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Find a studying method that suits your learning style.
There are different types of learners out there, and not every type of learning, such as using flashcards or taking thorough notes, is best for every type of learner. It’s important to be aware of your learning style so that you can best tailor your studying to suit your needs. Many people are actually a combination of different learners, so multiple styles may appeal to you. Here are some of the most common learning styles and some tips for studying:
Visual learners. If you’re a visual learner, then you learn by using images, pictures, and spatial understanding. Charts, diagrams, and color-coded notes may work best for you. When you take notes, flow charts or even some relevant drawings may be more effective than large blocks of words.
Auditory learners. These types of learners learn best by listening. Try recording your lectures and repeating them, or really honing in on your teachers words and taking some notes later. You can also repeat your notes or the course materials to yourself or talk to experts or participate in group discussion to study more effectively.
Physical or kinesthetic learners. These learners learn best when they use their bodies, their hands, and their senses of touch. You can learn by tracing words to reinforce the subject matter, memorizing notes by walking, or by using any activities that make you move around or touch things while learning.
You may be surprised to find that breaks may be the key to your success. No one can study for eight hours straight, not even that person is super driven or has an IV of coffee steadily pumping in his veins. In fact, breaks are crucial for successful studying because they’ll allow your mind to rest so that you can return to your studies feeling motivated and energized. Plan to take a break every 60 or 90 minutes, and do something that will allow you to rest your eyes, have some nourishment, or get some fresh air.
Successful students know when they need to rest. They can sense when they’re getting tired or when studying is no longer productive. Don’t think it’s lazy for you to take a break and remember that it’s really the best you can do for your studies.
If you want to study as successfully as possible, then you need to be able to avoid distractions when you get ready to study. This can mean avoiding studying with an unproductive friend, turning off your phone, or making sure you only use the Internet to help you study, not to check up on your celebrity gossip. Though it can be impossible to avoid distractions entirely, you can make an effort to minimize them before you even sit down to study, which will help you focus and not get off-track.
You can even disable your Internet if you don’t need it to study to keep yourself from being distracted. If you really don’t need your phone, you can turn it off, too.
If something is worrying you, then devote time to figuring it out and then get back to your studies if you can. If you feel bothered all day, then you won’t be able to get your work done.
Pick the best study environment.
Your study environment can be crucial to your success as a student. However, everyone is different. Some people like to study in their rooms, with absolute silence. Others like to study on a blanket outdoors, blasting their favorite music. Some people like to study in the library or in a coffee shop, where they are surrounded by other people doing the same. Try a variety of different studying environments to see what works best for you.
If working in a loud coffee shop hasn’t been going well lately, then try studying in the quiet of your room or even at a park where you can feel alone.
Use your resources.
Another way to get the most out of your study sessions is to make sure you use the resources that are available to you. Talk to your teachers, your librarians, and your knowledgeable friends to get help on any materials you don’t understand. Use your library and your online resources to supplement your studies; check out the extra problems in the back of your textbook to get a deeper understanding of the material. Do what you need to do to take advantage of all of your resources to succeed.
Successful students are also creative. When they can’t get all the answers they need from a textbook, they look for other people, places, or online sites that can help them.
Get a study buddy or study group.
Some people do even better in school when they have a study buddy or a study group. Working with other people can help you feel motivated and like you’re not so alone in your studying efforts. You can also learn from other people, and can even learn by teaching others what you know. Though working with a partner or a group doesn’t work for everyone, you should give it a try to make the most of your studies.
Not everyone is a social learner. You can test the water by studying with one friend and then inviting more students to join in.
Make sure your study group is directed and organized, so you don’t end up getting off-topic too much. If you feel the group getting off-topic, don’t be afraid to kindly say something.
Remember to have fun.
Though it may sound like fun is beside the point when it comes to being a successful student, it can actually be the key to your achievements. Just as taking breaks during a study session can help you focus more on your studies, taking breaks from studying completely to do yoga, hang out with your friends, watch a movie by yourself, or just to relax can help you regain the energy you’ll need to really succeed in school.
Having fun doesn’t keep you from being a successful student. In fact, making time for fun allows you to study better when the time comes.
Making time for your friendships will also let you relax a bit more about getting an imperfect grade. If your studies are your only interest, then you’ll be putting too much pressure on yourself.
Тема 1.3. Система образования Российской Федерации.
Упражнение 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст.
Education System in Russia
Russia has a long-standing tradition in high-quality education for all citizens. It probably has also one of the best mass-eduction systems in the world producing a literacy rate (98%) exceeding most Western European countries. Education is split into a compulsory Basic Education, and ongoing Higher Education.
Compulsory Basic Education
Basic general education lasts for nine years. Graduates of this level may continue their education at senior high school to receive secondary general education. They may also enter an initial vocational school or non-university level higher education institutions. Initial vocational schools include PTU(Professional’no-technicheskoe uchilische) which offer one-and-a-half to two years’ purely professional education and a Professional’ny Litsei which offer joint professional and secondary general education for three to four years and skilled workers’ training at different levels. Non-university level higher education institutions also offer three- to four-year professional and secondary general education and two-year vocational training for holders of the School Leaving Certificate. Secondary general education on the basis of basic general education continues for two years and ends when students are 17-18. Graduates from a secondary general school may apply for entrance to a higher education institution. Secondary education leads to the award of the Attestat o Srednem (Polnom) Obshchem Obrasovanii (Certificate of Secondary Complete General Education).
Higher education is provided by public and non-public (non-State) accredited higher education institutions. There are two levels of higher education:
· Basic higher education (4 years) leading to the Bakalavr’s degree, the first university level degree. This is equivalent to the B.Sc. degree in the US or Western Europe
· Postgraduate higher education (5-6 years or more). After two years, students are entitled to receive a Magistr’s degree. This is equivalent to a Master’s Degree (M.Sc, M.A.) in the US or Western Europe. After a Master’s degree, students can continue to study towards a doctoral degree: Kandidat Nauk degree (the first level, equivalent to Ph.D.) and Doktor Nauk degree (the second, highest level, equivalent to Professor).
The Bakalavr’s (Bachelor’s) degree programmes last for at least 4 years of full-time university-level study. The programmes are elaborated in accordance with the State Educational Standards which regulate almost 80% of their content. The other 20% are elaborated by the university itself. The programmes include professional and special courses in Science, the Humanities and Social-economic disciplines, professional training, completion of a research paper/project and passing State final exams. Having obtained the Bakalavr’s degree, students may apply to enter the Magistr’s programme or continue their studies in the framework of the Specialist’s Diploma programmes. The Bakalavr’s degree is awarded in all fields except Medicine after defending a Diploma project prepared under the guidance of a supervisor and passing the final exams. In Medicine, the first stage lasts for six years.
Holders of the Bakalavr’s (Bachelor) degree are admitted to enter the Specialist Diploma and Magistr’s (Master’s) degree programmes. Access to these programmes is competitive. The Magistr’s (Master’s) degree is awarded after successful completion of two years’ full-time study. Students must carry out a year of research including practice and prepare and defend a thesis which constitutes an original contribution and sit for final examinations.
Access to the Kandidat Nauk (Aspirantura) level again is very competitive. Candidates must hold a Specialist Diploma or a Magistr’s degree. Studies last for 3 years. The Aspirantura prepares for research and professorial activities. Students must learn teaching methods, ICTs, and pass qualifying (Kandidat Nauk) exams. They carry out independent research, prepare and defend a dissertation in public. They are then awarded the scientific degree of Kandidat Nauk. The Doctor Nauk programme is specific and its duration is not fixed. It follows the Kandidat Nauk and is awarded after preparation and public defence of a dissertation.
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