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Постройте предложения, соединяя по смыслу указанные ниже части предложений.



1. A series of tests of the new grader … 2. The scraper can get to work …   3. When operating a motor grader …   4. The capacity of a motor-grader …   5. The performance of self-operating graders …   6. The mechanic examined the device in all its details…   7. The tractor has a wide track and good towability … 1. … the following ought to be taken into account.   2. … had to be carried out last week.   3. … after the bulldozer.   4. … may be classified as excellent.   5. … should be expressed in cubic yards.   6. … designed to be easily towed.   7. … wishing to find out the cause of the trouble.

9. Прочитайте текст. Расскажите по-английски его основное содержание.

Excavator

Mechanical excavators or navies are now recognized as an essential part of the larger builder’s equipment for use upon the construction of large buildings and housing estates. Building operations, of course, embody varying classes of work, and while the economy and efficiency of mechanical methods are well known, such economies would not result in many cases if it were necessary to apply a single-purpose machine separately to each of the various duties. The best application obviously is an all-purpose unit that can be converted to suit each class of work. Manufacturers of excavating machinery, in designing their machines, try to make one attachment serve as many purposes as possible, so that the changing of the type of equipment to suit the particular work in hand can be done without the expense of providing additional attachments; this has been achieved to a large extent in some of the smaller sizes of equipment.

 

Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.

Elevating Grader

This machine consists principally of a disc plough which turns a strip of earth on to a conveyor belt which may be 4 ft. wide and 18-24 ft. long. The belt, running at right angles to the travel of the plough, delivers the earth into lorries which must travel in the same direction and at the same speed as the grader. The ground must therefore be suitable, and sufficient space must be available.

Under favorable conditions these machines can dig and load 400 cu.yad. per hour at no greater cost than a stationary excavator. They are usually towed by caterpillar tractors and require a driver in addition to the driver of the tractor.

This type of machine is only suitable for very large quantities of excavation and in circumstances where sufficient transport is available to remove the excavation, or where the excavation can be dumped in a windrow and left. For hard chalk or other rock which the plough will not cut it is, of course, unsuitable and in wet sticky clay trouble is caused by clay sticking to the belt, etc.

Some graders are equipped with adjustable scarifying teeth ahead of the blade to loosen the earth prior to blading it.

Graders may have three to six forward gears, with speed varying from approximately 2 to 20 mph. The lower speeds are used for grader operations, while the higher speeds are used for travelling.

 

Сделайте сообщение по теме «Road Building Machinery».

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

 

1. Прочитайте, запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:

 

mechanical engineering   [mI'kxnIk(q)l "enGI'nIqrIN] машиностроение
roller ['rOulq] ролик
lever ['lI:vq] рычаг, балансер
pulley ['pulI] блок, шкив
branch ['bra:nC] отрасль
separate branch ['sepqrIt "bra:nC] (зд.) самостоятельная отрасль
design [dI'zaIn] проект, проектирование
construction [kqn'strAkS(q)n] строительство
device [dI'vaIs] устройство, прибор
operation [qpq'reIS(q)n] работа
reliability [rI'laIq'bIlItI] надежность
service life ['sq:vIs'laIf] срок службы
continuous process   [kqn'tInjuqs 'prOusqs] непрерывный процесс
petrochemicals ["petrOu 'kemik(q)lz] нефтехимические продукты
computer-controlled lines   [kqm'pjHtq kqn'trOuld laInz] автоматизированные линии
refining [rI'faInIN] переработка (нефти)
spaceship ['speIsSIp] космический корабль
techniques [tek'nI:ks] (зд.) технологические методы
opportunity ["Opq'tjHnItI] возможность
quality ['kwOlItI] качество
strength of materials   ['streNT qv mq'tIqrIqlz] сопротивление материалов
wide range ['waId 'reInG] широкий диапазон (ряд)
running of the plants   ['rAnIN qv Dq'plRnts] работа заводов
at the forefront (of)   [qtDq'fLfrAnt qv] на переднем плане
capability ["keIpq'bIlItI] способность, мощность
skill ['skIl] умение, мастерство
put to practical use ['put tq' 'prxktIkl jHs] применять на практике
task(s) ['tRsk] задача
specific [spI'sIfIk] специфичный, особый
combined (to) [kqm'baIn(q)d] в сочетании (с ...)
highly-complicated   ['haIlI-'kOmplIkeItId] очень сложный
accurate ['xkjurqt] точный
qualified ['kwOlIfaId] квалифицированный
special ['speS(q)l] особый
to try ['traI] пытаться, стараться
to recognize ['rekqgnaIz] признавать
to deal (with) ['dI:l wID] иметь дело (с)
to go on ['gOu qn] продолжать
to raise ['reIz] поднимать
to extend [Iks'tend] расширить, увеличить
to apply [q'plaI] применять
to ensure [In'Suq] обеспечивать, гарантировать
to check [Cek] проверять
to mention ['menS(q)n] упоминать
to increase [In'krI:s] возрастать
to demand [dI'mRnd] требовать
to require [rI'kwaIq] требовать
to face [feIs] стоять перед лицом
to specify ['spesIfaI] определять (технич. условия, параметры)

 

2. Прочитайте и переведите текст.

Mechanical Engineering

I am a second-year student of the Bratsk State University. My future speciality is Mechanical Engineering.

The history of engineering goes back to the time when the man first tried to make machines. One can call the earlier rollers, levers and pulleys the work of mechanical engineering. But it was recognized as a separate branch of engineering since the formation of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in great Britain in 1847.

Mechanical engineering deals with the design, construction and operation of machines and devices of all kinds. The scientific and technological progress is going on in engineering along two main headlines now. Firstly, it is automation, secondly – raising the reliability and extending the service life of machines.

Automation was first applied to industry in continuous process manufacturing: refining petroleum, making petrochemicals, refining steel. A later development was computer controlled assembly lines. And now we use the term “automation” for specific techniques combined to operate automatically in a complete system.

Reliability is a basic requirement of any instrument, plant or machine. Sufficient reliability and long service life of highly complicated automatic complexes, spaceships and assembly lines can be ensured by the high quality of their components, their accurate assembly and checking while in operation.

One should mention the development of mass production techniques. They, surely, increase efficiency and productivity.

That is why demand for qualified mechanical engineers is high. They have a wide range of job opportunities. Nowadays production requires the special services of the following specialists: the metallurgists, the strength of materials experts, the machines experts, the engineering designers and many more.

I believe mechanical engineers are vital to the running of the plants. They are at the forefront of technology: pressing the limits of material capability, developing new materials, specifying complex machines. Of course, their skills, technical and managerial, must be used to the fullest.

While studying we get theoretical knowledge and learn to put to practical use the things we receive at lectures, seminars and in laboratories. On getting the Diploma in Higher Education we are to be ready for our future job, to do the tasks facing the engineer.

Mechanical engineers are at the core of production: they manage plant and equipment, they manage people. In fact, they manage our future.

3. Прочитайте следующие однокоренные слова, переведите их:

1. mechanic – mechanical – mechanics – mechanisms;

2. construct – constructed – construction;

3. reliable – unreliable - reliability;

4. refine – refinement – refinery – refining;

5. technical – technician – technics – technique;

6. strong – strength – strengthen – strengthening;

7. extent – extensibility – extension – extent;

 

4. Прочитайте следующие словосочетания, переведите их на русский язык:

Mechanical engineering, a separate branch of engineering, service life of machines, continuous process manufacturing, refining steel, computer-controlled, a wide range of jobs, machines experts, engineering designers, limits of material capability, to put to practical use, to do the tasks facing the engineers.

 

5. Ответьте на следующие вопросы, опираясь на содержание прочитанного вами текста:

 

1. What year student are you?

2. What is your future speciality?

3. Is the history of mechanical engineering long?

4. When was mechanical engineering recognized as a separate branch?

5. What does mechanical engineering deal with?

6. What are the main headlines in technological progress now?

7. What industries was automation first applied in?

8. What does the term “automation” mean now?

9. What ensures long service life and reliability of machines?

10. What part do mass production techniques play in modern manufacturing?

11. Is a qualified engineer demanded now?

12. Where can knowledge of a specialist be applied to the fullest?

13. What is your main aim while studying?

14. What kind of job would you like to get after graduating from the University?

6. Прочитайте текст еще раз и перескажите его по-английски.

 

7. Прочитайте следующий текст и скажите, о каких четырех этапах в развитии мировой индустрии идет речь и чем каждый из них характеризуется.

Four Industrial Revolutions

The first industrial revolution took place in England between 1760 and 1840. Metal became the main engineering material instead of wood, and steam gave man great reserves of power. This power could drive not only railway engines and ships but also the machines which built them.

In the second revolution, from 1880 to 1920, electricity was the technical driving force. It provided power for factories that was easier and cheaper to control than steam. It was marked also by the growing importance of science-based industries such as chemicals and electrical goods, and the use of scientifically-designed production methods such as semi-automatic assembly lines.

The third industrial revolution coincided with the advent of automation – in its inflexible form. In this revolution, the main features were advances in the control of manufacturing processes so that things could be made more cheaply, with greater precision and (often) with fewer people. And this change, which occurred

 

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FORESTRY

 

1. Прочитайте, запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:

 



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