РАЗДЕЛ 7 НАУЧНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ ПРОГРЕСС



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

РАЗДЕЛ 7 НАУЧНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ ПРОГРЕСС



ИЗОБРЕТЕНИЯ, КОТОРЫЕ ПОТРЯСЛИ МИР И ИХ СОЗДАТЕЛИ.

Тема 7.1. Простое прошедшее время Past Simple. Понятие прошедшего времени в английском языке. Слова-указатели, особенности построения утвердительного, отрицательного и вопросительного предложений.

Past Simple - простое прошедшее время

Время Past Simple используется для обозначения действия, которое произошло в определенное время в прошлом и время совершения которого уже истекло. Для уточнения момента совершения действия в прошлом при использовании времени Past Simple обычно используются такие слова, как five days ago (пять дней назад), last year (в прошлом году), yesterday (вчера), in 1980 (в 1980 году) и т.п.

Образование Past Simple

 

Утвердительные предложения:

 

I played We played

You played You played

He / she / it played They played

Вопросительные предложения:

 

Did I play? Did we play?

Did you play? Did you play?

Did he / she / it play? Did they play?

Отрицательные предложения:

 

I did not play We did not play

You did not play You did not play

He / she / it did not play They did not play

Для того, чтобы поставить английский глагол во время Past Simple, нужно использовать его «вторую форму». Для большинства глаголов она образуется прибавлением окончания -ed:

examine – examined, enjoy – enjoyed, close – closed

Однако есть также достаточно большая группа неправильных английских глаголов, которые образуют форму прошедшего времени не по общим правилам, для них форму прошедшего времени нужно просто запомнить.

 

We saw your dog two blocks from here.

В вопросительном предложении перед подлежащим нужно использовать вспомогательный глагол do в прошедшем времени – did, а после подлежащего поставить основной, значимый глагол в начальной форме:

 

Did you wash your hands?

Did they sign the contract?

 

В отрицательных предложениях перед глаголом нужно поставить вспомогательный глагол did и отрицательную частицу not:

 

We did not find our car.

I did not understand this question.

Случаи употребления Past Simple:

 

· Указание на простое действие в прошлом:

I saw Jeremy in the bank.

· Регулярные, повторяющиеся действия в прошлом:

The old man often visited me.

I noticed this charming shop girl each time I went to buy something.

· Перечисление последовательности действий в прошлом:

I heard a strange sound, looked back, and saw a huge cat sitting on the table.

 

Cлова-маркеры для прошедшего простого времени следующие:

yesterday - вчера

the day before yesterday - позавчера

the other day – на днях

last friday – в прошлую пятницу

2 days ago – 2 дня назад\

 

Упражнение 1. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple.

1. What your neighbours (to do) yesterday? 2. Mr Smith (to fix) his car yesterday morning. 3. His wife (to water) her lovely flowers. 4. Their children (to clean) the yard and then they (to play) basketball. 5. In the evening their boys (to listen) toloud music and (to watch) TV. 6. Their little girl (to cry) a lit­tle and then (to smile). 7. Her brothers (to shout) at her. 8. Mrs Smith (to work) in the kitchen. 9. She (to bake) a delicious apple pie. 10. She (to cook) a nice dinner. 11. She (to wash) the dishes and (to look) very tired. 12. The children (to brush) their teeth, (to yawn) a little and (to go) to bed. 13. Their mother (to change) her clothes and (to brush) her hair. Then she (to talk) on the phone. 14. Her hus­band (to smoke) a cigarette and (to talk) to his wife. 15. They (to wait) for the bus. The bus (to arrive) at 9 o'clock. 16. They (to visit) their friends. 17. They (to dance) a lot there. 18. Mr and Mrs Smith (to rest) very well last night. They really (to have) awonderful time with their friends. 19. Mr Smith (to fix) his car yesterday morning? Mrs Smith (to water) her lovely flowers? Their children (to clean) the yard? They (to play) basketball? When their boys (to watch) TV? Who (to bake) a delicious lemon pie? Mrs Smith (to cook) a good dinner? The children (to go) to bed? Why Mr Smith and Mrs Smith (to have) a wonderful time last night? Where they (to be)?

 

Упражнение 2.Перепишите следующий текст в прошедшем времени.

On Monday we have five lessons. The first lesson is Russian. At this lesson we write a dictation and do some exercises. Nick goes to the blackboard. He answers well and gets a "five". Pete does not get a"five" because he does not know his lesson. After the second lesson I go to the canteen. I eat a sandwich and drink a cup of tea. I do not drink milk. After school I do not go home at once. I go to the library and change my books. Then I go home.

 

Упражнение 3. Перепишите следующий текст в прошедшем времени от лица женщины.

On Tuesday I get up at half past six. I go to the bathroom and wash my hands and face and clean my teeth. Then I dress, go to the kitchen and cook breakfast for my family. At half past seven my son gets up and has breakfast. I have breakfast with my son. My son eats a sandwich and drinks a cup of tea. Idon't drink tea. I drink coffee. After breakfast my son leaves home for school. I don't leave home with my son. On Tuesday I don't work in the morning. Iwork in the afternoon. Tn the evening I am at hörne. My husband and my son are at home, too. We rest in the evening. My son watches TV, my husband reads newspapers and I do some work about the house. At about eleven o'clock we go to bed.

 

Упражнение 4.Перепишите следующий текст в прошедшем времени.

Boris wakes up when it is already quite light. He looks at his watch. It is a quarter to seven. Quick! Boris jumps out of bed and runs to the bathroom. He has just time to take a cold shower and drink a glass of tea with delicious Sandwiches. He is in a hurry to catch the 8 am train.

At the railway Station he meets three other boys from his group. They all have small backpacks and fishing rods.

In less than an hour they get off the train at a small Station near a wood. They walk very quickly and soon find themselves on the shore of a large lake. The boys spend the whole day there fishing, boating and swimming.

They return home late at night, tired but happy.

 

Упражнение 5.Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Simple или Past Simple.

1. His sister (to study) English every day. 2. She (to study) English two hours ago. 3. Your brother (to go) to school last Friday? — Yes, he .... 4. I (to go) to bed at ten o'clock every day. 5.1 (to go) to bed at ten o'clock yesterday. 6. My brother (to wash) his face every morning. 7. Last night he (to wash) his face with soap and water. 8. I (not to have) history lessons every day. 9. We (not to rest) yesterday.

My brother (not to drink) coffee yesterday.

My mother always (to take) a bus to get to work, but yesterday she (not to take) a bus. Yes­terday she (to walk) to her office. 12. You (to talk) to the members of your family every day? — Yes, I ... . But yesterday I (not to talk) to them: I (to be) very busy yesterday. 13. You (to come) home at six o'clock yesterday? — No, I ... . Yesterday I (to come) home from school at half past eight. I (to be) very tired. I (to have) dinner with my family. After dinner I (to be) very thirsty. I (to drink) two cups of tea. Then I (to rest). 14. Mary (to like) writing stories. 15. Last week she (to write) a funny story about her pet. 16. You (to teil) your mother the truth about the money? 17. You (to wear) your polka-dot dress to work? — Yes, I .... I (to wear) it yesterday. 18. We (to like) to go to the beach. We (to enjoy) swimming in the ocean last weekend.

Упражнение 6. Составьте монолог на тему «How I spent my weekends» (с обязательным использованием глагола в прошедшем времени).

 

Тема 7.2. Технология и ее влияние на нашу жизнь. Плюсы и минусы.

 

Упражнение 1.Прочитайте и переведите текст.

PROS AND CONS OF TECHNOLOGY

There is no doubt that in today’s world, technology is an important part of our lives and has a huge impact on the way we communicate, live, and work. The debate continues, however, on whether the part technology plays in our lives is positive or negative in the varied aspects of work, life, and leisure. There are valid arguments on both sides.

 

THE MOST IMPORTANT PROS OF TECHNOLOGY

 

1. Global Innovations

It is a fact that businesses that embrace technology and new technological innovations are strong competitors in the world of business. Businesses that use social media to gain new business and the most cutting edge machines to produce goods are much more likely to thrive than those who do not take advantage of what technology has to offer. On the other hand, although social media may reach more people, it may fail to offer the personal touch that many small businesses used to have with face to face contact; this may result in a loss of strong client relationships and public perception. Using the most up to date machines may ensure faster assembly and production but will also decrease the need for manual labor, which means more people will be unemployed; it also means that smaller businesses will suffer if they can afford new technologies, which again means more businesses will fail and more unemployment will result.

 

2. Access

Having access to information any time it is needed is a major benefit of technology today. Most companies, no matter how large, have systems which allow their employees to access or enter necessary data quickly and efficiently, which saves time and money. Unfortunately, these same systems may also be vulnerable to attacks from within and outside the company; hackers and competitors can steal or corrupt data and cause enormous harm to a company’s finances, research, or reputation.

 

3. Education

Education is yet another area where technology is having a major impact. Students can find almost any academic material or answer to a research question just by using online resources or academic databases. Not only is it easy and simple to use, it is also inexpensive as many sites do not charge for information that used to be accessed only by purchasing a membership or journal. The downside to all this information available on the Internet is that much of it is not accurate. Wikipedia, for example, is infamous for allowing anyone to add information on a topic; one does not have to be an expert or undergo any fact-checking to make an entry. Many students do not know how to evaluate a site’s reliability and therefore, their research may be flawed.

 

4. Networking and Communication

Technology has also allowed social media to be used for educational purposes. Many educators use it to make sure students are more engaged and can increase their communicative skills; introverted students may feel more at ease using Twitter or Facebook to take part in discussion or express their ideas than speaking up in a classroom situation. Student wikis and forums also allow students with different learning styles and who need time to process ideas more chance to join the discussion in an online medium. It may also allow students to communicate more often and more effectively with their instructors. Twitter and Facebook have been especially effective in helping instructors explain material, answer questions, or share supplementary material with students.

THE MOST IMPORTANT CONS OF TECHNOLOGY

 

1. Distraction

Despite the obvious education benefits, using technology in education also has its disadvantages. For example, students are easily distracted by social media in the classroom; using Twitter or Facebook for non-educational purposes in the classroom can disrupt learning and focus on classroom content. Many educators are worried that students will not learn the social skills that face-to-face communication would teach because they are relying too heavily on social media. If they are not able to express themselves effectively in the real world, this may result in poor performance at social events and job interviews, for example. Perhaps one of the most obvious disadvantages of use of technology in schools is the rise of cyberbullying, which takes place in all educational institutions from grade school to college. Instances of such bullying has been steadily increasing as more and more students rely on social media and technologies such as cell phones and computers to communicate with their peers.

 

2. Data Collection and Exploitation

It is unusual to meet anyone who does not own a mobile phone, which have become easy to operate and inexpensive enough to be in anyone’s budget. Skype and Google Talk have made expensive long-distance calls a thing of the past; nowadays anyone can make a call or chat with anyone around the world for free or for merely pennies. Not only can people make voice calls, but video calls are also an everyday occurrence. However, owning a mobile phone means that criminals can easily invade our privacy, collecting data and using it for criminal activities. Companies also use cookies to collect data and bombard us with marketing ploys to attract our interest; many companies also sell data to other businesses so that they can contact unwilling potential customers.

 

There are obvious advantages and disadvantages of modern technology and the debate will no doubt continue for decades to come as technology continues to advance and change. It is certain that technology will continue to be part of our lives and to heavily influence the way we work, live, and interact; whether it be in positive or negative ways seems to be in the choices each person makes in how they choose to use technology in their individual life.

 

Упражнение 2.Составьте аннотацию, подготовьте пересказ текста упражнения 1.

 

Упражнение 3. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Simple или Past Simple.

1. Tom always (to eat) breakfast. 2. Yesterday he (not to eat) breakfast because he (to get) up late.

3. We (to like) to cook but we (not to like) to wash the dishes. 4. He never (to shout) at his students. He (to be) a wonderful teacher, I remember. 5. My friend (to know) Spanish very well. 6. Who (to ring) you up an hour ago? 7. He (to live) on the third floor. 8. It (to take) you long to find his house yester­day? 9. When your lessons (to be) over on Monday? 10. I (to have) dinner with my family yesterday. 11. Her friends (to be) ready at five o'clock. 12. One of her brothers (to make) a tour of Europe last sum­mer. 13. Queen Elizabeth II (to be) born in 1926. She (to become) Queen of England in 1952. 14. You always (to get) up at seven o'clock? — No, sometimes I (to get) up at half past seven. 15. Antonio Stradi-vari (to make) wonderful violins. 16. Who (to paint) the world-known picture "Mona Lisa"? 17. She (to know) all the works of Chopin. She (to enjoy) listen-ing to his waltz last night. 18. Steven's friends (to come) to his birthday party last night and (to give) him wonderful presents. His parents (to cook) a special dinner for him. His girlfriend (to promise) to come, but she (not to be) there. He (to try) to phone, but he couldn't get through. He (to be) really upset. Only she (not to wish) him а Happy Birthday.

 

 

Упражнение 4. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя гла­гол to be в Present Simple или Past Simple.

1. Я ученик. 2. Он летчик. 3. Она доктор. 4. Мы школьники. 5. Вы рабочие. 6. Ты рабочий. 7. Они ученики. 8. Я дома. 9. Он в школе. 10. Она в кино? 11. Мы в парке. 12. Они в театре? 13. Она молодая? 14. Он старый. 15. Она не старая. 16. Они сильные. 17. Она больна. 18. Вы больны? 19. Он болен? 20. Я не болен. 21. Я был болен вчера. 22. Она не была больна. 23. Мы были в кино. 24. Погода была прекрасная. Было тепло и солнечно. Мои дети были в школе, а мой муж был на работе. Я была в саду. Там было много красивых цветов. Это было весной. Я была счастлива.

 

Упражнение 5. Вставьте глагол to be в Present Simple, Past Simple или Future Simple.

1. The students ... in the Russian Museum. 2. Last month they ... in the Hermitage. There ... an interest­ing exhibition there. 3. In two weeks they ... in the Tretyakov Art Gallery. They ... lucky. 4. My father ... a teacher. 5. He ... a pupil twenty years ago. 6. I ... a doctor when I grow up. 7. My sister ... not... at home tomorrow. 8. She ... at school tomorrow. 9. ...you ... at home tomorrow? 10. ... your father at work yesterday? 11. My sister ... ill last week. 12. She ... not ill now. 13. Yesterday we ... at the theatre. 14. Where ... your mother now? — She ... in the kitchen. 15. Where ... you yesterday? — I... at the cinema. 16. When I come home tomorrow, all my family ... at home. 17. ... your little sister in bed now? — Yes, she ... . 18. ... you ... at school tomorrow? — Yes, I ... . 19. When my granny ... young, she ... an actress. 20. My friend ... in Moscow now. 21. He ... in St Petersburg tomorrow. 22. Where ... your books now? — They ... in my bag. 23. Where ... your friends? — They ... at the Stadium. 24. What colour ... your notebook? — It ... black. 25. The library ... on the right.

 

Упражнение 6. Вставьте глагол to be в Present Simple, Past Simple или Future Simple.

Ronald Wood ... a managing director of the First Bank of Kingsville on Main Street. He ... always on a business trip. Yesterday he ... in Geneva. Tomorrow he ... in London. Last week he ... in Chicago. Next week he ... in New Orleans. At the moment he ... in Amsterdam. In two hours he ... in the Hague. Three days ago he ... in Paris. At the end of his trip he ... usually very tired but happy. He ... with his family now. His sons ... so much excited. They have got new toys from their father. Everybody in the family ... very glad to see him at home again.

 

 

Упражнение 7. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя гла­гол to bе в Present Simple, Past Simple или Future Simple.

1. Вчера они были в библиотеке. 2. Сейчас они в школе. 3. Завтра они будут в театре. 4. В дан­ный момент его здесь нет. 5. В воскресенье он будет на концерте. 6. В прошлую субботу он был на стадионе. 7. Мой брат сейчас в школе. 8. Мой брат был вчера в кино. 9. Мой брат будет завтра дома. 10. Ты будешь дома завтра? 11. Она была вчера в парке? 12. Он сейчас во дворе? 13. Где папа? 14. Где вы были вчера? 15. Где он будет завтра? 16. Мои книги были на столе. Где они сейчас? 17. Моя мама вчера не была на работе. Она была дома. 18. Мой друг не в парке. Он в школе. 19. Завтра в три часа Коля и Миша будут во дво­ре. 20. Мы не были на юге прошлым летом. Мы были в Москве. 21. Завтра мой дедушка будет в деревне. 22. Когда твоя сестра будет дома? 23. Ты будешь летчиком? — Нет, я буду моряком. 24. Моя сестра была студенткой в прошлом году, а сейчас она врач. — Ты тоже будешь врачом? — Нет, я не буду врачом. Я буду инженером. 25. Они не были в кино. 26. Они не в школе. 27. Они дома. 28. Вы были в парке вчера? 29. Он был в школе вчера? 30. Он был рабочим. 31. Она была учительницей. 32. Он будет прекрасным журналистом.

 

Упражнение 8. Составьте 10 предложений со словами из лексического минимума.

 

Лексический минимум

strong competitors – сильные соперники

to collect data – собирать информацию

criminal activities – преступные действия

cutting edge – выигрышное качество; свойство, дающее преимущество

public perception – общественное восприятие; общественное понимание

to make an entry – сделать запись

cyberbullying – запугивание в интернете

marketing ploy – маркетинговая уловка

social media – социальные медиа

data exploitation – применение данных, использование данных

supplementary material – дополнительный материал

 



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