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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Составьте предложения и переведите их.



1. Origin, tents, caves, architecture, to, rock, gave, and, hunts, an.

2. Was, method, our, times,the, construction, till, of, used, column, beam, and.

3. One, scheme, framework, the, skeleton, structural, today, of, is.

4. Is, construction, all, now, work, industrialized?

5. Done, most, at, plants, the, is, housebuilding, work, of.

7. “Memory test.” Восстановите по памяти (на русском языке), в каком контексте упоминаются следующие английские словосочетания:

 

1. … holds one of the main places … .

2. … to provide protection against bad weather … .

3. … at the plant which produces prefabricated units and elements … .

4. … means prefabrication, the organization of work, programming … .

5. … to draw together many types of engineering knowledge … .

8. Прочитайте и переведите без словаря следующий текст:

 

Civil engineering is claimed to be “the art of directing the great sources of power in nature for the use and convenience of man”. The part played by civil engineers in pioneering work and in developing wide areas of the world has been and continues to be enormous.

Civil engineers must make use of many different branches of knowledge, including mathematics, theory of structures, hydraulics, soil mechanics, surveying, hydrology, geology and economics.

Civil engineering was not distinguished from other branches of engineering until 200 years ago. Most early engineers were engaged in the construction of fortifications and were responsible for building the roads and bridges required for the movement of troops and supplies.

9. Перескажите тему «Моя профессия – гражданское строительство» по плану:

 

1. Kinds of jobs the term “civil engineering” is applied to.

2. The history of building.

3. The constructive principles in old times and today.

4. Modern architecture characteristics.

5. Housebuilding plants.

6. Machinery used on a construction site now.

7. Town of the future.

8. Town planning.

9. The civil engineer.

 

Сделайте сообщение о роли вашей специальности в XXI веке.

BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

1. Прочитайте, запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:

 

lime ['laIm] известь
gypsum ['GIpsqm] гипс
masonry ['meIsnrI] каменная кладка
high alumina cement [haI'q'ljHmInq sq'ment] цемент с высоким содержанием глинозема  
crushed stone ['krASt 'stoun] щебень
mortar ['mLtq] строительный раствор
aggregate ['xgrIgIt] заполнитель
compressive load [kqm'presIv 'lqud] нагрузка на сжатие
concrete ['kONkrJt] бетон
reinforced concrete   ['rJInfLst 'kONkrI:t] железобетон
availability [q"veIlq'bIlItI] пригодность; наличие
durability ["djuqrq'bIlItI] прочность
ability [q'bIlItI] способность
porosity [pL'rOsItI] пористость
binder ['baIndq] вяжущее вещество
alkali-slag ['xlkqlaI 'slxg] шлакощелочной
silica ['sIlIkq] кремнезем

Прочитайте и переведите текст со словарем.

 

Building Technology

I am a second – year student of the Bratsk State University. Building holds one of the main places in the economy of any country.

A great variety of materials are used by builders now. They should meet several requirements, such as availability, cost, physical properties of materials and others. The most commonly used materials are: steel, concrete, stone, wood and brick. They differ in hardness, durability and fire – resistance. Wood, stone and bricks are the oldest building materials. They have mechanical strength, compactness, porosity, sound and heat insulation.

Concrete made with natural hydraulic binders was used in antiquity by the Romans. Then the art of making concrete has been forgotten and the revival came much later. Lime, gypsum and cement are the 3 materials most widely used for the purpose of binding together masonry units, such as stone, brick and as constituents of wall plaster. Cement is the most important component of concrete. To undergo high compressive loads is a specific characteristic of it. Concrete increases its strength with age, it is fireproof. Concrete can be divided into 2 classes: mass or plain concrete and reinforced concrete.

Reinforced concrete is used in all civilized countries as one of the most important building materials. One of the essential properties of this concrete is its compressive strength.

Builders produce 2 types of new building materials: alkali-slag concrete and silica concrete. Silica concrete is widely used in aviation and in under water constructions. Another important class of cement is high alumina cement. It is very resistant to chemical attack.

Nowadays, much attention is paid to the light-weight concretes composed of light aggregates. They are called “cellular” concretes made by using materials which foam or form gas during the mixing of the concrete. The reduction in weight increases its ability to keep heat.

To become good specialists students study the existing materials and building methods. The person entering this profession must have a scientific attitude, imagination, initiative and good judgement obtained by experience and serious work.

 

3. Прочитайте следующие интернациональные слова, обращая внимание на их произношение и перевод:

to adapt [q'dxpt]
material [mq'tIqrIql]
physical ['fIzIkl]
cement [sI'ment]
chemical ['kemIkql]
slag ['slxg]
method ['meTqd]
technology [tek'nOlqGI]
test ['test]

 

4. Образуйте глаголы от существительных:

 

selection, designer, considerable, mixture, resistant, production, measuring.

 

5. Сгруппируйте следующие предложения по темам:

A. The choice of materials for any work of construction.

B. The properties of high alumina cement.

C. The composition of concrete.

 

1. Another important class of cement is high alumina cement. 2. Such a material may be considered as an artificial conglomerate of crushed stone or gravel with a mortar. 3. The civil engineer must consider many factors when selecting the materials for construction. 4. This kind of cement is very resistant to chemical attack. 5. The principal object in proportioning concrete is the production of a durable material of adequate strength and watertightness (водонепроницаемость). 6. The factors that condition the selection of materials for construction include availability, cost and physical properties. 7. This material has an extremely high rate of strength increase. 8. Timber, steel and concrete vary over considerable ranges in the properties desired by the engineer and the latter should take them into consideration in selecting the materials. 9. The most accurate method of measuring proportions for concrete is to weigh the required quantities of each material.

 

Дайте русским словосочетаниям английские эквиваленты.

 

1. (Самым важным качеством) of concrete is its property to be formed into large and strong monolithic units.

2. Concrete is made by mixing cement, sand, gravel, and water (в нужных количествах).

3. The characteristics of concrete depend on (от качества используемых материалов).

4. (Бетон применялся египтянами, римлянами) in the construction of aqueducts and bridges.

5. (Так как цемент не был известен в то время) concrete was made of clay and later of gypsum and lime.

 

7. Прочитайте и переведите без словаря следующий текст:

 

significant – значительный

comparatively – сравнительно

recently – недавно

owing to – благодаря

in respect to – что касается

Text

One of the most significant facts about both industry and building has been research on synthetics and plastics. Plastics have appeared comparatively recently but, owing to their valuable and diverse properties, have found a wide application in many industrial fields (machine- building, aviation, textile industry, etc.).

In respect to physical and mechanical properties at a normal temperature of 20°C all plastics are divided into rigid, semi-rigid, soft and plastic. In respect to the number of constituents plastics may be classified as simple and complex.

Plastics consisting of one polymer are referred to as simple. Thus organic glass (plexiglass) consists of one synthetic resin. But in the building field we usually deal with complex plastics, e.g. plastics consisting of a polymer and other components.

 

8. Подберите английские эквиваленты к следующим русским словосочетаниям:

1. успешно используются   1. reinforced concrete elements
2. свойства материалов   2. fine aggregate
3. в зависимости от применения   3. properties of the materials
4. широкое применение   4. high rate of strength
5. строительный материал   5. depending on application
6. железобетонные элементы   6. are utilized
7. мелкий заполнитель   7. wide application
8. раствор   8. mortar
9. высокая прочность   9. building material
10. прочность на сжатие   10. compressive strength

 

9. Ответьте на вопросы.

  1. Why is concrete the most important building material?
  2. What are the main components used for making concrete?
  3. What new classes of cement are there?
  4. What are the oldest building materials?
  5. What are their properties?
  6. What are the “cellular” concretes?
  7. What do you study at the University?+

 



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