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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

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The Primitive Community

The history of mankind begins with the primitive community. The appearance of new tools and new methods of labour led to the replacement of the human herd by the clan. Several clans, that is communities, or related individuals formed a tribe. Both the tribe and the clan were governed by elders who were chosen for their life experience and knowledge. The human herd and the clan were two consecutive stages in the development of primitive society.

The related members of the clan jointly owned their hunting grounds and the lands which they tilled. They lived and worked together, and consumed in common the products of their labour. Since they lived together in groups, they could provide themselves with food and keep fires burning.

The primitive human herd possesses the simplest tools: a hand-axe, a digging stock and a wooden club. Thousands of years passed before stone tools were replaced by those made of metal (bronze, iron). When people invented the harpoon, they took up fishing. The invention of bows and arrows helped to start cattle-breeding, and axes made it possible to go over to farming.

In primitive society there was no private property, therefore there were no classes and no exploitation — that is, appropriation by the rich of the fruits of other men's labour. Since there were no classes, there was no state system, that is no armed forces, no prisons, no courts, no overseers, and no government bodies.

 

7. Найдите английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

 

первобытная община, первобытное общество, человеческое стадо, род, племя, образовать племя, старейшины, орудия труда (металлические, бронзовые, железные, каменные), дубинка, лук, топор, стрела, мотыга, управлять, заниматься (охотой, рыбной ловлей, сельским хозяйством, разведением скота), выбирать, владеть, обеспечивать, изобретать, заменять, еда, огонь, совместно, сообща.

 

8. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.

1. What does the history of mankind begin with?

2. What led to the replacement of the human herd by the clan?

3. Who governed the clan?

4. What tools had the people?

5. What was their main occupation?

6. What was the structure of primitive society?

Прослушайте текст, озаглавьте его и ответьте на вопрос: What holiday do the people of North Carolina celebrate during the third week in September and why?

 

Indians were the first people to live in our country. That is why they are called Native Americans. Because they were here before the white settlers, it is important to remember and thank the Indians. Indians gave modern Americans many gifts and taught the settlers many new ways of doing things. Each year in North Carolina we celebrate Indian Heritage Week during the third week in September.

 

Heritage — наследие; gift – дap

 

10. Прослушайте текст, озаглавьте его и ответьте на вопросы:

1. Did the Indians live in caves?

2. What materials did they use for their dwellings?

3. Could one find any pieces of furniture there?

 

Indians in North Carolina did not live in teepees. Most of the Indians in North Carolina lived in small buildings made of wood and reeds. The frame of the house was made from wooden poles that were tied together. The walls and roof were made from reed mats or sheets of tree bark. Long tables or benches were usually the only furniture in their structures.

 

teepee = wigwam — дом, помещение

reed = rush - тростник, камыш

pole — кол, жердь, столб

mat — настил

 

Расскажите о вашей будущей профессии.

THE PROFESSION OF A LAWYER

1. Прочитайте, запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:

the Law Faculty ['lL'fxkqltI] юридический факультет
a lawyer ['lOIq] юрист, правовед
highly-qualified ['haIlI'kwOlIfaId] высококвалифицированный
specialist ['speSqlIst] специалист
field [fJld] область, сфера
additional [q'dISqnl] дополнительный
justice ['GAstIs] правосудие, справедливость
to exercise ['Fksq"saIz] осуществлять, применять
on the principles of на принципах…
equality [I'kwOlqtI] равенство, равноправие
before the law and the court   [bI'fL Dq 'lL xnd Dq 'kLt] перед законом и судом
social ['squSql] общественный, социальный
property standing   ['prOpqtI'stxndIN] имущественное положение
official standing   [q'fISql' stxndIN] общественное положение
regardless [rI'gRdlqs] независимо; невзирая на…
to presume [prI'zjHm] допускать, считать доказанным
innocent ['Inqsqnt] невиновный, невинный
guarantee ["gxrqn'tJ] гарантия, обязательство
guilty ['gIltI] виновный
diversified [daI'vWsIfaId] разнообразный
graduate ['grxdjuIt] выпускник
investigator [In'vestIgeItq] следователь
defence councel   [dI'fens'kaunsql] адвокат, защитник
legal consultant   ['lJgql kqn'sAltqnt] юрисконсульт
the law-governed state   ['lL'gAvqnd steIt] правовое государство
to exist [Ig'zIst] существовать
duty ['djutI] долг, обязанность
crime [kraIm] преступление
hooliganism ['hHlIgqnIzm] хулиганство
stealing ['stJlIN] воровство, кража
murder ['mWdq] убийство
traffic violation   ['trxfIk"vQIq'leISn] нарушение правил дорожного движения
to do one’s best делать все возможное
to punish ['pAnIS] наказывать
to prevent [prI'vent] предотвращать
to fight (against) ['fQIt] бороться с чем-либо
society [sq'sQIqtI] общество
legal interests ['lJgql'Intqrqsts] законные интересы
to provide [prq'vaId] обеспечивать
condition [kqn'dISn] условие
creative [krI'eItIv] творческий
activity [xk'tIvItI] деятельность
to be engaged (in smth.)   [In'geIGd] заниматься (чем-либо)
to reflect [rI'flFkt] отражать
the Post-graduate courses аспирантура
Sociology ["squSI'OlqGI] социология
Roman Law ['rqumqn'lL] римское право
Labour Law ['leIbq'lL] трудовое право
Civil Law ['sIvql'lL] гражданское право
Family Law ['fxmIlI'lL] семейное право
Constitutional Law   ["kOnstI'tjHSqnl'lL] конституционное право
Administrative Law [qd'mInIstrqtIv'lL] административное право
the Theory of State and Law ['TiqrI "qv 'steIt xnd 'lL] теория государства и права

Прочитайте и переведите текст со словарем.

MY FUTURE PROFESSION

I’m a second-year student of the Bratsk State University. I study at the Law Faculty. In three years I’ll graduate from the University and become a professional lawyer. To be a highly-qualified specialist in his field one must know much. So at the University we are taught various general and special subjects: Philosophy, Sociology, Foreign Languages, Roman Law, Labour Law, Civil Law, Family Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law, the Theory of State and Law and many others. Besides I should study a lot of additional literature. After two years of studying general subjects specialization begins.

I should also say that our faculty provides all necessary conditions for developing the students’ creative activity. Many students of our department are engaged in scientific work. The themes of the students’ research reflect the wide range of their interests. The graduates of our faculty may continue their studies taking the post-graduate courses if they have a desire to become scientists.

As you know, in our country justice is exercised on the principles of equality of citizens before the law and the court, regardless of social position, property and official standing, nationality and race. All people before the court are presumed innocent, until the court, having observed all procedural guarantees, finds them guilty.

The profession of a lawyer is quite diversified. Lawyers have to solve many problems that still exist in our society. The graduates of our faculty can work as investigators, judges, defence councels, legal consultants. The duty of lawyers is not only to punish people for various crimes: hooliganism, stealing, murder, traffic violation etc. They must do their best to prevent crimes, to fight against evil in our society. The lawyers protect the rights and legal interests of citizens, institutions and organizations. I think that now the profession of a lawyer is one of the most important in the law-governed state.

 

3. Найдите в тексте русские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:

additional literature, the law-governed state, to fight against evil, scientific work, traffic violations, still exist, Civil Law, a highly-qualified specialist, stealing, to solve, legal interests, social position, to prevent crimes, society, property, all procedural guarantees, all necessary conditions, a professional lawyer, a desire to become a scientist.

 

4. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:

независимо от, обязанность юристов, специализация, занимаются научной работой, правосудие, адвокат, законные интересы граждан, римское право, профессиональный юрист, наказывать, виновный, невиновный, следователь, широкий круг, защищать права, преступление, юридический факультет, делать все возможное, теория государства и права.

 

5. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. What faculty do you study at?

2. What’s your future profession?

3. What subjects are you taught at the University?

4. When does specialization begin?

5. In what ways do the students develop their creative activity?

6. On what principles is justice exercised in our country?

7. What can the graduates of your faculty work as?

8. What is the duty of lawyers?

9. What does the term “the presumption of innocence” mean?

10. Why is your future profession considered to be one of the most important in the law-governed state?

6. Пользуясь словарем, определите значения следующих фразовых глаголов и используйте их по смыслу в тексте вместо слов, данных в скобках:

Make off – get away with – break into – hand over – give up – hold up – make for

Yesterday, the robbers 1….. (forced an entry into) the National Midland Bank in the High Street soon after closing time. They 2….. (threatened with guns) the stuff, and forced the manager to 3….. (give them) £50.000 in cash. The robbers ran out of the bank and 4….. (escaped) in a stolen car, and were last seen 5….. (going in the direction of) the London Road. Police have warned the public that these men are very dangerous, and are unlikely to 6….. (surrender) without a fight. Said Chief Inspector Ralph Smith: “We’re sure that we’ll catch them soon. They won’t 7….. (avoid punishment for) it”.

 

7. Переведите следующие однокоренные слова и определите, к какой части речи они относятся:

  • to accuse – accused – accuser – accusal – accusant – accusational – accusation;
  • to examine – examination – examinator – examining – examined – examinable;
  • to interrogate – interrogation – interrogator – interrogatory;
  • to investigate – investigator – investigation;
  • to prosecute – prosecutor – prosecution – prosecuting – prosecutable – prosecutive;
  • to suspect – suspect – suspected – suspicion – suspicious – suspiciously;
  • to witness – witness – witnessing.

 



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