Power Supply Electrical Systems and Networks



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Power Supply Electrical Systems and Networks



I am a second-year student of the Bratsk State University. My future speciality is power supply to industrial enterprises, cities and rural regions. I am also trained to work in the field of electrical systems and networks. I am sure that my speciality is of great importance because power engineering is a key industry. The problems it deals with concern the efficient generation and distribution of electrical power. It is one of the oldest areas of electrical engineering.

The power engineers have to do with many problems, for example, with the voltage at which power must be generated; then there are the problems of controlling, the phase, the frequency and the loads of power systems.

The power engineer must know high-voltage technique, electric motors, from microscopic ones to giants with high capacity, different types of household electrical appliances, transformers, insulators, switches and other pieces of equipment for power transmission lines.

The power engineers are also concerned with feeding sources, step-up and step-down electric substations, various auxiliary installations and erections as well as with feeding distribution electric grids.

It is necessary to say a few words about the Unified (or Integral) Power Grid. It covers the entire territory of our country. The work of many power stations is made optimal due to it. And the energy system as a whole is much more economical and reliable. Now as much as 90 % of all electricity generated in the country can be regulated from one control panel. One should add that the work on the further development of Integral Power Grid will be continued. It is planned to build DC power transmission lines of 2,200 – 2,400 kilowatts.

As for electrical engineering it is planned to expand the production of heat-resistant enamel wires, small high-capacity accumulating batteries and thin foil-covered dielectrics.

Taking into account the above mentioned problems the main task of future electric engineers will be to look for efficiency improvements of power sources as well as for new power distribution systems. It is time to give them another look.

After graduating from the University I would like to work at a power plant or at a power distribution center.

 

3. Прочитайте текст еще раз и найдите:

а) английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

ведущая промышленность; электротехника; эффективность производства; источники питания; следует добавить, что; в целом; разные вспомогательные установки; фаза; электрические системы и сети; напряжение; нагрузка; электростанция;

 

б) русские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

it deals with; power supply to industrial enterprises; a key industry; power distribution center; household electrical appliances; pieces of equipment; switches, DC power transmission lines, much more economical and reliable, electric engineer, thin foil-covered dielectrics; insulators.

 

Научитесь читать следующие словосочетания. Повторите их за диктором, переведите.

Power supply; central control panels; feeding sources; step-up substations; step-down substations; auxiliary sources; distribution power grids, rural regions; electric engineering; industrial enterprises; household electrical appliances; microscopic electric motors; heat-resistant enamel wires; high- capacity accumulating battery.

 

Заполните пропуски в данных предложениях, переведите предложения.

1. My future speciality is … to industrial enterprises, …

2. I am ... that my speciality is .. because power engineering is….

3. The power engineers have to do …

4. There are the problems of …

5. The problems … concern the … generation and distribution of the electrical power.

6. The work of many power stations …

 

6. “Memory test”. Восстановите по памяти (на русском языке), в каком контексте упоминаются следующие английские словосочетания:

1. … because power engineering is a key industry.

2. … then there are the problems of controlling, the phase …

3. … it covers the entire territory of our country.

4. … can be regulated from one control panel.

5. … as well as for new power distribution systems.

 

7. Научитесь правильно читать вопросительные предложения. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What are you?

2. Where do you study?

3. Why is your speciality important for the economy?

4. What problems does it deal with?

5. Power engineering is one of the branches of mechanical engineering, isn’t it?

6. What technique must power engineer know?

7. Does the Unified Power Grid cover the territory of our country?

8. What is the function of the Integral Power Grid?

9. Why do you like your speciality?

10. Why do we need more and more energy?

Переведите на английский язык.

На энергетическом факультете нас готовят работать в области электротехники, электроснабжения промышленных предприятий, городов и сельской местности. Инженеры – энергетики должны решать многие проблемы. Они должны знать технику высокого напряжения и бытовые электроприборы, электромоторы различных типов и изоляторы, и многое другое электрооборудование. После окончания учебы в университете мы сможем работать на электростанциях или в энергораспределительных центрах страны.

 

9. Послушайте текст, ответьте на вопросы.

Electric Shock

Voltage applied to your body may result in an electric shock. You will get it if you touch “live” conductors when the power is on. When you touch a wire conductor with both hands the resistance of the body to the conductors is from 10,000 to 50,000W.

When you touch a conductor with one hand, the resistance is much higher. The higher is the body resistance the smaller is the current that can flow through the body.

Take it into consideration and work with only one hand if the power is on. Do not let the other hand touch the conductors! Or work on the circuit with the power off.

 

 

1. What is the above text about?

2. What are its main points?

3. When does one get an electric shock?

4. What is the relation between the body resistance and the value of current flowing through the body?

 

Расскажите: 1. о вашей специальности инженера-энергетика; 2. перспективах развития энергетики; 3. роли энергетики в развитии современного общества (социальные и экологические проблемы).

 

 

HEAT AND POWER ENGINEERING

 

1. Прочитайте, запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:

heat power thermal power   [hJt 'pauq] [Tqml 'pauq] тепловая энергия
scientific ["saIqn'tIfIk] научный
branch [brRnC] отрасль
underground subterranean   [Andq'graund] ["sAbtq'reInjqn] подземный
a lot of [q'lOt'Ov] много
to change [CeInG] изменять
to derive [dI'raIv] производить
radiant ['reIdjqnt] лучистый
solar ['sOulq] солнечный
conventional [kqn'venSqnl] традиционный
fuel [fjuql] топливо
environmental [in'vaIqrqnment] окружающий
pollution [pq'lHSqn] загрязнение
to employ [im'plOI] использовать
raw materials ['rO: mq'tIqrIqlz] сырье
hothouse greenhouse   [hOthaus] [grI:nhaus] теплица
to consume [kqn'sjHm] потреблять
consumption [kqn'sAmpSqn] потребление
high capacity [kq'pxsItI] высокая мощность
boiler house [bOIlq haus] бойлерная
to reduce [rI'djHs] сокращать, уменьшать
according to [q'kLdIN] согласно
cheap [CI:p] дешевый

Прочитайте интернациональные слова, обратите внимание на произношение.

 

student [stjHdqnt]
speciality ["speSI'xlItI]
engineering ['enGI'nIqrIN]
profession [prO'feSn]
technology [tek'nOlqGI]
generation ["Gqnq'reISn]
transform [trxns'fLm]
distribution ["dIstrI'bjHS(q)n]
transmission ["trxns'mISn]
mechanical [mI'kxnIkql]
electrical [I'lektrIkql]
thermal [Tq:ml]
airplane [Fq'pleIn]
ecology [I'kOlqGI]
pollution [pq'lHSn]
adequate ['xdIkwIt]

 

Прочитайте и переведите текст.

Heat and Power Engineering

I am a second – year student of the Bratsk State University. My future speciality is heat engineering. I would like to tell you about my future profession.

Heat engineering (or heat technology) is a scientific subject and a branch of engineering embracing the heat generation methods, heat transformation, heat distribution, heat transmission and so on.

Heat and power engineering is the heat engineering branch embracing transforming of heat into other forms of energy, such as mechanical, electrical one with the help of thermal (heat) engines, electrical and other machines. Heat transformation takes place at thermal power stations fired by coal, oil, atomic fuel, the earth underground heat, solar energy and etc.

But environmental experts consider thermal power plants to be ecologically unpure. To avert catastrophe the world must cut back use of fossil fuels such as coal and oil, natural gas.

The most visionary alternatives to fossil fuels are the so-called renewables: solar energy, geothermal, wind and hydropower. Each is promising.

The experts find that even if nuclear energy can be made more acceptable, it will replace only a small portion of the fossil fuels. Oil and natural gas carry most of the load. So even doubling nuclear capacity would not dramatically reduce carbon-dioxide emissions.

Major changes will have to be made in the way plants are designed, built and operated. Most experts agree that new plants will have to be smaller than those of the industry standards now.

Still, the fact is that thermal power plants generate about 80% of total electric energy production in our country and are the basic source of power supply.

I would like to work at a thermal power plant as an engineer after graduating from the University. I think that the main task facing me is to increase many times the capacity of the thermal power plants and to equip them with high-capacity heat – generating units. But in order to obtain heat we ought to abandon the conventional sources of heat energy in favour of new and promising ones.

 



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