard on it? — Oh, yes, I do, I work very ... . 13. He is lazy. He's done very ... today. 14. Very ... people can äfford to own a plane. 15. There is ... traffic on the roads this morning. I'm so glad.

 

Упражнение 6.Вставьте some, any или no.

1. I bought ... books.

2. Are there ... books, on your shelf?

3. I have ... good news for you.

4. Did you buy ... milk?

5. Would you like ... tea?

6. Have you ... pencils?

7. Are there plates on the table? — There are ... •

8. There are ... high houses in his street.

9. I want ... bread, please.

10. Are there ... magazines on the shelf? - Yes, there are....

11. He.has ... information for us.

12. I’d like ... water, please.

13. She sent me ... postcards from England.

14. Did you meet ... friend yesterday?

15. Are there ... new pupils in your class? — Yes, there are ....

 

Упражнение 7. Вставьте some, any или no.

1. There are ... new schools in my district.

2. Only ... students came in time. ,

3. She bought... books, but she didn’t buy .... magazines.

4. Do you want ... milk?

б. There are ... people in the streets, because it’s cold.

6. Would you like ... juice?

7. I bought a pen but I didn’t buy ... pencils.

8. At this time we usually have ... food.

9. Did he spend ... days in Paris?

10. There is ... cheese on the plate.

11. Sorry, I haven’t got ... matches. >

12. He didn’t give me .... money.

13. Can you give me ... sugar?

14. I’ve got ... oranges, but I haven’t got... apples.

15. Are there .. people in this room?

16. Do you learn ... foreign languages?

17. We don’t think we’ve got ... time today.

 

Упражнение 8. Вставьте some, any или no.

1. There is ... water in my glass. I’d like to drink.

2. There are ... beautiful pictures on the walls. Look at them.

3. Can I have ... more milk?

4. Have you got... friends? — Yes, I have... .

5. Are there ... pencils is your pencil-box? Give me ..., please.

6. She went to the shop, but she didn’t buy ... eggs.

7. He has read ... 20 pages.

8. Did they send you ... letters from England?

9. Why have ... students gone home?

10. Have you found ... mushrooms' in the wood?

11. I’m thirsty. Give me ... tea, please.

12. Have you got ... time to go to the cinema?

13. Are there ... pupils in the class-room? — Yes, there are ....

14. Don’t forget to buy ... sugar.

15. Where did you leave ... of your books?

 

 

Тема 6.2. Город. Городской транспорт.

Упражнение 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст.



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