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Тема 4.1. Отношения между сверстниками.

Упражнение 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст.

What is a youth subculture?

A youth subculture is a specific group of people with distinct styles, behaviors, and interests. Youth subcultures offer participants an identity outside of that ascribed by social institutions such as family, work, home and school. Youth subcultures that show a systematic hostility to the dominant culture are sometimes described as countercultures.

Youth music genres are associated with many youth subcultures, such as punks, emos, ravers, Juggalos, metalheads and goths. The study of subcultures often consists of the study of the symbolism attached to clothing, music, other visible affections by members of the subculture, and also the ways in which these same symbols are interpreted by members of the dominant culture.

Socioeconomic class, gender, intelligence, conformity, morality, and ethnicity can be important in relation to youth subcultures. Youth subcultures can be defined as meaning systems, modes of expression or lifestyles developed by groups in subordinate structural positions in response to dominant systems — and which reflect their attempt to solve structural contradictions rising from the wider societal context.

The term scene can refer to an exclusive subculture or faction. Scenes are distinguished from the broad culture through either fashion; identification with specific (sometimes obscure or experimental) musical genres or political perspectives; and a strong in-group or tribal mentality. The term can be used to describe geographic subsets of a subculture, such as the Detroit drum and bass scene or the London goth scene.

Theories about youth subculture

Early studies in youth culture were mainly produced by functionalist sociologists, and focus on youth as a single form of culture. In explaining the development of the culture, they utilized the concept of anomie. Talcott Parsons argued that as we move from the family and corresponding values to another sphere with differing values, (e.g. the workplace) we would experience an "anomie situation."[citation needed] The generalizations involved in this theory ignore the existence of subcultures.

Marxist theories account for some diversity, because they focus on classes and class-fractions rather than youth as a whole. Stuart Hall and Tony Jefferson described youth subcultures as symbolic or ritualistic attempts to resist the power of bourgeois hegemony by consciously adopting behavior that appears threatening to the establishment. Conversely, Marxists of the Frankfurt School of social studies argue that youth culture is inherently consumerist and integral to the divide-and-rule strategy of capitalism.[citation needed] They argue that it creates generation gaps and pits groups of youths against each other (e.g. mods and rockers), especially as youth culture is the dominant culture in the west.

Interactionist theorist Stan Cohen argues youth subcultures are not coherent social groupings that arise spontaneously as a reaction to social forces, but that mass media labeling results in the creation of youth subcultures by imposing an ideological framework in which people can locate their behavior. Post-structuralist theories of subculture utilize many of the ideas from these other theories, including hegemony and the role of the media. In his book, Subculture: The Meaning of Style, Dick Hebdige describes subcultures as a reaction of subordinated groups that challenge the hegemony of the dominant culture. This theory accounts for factors such as gender, ethnicity and age. Youth can be seen as a subordinate group in relation to the dominant, adult society.

Historical theorist Steven Mintz claims that until about 1955, youth subculture as such did not exist. Children aspired to (or were pulled into) adulthood as fast as their physical development allowed. Marcel Danesi argues that since then, the media, advertisers and others have made youth the dominant culture of Western societies, to the point that many people retain what others consider to be immature attitudes far into adulthood. This is further supported by P. Lewis, who claims that youth culture did not originate until the 1950s, with the development of rock and roll. However, other historians have claimed that youth culture may have developed earlier, particularly in the inter-war period. There were examples of new youth subcultures emerging throughout that period, such as the flapper.

Subcultures may also be seen as extensions of crowds, subcultures that emerge within a specific school. Certain crowds (jocks, geeks, preppies, druggies, emos) are found in many, even most, high schools across the United States, though the particular terms used by the adolescents in them may vary (nerds instead of geeks, etc.). Most of these can be found in other western countries as well, with the exception of jocks. (The United States is unusual in having athletics specifically affiliated with schools, although similar Athletic affiliation groups exist in British Public Schools.)


Упражнение 2. Прочитайте и переведите текст.


A number of middle-class young people growing up in the late 1950s felt that they did not fit into accepted society. Not only did their futures seem planned out for them, with office jobs for the men and motherhood and housework for the women, but those futures also seemed boring and suffocating. In addition, there was an expanding war in Vietnam, and young men were being drafted into the army. By the late 1960s young people who wanted peace and personal freedom began to gather together to express their views. In 1967 people gathered at events like New York's Central Park Be-In and San Francisco's Summer of Love. In October 1967 over fifty thousand hippies gathered in Washington, D.C., to make a statement against the war by trying to levitate the Pentagon building, headquarters of the U.S. Department of Defense, with their collective mind power.


Hippies bonded around their antiwar feelings, but they also broke away from the restrictions of society by practicing "free love" or casual sex, and using drugs, especially marijuana and the hallucinatory drug LSD, both for fun and to open their minds to new ways of seeing the world. Hippies, or freaks, as they often called themselves, also connected around the music of the time, a mixture of protest folk and rock. The 1969 Woodstock Festival and Concert was an important event in hippie culture. Planned for an audience of 150,000, the rock festival in up-state New York attracted 500,000 fans and was a celebration of love, peace, and music.


Hippie style included long, flowing hair for both men and women, and often beards for men. Since hippies rejected the modern American mainstream, ethnic clothes were popular, as were old-fashioned styles. Both men and women commonly wore headbands, floppy hats, flowing scarves, and beads with blue jeans or bell-bottoms and tie-dyed T-shirts. Rebelling against corporate culture meant making clothes or buying cheaply at thrift shops and military surplus stores, so clothes were often ragged and patched or embroidered. Flowered clothing and embroidery were popular, and flowers became an important hippie symbol because hippies revered and felt connected to nature. "Flower power" was a term used to describe the hippie movement, and it was not uncommon for hippies at antiwar demonstrations to give flowers to police and soldiers, even placing flowers in the muzzles of their guns.


Though the hippies grew older and styles changed, people continued to feel nostalgic about hippie style and values. The 1980s and 1990s saw occasional revivals of hippie fashions and music, if not hippie values.


Упражнение 3.Сделайте аннотацию и подготовьте пересказ текста из упражнения 1.

Упражнение 4. Напишите эссе (15 предложений) по теме: «Music in my life», используя слова из лексического минимума.

Упражнение 5. Подготовьте проект-презентацию по теме: «Субкультура». Опишите историю зарождения одной из субкультур, основные черты идеологии, представителей и основные отличительные черты в одежде.

Упражнение 6.Переведите предложения с русского на английский.

1. Позвони ей сейчас. Мы думаем, она еще не спит. 2. Она сейчас много учит. Она сдает экзамены завтра. 3. Они не видят, что мы на них смотрим. Они читают газеты с большим интересом. 4. Где Ника и Джон? — У них урок французского языка. У них всегда французский язык по вторникам. 5. Давайте покатаемся на велосипедах. Дождя нет. 6. Мои братья работают инженерами на фирме. Они говорят, им очень нравится их работа. 7. Ваш сын ходит в садик? — Да, она в старшей группе. — Вы помогаете ей? — Постоянно. 8. Моя мама хорошо знает математику. Она помогает студентам решить контрольные работы. 9. Послушай. Звонит телефон. 10. Мой сын хорошо успевает в университете. Он тратит слишком мало времени на спорт и слишком много времени на уроки. 11. Где ты обычно проводишь отпуск? — В Белоруссии. Мои родители живут там. — Там есть река или озеро? — Там есть большое и красивое озеро. Я хорошо провожу там время. 12. Мой брат живет далеко от меня. Я не часто его вижу. 13. Куда ты торопишься? — В кино. Мой друг ждет меня около кинотеатра. 14. Кому принадлежит этот' дом? — Это дом моего дяди. 15. Сколько стоит этот смартфон? — 200 долларов. 16. С кем она разговаривает? — Со своим начальником. 17 Мой брат дипломат. Он часто ездит за границу. 18. Мужчина так пристально смотрит на вас. Вы его знаете? 19. Что ты слушаешь? — Я слушаю народные песни, я очень люблю их 20. У моего брата есть автомобиль, но я никогда им не пользуюсь. Я хочу купить свой автомобиль.


Лексический минимум

hostility – враждебность

counterculture – контркультура

intelligence – интеллект, разум

to rebell – бунтовать

to expand – расширяться

to make a statement – заявить

establishment – правящие круги

immature – незрелый

to challenge – бросать вызов

to resist the power – противостоять системе

hallucinatory drug – галлюциногенный наркотик

adulthood – зрелость, взрослость


Тема 5.1. Простое будущее время Future Simple. Особенности употребления, образования Future Simple Tense. Условные предложения 1 типа.

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