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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

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a) The main tasks of transport are to ensure timely high quality and full satisfaction of the needs of the economy and the population in conveyance and to raise the economic efficiency of its operation.

To carry out the above-mentioned tasks it is necessary:

to ensure coordinated development of the country’s integral system and its cooperation with other sectors of the economy, improve the coordination of the work of all types of transport, eliminate unprofitable transport operations, reduce the time of delivery of cargoes and ensure their safety;

to speed up the development and introduction of advanced machinery and technology and strengthen the material, technical and repair base, etc.

b) In motor transport it is necessary to increase the efficiency of the use of motor vehicles, first of all, through the wide use of trailers and semi-trailers and reduction of unproductive idle time, no-load runs by motor vehicles and unprofitable conveyance.

To develop and improve transportation under centralized management. To ensure the priority development of public motor transport.

To improve the structure of the motor vehicle fleet. To increase the share of goods transport using diesel-engine lorries. To expand considerably the use of compressed gas vehicles and speed up the construction of gas-filling stations. To ensure saving of petrol and diesel fuel. To replenish motor pools with larger and more comfortable buses. To expand the repairs of motor vehicles with the use of a conveyer type production method.

To increase freight turnover and the passenger turnover of public buses.

 

Прочитайте тексты еще раз, сформулируйте, как сделать автомобиль современным и эффективным транспортным средством.

 

Прочитайте текст «Pollution». Укажите отрицательные стороны транспорта.

Pollution

The British, like many other Europeans, are becoming more and more worried (беспокоиться) about their environment. Here are some of the environmental problems that they face.

As the population of large cities like London, Birmingham and Manchester continues to grow, pollution problems become worse.

The air in many towns and cities is being polluted by traffic (транспорт, движение) and industry. The number of cars and lorries is growing all the time. On the one hand, they bring mobility to millions of people, but on the other hand, they need bigger, better and more expensive roads, which often ruin the countryside (сельская местность). Traffic in cities is getting worse. Water pollution has become a serious problem in many British rivers. People living near airports suffer from the noise of increasingly larger and more powerful jet airliners taking off and landing.

10. Прочитайте следующий текст. Передайте по-английски основное содержание.

 

Talking Instrument Panels

For a few years now some of the most advanced new automobiles have been equipped with instrument panels that can “speak” providing instrument readings or safety warnings from special electronic circuits.

In a polite female voice, the device will report on engine oil pressure, parking-brake and headlight operation, seat belt connection, totaling 14 different functions. The driver can even program the Voice Warning System to announce the time or to give a low-fuel warning for any preset gas tank level.

The heart of the Voice Warning System is a microprocessor-based electronic speech module made by National Semiconductor Corporation (US). The device requires the connection of 18 wires, but it is simple enough to install in a car.

 

Сделайте сообщение по теме «Motor Transport».

 

ROAD-BUILDING MACHINERY

Прочитайте, запомните следующие слова и словосочетания.

road building ['rOud 'bIldIN] строительство дорог
highway construction   ['haIweI 'kqnstrAkS(q)n] строительство шоссе
construction projects   [kqnstrAkS(q)n 'prOGekts] строительные объекты
labour-consuming process   ['leIbq-kqn'sjHmIN 'prOuses] трудоемкий процесс
technology-completed   [tek'nOlOGI kqm'plI:tId] технологически закончен
machines [mq'SI:nz] машины
highly-efficient machines   ['haIlI I'fISI(q)nt mq'SI:nz] высокоэффективные машины
earth-moving machines ['q:T-mHvIN mq'SI:nz] землеройные машины
versatile machines   ['vq:sqtaIl] универсальные машины
machinery [mq'SInqrI] машины и механизмы
excavating machinery   ['ekskqveItIN mq'SInqrI] экскаваторные машины
crawler / wheel type tractor ['krLlq / 'wI:l' taIp 'trxktq] гусеничный / колесный трактор
bulldozer ['bul"dOuzq] бульдозер
grader ['greIdq] грейдер
scraper ['skreIpq] скрейпер
crane ['kreIn] кран
shovel ['SAvl] лопата, одноковшовый экскаватор
skimmer ['skImq] нивелировщик
trencher ['trenCq] канавокопатель
attachment [q'txCment] приспособление
blade ['bleId] нож, отвал
c)    
to belong [bI'lON] принадлежность
to become [bI'kAm] стать, становиться
to carry out ['kxrI aut] выполнять
to divide (into) – be divided [dI'vaId / bI dI'vaIdId] делить – делиться
to dig [dIg] копать
to handle ['hxndl] управлять, перемещать
to haul ['hLl] перевозить, тянуть
to maintain [meIn'teIn] содержать
to mount ['maunt] монтировать, устанавливать
to produce [prq'djHs] производить, выпускать
to serve ['sq:v] служить
to use ['jHz] использовать
in order to [In'O:dq tq] для того, чтобы
by means of [baI'mI':nz qv] с помощью, посредством
with the aid of [wIDq'eId qv] с помощью

 

Прочитайте текст, переведите на русский язык.

Road Building Machinery

I am a student of the Bratsk State University. My future speciality is Road Building Machinery. In order to become an educated specialist I am to study the following subjects: physics, chemistry, mathematics, social sciences, foreign language, strength of materials, electrical engineering, computer-programming and many others.

I believe that the economic prosperity of the country is closely connected with the adequate and efficient road network.

A great variety of different kinds of machinery is found in highway construction. The work is divided into several technology completed processes. The building of highways connected with a great volume of earth work is one of the most difficult, most labour-consuming processes. This type of work is produced by means of bulldozers, scrapers, graders and excavators. They are divided into three classes. The first class includes bulldozers of different types which carry out the work with the aid of a blade mounted on a tractor of either a crawler or a wheel type. Bulldozers are versatile machines on many construction sites where they can be used from the start to the finish. Scrapers belong to the second class of earthmoving machines. Their ability to load and haul earth gives them a definite advantage on many projects. As for excavators they belong to the third class. Manufacturers of excavating machinery, in designing their machines, try to make one attachment serve as many purposes as possible. The universal excavator is quickly convertible for use with the following digging equipment: shovels, drag shovels or back-acting trenchers, skimmers, cranes, etc. All modern plants are highly efficient machines, which are built to give years of service if properly used, handled and maintained.

And I will do all my best to master my profession to become a qualified specialist.

 

3. Прочитайте текст, найдите английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

компьютерное программирование, экономическое процвета­ние, большое разнообразие, строительная площадка, мощ­ность, емкость, универсальный, соответственно (соответст­вующим образом), определенные преимущества, приспособ­ления обратного действия.

 

4. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. What is your future speciality?

2. What subjects do you study? (Name some of them).

3. Do the roads play any role in the country’s economy?

4. What is the building of highways connected with?

5. What kind of machines are engaged in this process?

6. What can you say about a) bulldozers, b) scrapers, c) excavators?

7. What is a universal plant?

5. Расскажите о:

1. the efficiency of adequate roads;

2. the types of the earth-moving machines;

3. the aim of the manufacturers of excavating machinery.

 

6. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык, пользуясь лексикой текста:

1. Я полагаю, что экономическое процветание страны и состояние ее дорог тесно связаны.

2. Во время строительства дорог можно встретить множество машин и механизмов.

3. Земляные работы – самый трудоемкий процесс.

4. На строительных площадках бульдозеры могут выполнять как начальные, так и конечные операции.

5. Отвал может быть установлен (смонтирован) на гусеничном или колесном тракторе.

6. Машины могут служить долго, если их правильно использовать.

 

7. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обратите внимание на употребление модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов:

1. The output of shovel should be expressed in cubic yards per hour.

2. Job conditions may be classified as excellent, good, fair and poor.

3. Each job planner must use his own judgement and experience in declining which condition best represents his job.

4. When using the motor grader the following ought to be taken into account.

5. If the machine is to be kept in operation for a long period of time the rods of the hydraulic cylinders must be maintained clean and dry.

6. A series of tests of the new grader had to be carried out last week.

7. Light rains may delay operations for several days.

8. If the conveyor is to handle food material or other material the rotating parts of the entire conveyor may be of stainless steel.



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