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Теми практичних занятьз дисципліни «Іноземна мова для академічного спілкування»
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Теми практичних занятьз дисципліни «Іноземна мова для академічного спілкування»
Критерії оцінювання студентів з дисципліни ІМАС (магістри)
Кафедрою методики навчання іноземних мов розглянуто й затверджено критеріїоцінювання знань і умінь студентів з навчальної дисципліни «Іноземна мова для академічного спілкування».
Завданням оцінювання успішності з дисципліни є перевірка засвоєння мовних знань та мовленнєвих умінь згідно з чинною навчальною програмою.
Підсумкове оцінювання рівня знань студентів з англійської мови здійснюється на основі результатів поточного модульного контролю (ПМК) та підсумкового контролю знань студентів (ПКЗ) за 100-бальною шкалою. Завдання поточного модульного контролю оцінюються в діапазоні від 0 до 80 балів; завдання, що виносяться на підсумковий контроль знань – від 0 до 20 балів:
Приклад розподілу балів поточного контролю
На кожному практичному занятті студент-магістрант може отримати максимально 5 балів:
5 балів– 1. Уміння складати усні повідомлення обсягом не менше 25 фраз на тему, що опрацьовується впродовж навчального модуля. 2. Уміння аргументовано пояснити свою точку зору. 3.Уміння творчо використовувати вивчений лексико-граматичний матеріал. 4. Повне розуміння текстів для читання. 5. Припущення надзвичайно обмеженої кількості (граматичних, лексичних, фонетичних) помилок.
4 бали– 1. Уміння складати логічні тематичні повідомлення обсягом не менше 20 фраз. 2. Вміння оперувати вивченим лексико-граматичним матеріалом. 3. Розуміння основного змісту текстів для читання, правильні відповіді на запитання за текстом. 4. Наявність певної кількості граматичних/лексичних, фонетичних помилок, що не порушують зміст мовлення.
3 бали– 1. Уміння складати тематичні висловлювання обсягом не менше 15 фраз з деякими порушеннями логіки викладу і аргументації. 2.Задовільне вміння оперувати вивченим лексико-граматичним матеріалом. 3. Розуміння основного змісту текстів для читання, відповіді на запитання за текстом з припущенням помилок. 4. Наявність певної кількості граматичних/лексичних, фонетичних помилок, що порушують розуміння змісту мовлення.
2 бали– Розуміння простих речень або фраз текстів для читання. 2. Вміння робити короткі повідомлення на підготовлену тему, з припущенням помилок, які ускладнюють спілкування. 3. Задовільне вживання вивченого лексико-граматичного матеріалу. 4. Наявність значної кількості граматичних, лексичних, фонетичних помилок, що суттєво порушують розуміння змісту мовлення.
Підсумковий контроль знань студентів-магістрантів (ПКЗ) з англійської мови для академічного спілкування проводиться у формі заліку (20 балів). На заліку студент повинен продемонструвати набуті протягом усього періоду навчання знання, вміння та навички, передбачені навчальною програмою, а також здатність практичного застосування мовних знань та мовленнєвих компетенцій для вирішення поставленого завдання.
До відомості обліку підсумкової успішності заносяться сумарні результати в балах ПМК та ПКЗ.
Підсумкова оцінка з навчальної дисципліни виставляється в залікову книжку згідно такої шкали:
Шкала оцінювання: національна та ECTS
Навчальні матеріали з дисципліни «Іноземна мова для академічного спілкування»
Exercise 1. Read the text. Find English equivalents of the words and word-combinations.
(The System of Higher Education in Ukraine and English-speaking Countries. Famous Universities.)
There are about 90 universities in Britain. They are divided into three types; the old universities (Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh Universities), the 19th century universities such as London and Manchester, and the new universities. There are not only universities in Britain but also colleges (350). Colleges offer courses in teacher training, courses in technology and some professions connected with medicine.
Full courses of study offer the degree of Bachelor of Arts or Science. Most degree courses at universities last 3-4 years, language courses 4 years (including a year spent abroad). Medicine and dentistry courses are longer (5-7 years). There are various postgraduate degrees, including Master of Philosophy.
Students may receive grantsfrom their Local Education Authorityto help pay for books, accommodation, transport and food. This grant depends on the income of their parents.
Most students live away from home, in flats or halls of residence. Students don’t usually have a job during term time because the lessons, called lectures, seminars, classes or tutorials(small groups), are full time. However, many students now have to work in the evenings.
The most famous universities are Oxford and Cambridge, called ‘Oxbridge’, which are famous for their academic excellence.
Higher education in the United States includes educational programmeswhich usually require for admission12 years of elementary and secondary schooling. It is carried on under a number of forms.
The most common type of higher education is the college. It requires for admission graduation from a standard secondary school; its four-year curriculumleads to the bachelor’s degree in arts and sciences.
The American college is known by various titles such as the college of liberal arts, the college of arts and sciences, the college of literature, science and arts. The college may be the central unit around which the university is organised, or it may be a separate corporate entity, independent from the University.
The University in the United States is an educational institution comprising a college of liberal arts and sciences, a professional school leading to a professional degree and a graduate college(school). A graduate college provides programmes for study and research beyond the levels of the bachelor’s and first professional degree.
The higher education in Ukraine consists of higher educational establishments, scientific and methodological facilities under federal and municipal governments and self-governing bodies in charge of education. The higher education structure includes also the postgraduate and PhD programs and self-education.
The legislation sets the following educational and qualification levels – junior specialist, bachelor, specialist, master, as well as scientific degrees of candidate of sciences and doctor of sciences. Senior scientific researcher, assistant professor and professor are the applied degrees.
Training of specialists in higher educational institutions may be carried outwith the interruption of work (daytime education), without interruption of work (evening, correspondence education), by the combination of these two forms, and for certain professions – without attending classes.
The Ukraine’s State Higher Education System includes 979 higher educational institutions (HEI), out of which 806 are public and 134 are of other forms of property ownership. HEIs in Ukraine are comprised of vocational schools, colleges, institutes, conservatories, academies, universities.
Admission of citizens to higher educational institutions is made on the competitive basis according to skills and regardless of the form of ownership of an educational institution and sources of payment for education.
Currently, Ukraine’s higher educational system comprises of 309 technical vocational schools, 212 vocational schools, 143 colleges, 150 institutes, 2 conservatories, 59 academies and 106 universities.
A lot of non-governmental higher educational institutions appeared recently which leads to increasing of economic and business profile students. Since 1997 students can study at higher educational institutions on contract basis.
Higher education supplies all spheres of national economy with qualified professionals and looks for the better ways of development and perfection.
1. I was supposed to annotate the following article.
2. It was published in the British journal (magazine, newspaper) …
3. The title (headline) of the article is …
4. The author of the article is …(The article was written by a special correspondent of the journal).
5. The article represents a definite interest from the point of view …
6. It gives facts (tables, diagrams, figures, schemes).
7. The article considers the problem of …
8. It describes (discusses) …
9. The article draws the reader’s attention to …
10. The author points out that …
11. He stresses that …
12. The writer analyses the achievements of …
13. He approves …
14. The key problem of the article is …
15. To my mind (in my opinion) …
16. The article is worth reading because the problem is of great interest (of good use, actual,informative).
Today there are about ninety universities in Britain, compared with only seventeen in 1945. They fall into four broad categories: the ancient English foundations, the ancient Scottish ones, the ‘redbrick’ universities, and the ‘plate-glass’ ones. They are all private institutions, receiving direct grants from central government.
Oxford and Cambridge, founded in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries respectively, are easily the most famous of Britain’s universities. Today ‘Oxbridge’, as the two together are known, educate less than one tenth of Britain’s total university student population. But they continue to attract many of the best brains, and to mesmerize a greater number, partly on account of their prestige but also on account of the seductive beauty of many of their buildings and surroundings.
Both universities grew gradually, as federations of independent colleges most of which were founded in the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. In both universities, however, new colleges have been established, for example, GreenCollege, Oxford(1979) and RobinsonCollege, Cambridge(1977).
Scotland boasts about four ancient universities: Glasgow, Edinburgh, St. Andrews and Aberdeen, all founded in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. In the Scottish Lowlands greater value was placed on education during the sixteenth and later centuries than in much of England. These universities were created with strong links with the ancient universities of continental Europe, and followed their longer and broader course of studies. Even today, Scottish universities provide four-year undergraduate courses compared with the usual three-year courses in England and Wales.
In the nineteenth century many more redbrick universities were established to respond to the greatly increased demand for educated people as a result of the Industrial Revolution and the expansion of Britain’s overseas empire. Many of these were cited in the industrial centres, for example Birmingham, Manchester, Nottingham, Newcastle, Liverpool and Bristol.
With the expansion of higher education in the 1960s many more plate-glass universities were established, some named after counties or regions rather than old cities, for example Sussex, Kent, East Anglia and Strathclyde. After some initial enthusiasm for them, they had become less popular by the 1980s than the older institutions.
There is also a highly successful Open University, which provides every person in Britain with the opportunity to study for a degree, without leaving their home. It is particularly designed for adults who regret missed opportunities earlier. It conducts learning through correspondence, radio and television, and also through local study centres.
Thirty polytechnics in England and Wales provide a range of higher education courses, up to doctoral studies. (In Scotland there are similar institutions.) But their real purpose was to fill the gap between university and further education work, providing an environment in which equal value was placed on academic and practical work, particularly in order to improve Britain’s technical and technological ability.
(‘Britain in Brief’ by J. Brown)
Exercise 7. Put the verbs in the following sentences in the third person singular:
1. They wish to speak to you. (He)
2. They help their father. (She)
3. You watch too much TV. (He)
4. They worry too much. (She).
5. I always carry an umbrella. (She).
6. They wash the floor every week. (He).
Exercise 8.Give the correct form of the Simple Present of each verb.
2. The children a lot of sweets. (Eat)
3. I always out on Sundays. (Go)
4. She never up very early. (Get)
5. The concert at 7 next Friday. (Start)
6. Joan and Sue glasses. (Wear)
Exercise 19. Decide whether the underlined words are right or wrong in these sentences. Correct these words which are wrong. Write the number of the sentence and the correct form of the word. If you think that there is no mistake then write -.
1. Look! Our cat is climbing up the tree over there.
2. He is usually going to work by bus.
3. Tom play tennis every Thursday.
4. Where is Tom? He plays tennis now.
5. Can you hear those people? What dothey talk about?
6. Please, don’t make so much noise. Ann is studying.
7. The moon is going round the Earth.
8. It still snows, doesn’t it?
9. Hurry up! The bus comes. I don’t want to miss it.
10. My mother cleans the room at 6 o’clock yesterday.
Exercise 20. a. Check the transcription in the dictionary and read the words listed below:
Nouns: forefront, assignment, vision, pursuit, literacy, copyright, scheme
Verbs: pursue, encourage, apply
Adjectives: typical, curious, previous, adequate, renowned, virtual
Given that universities are at the forefront of technological innovations, it is tobe expected that new forms of delivering instruction, at the post-secondary level are emerging. Numerous universities have turned to the World Wide Web as a way toprovide instruction to supplement the typical lecture system. In fact, entire courseshave been placed on the Web, permitting students access to lecture material at anytime and from any place. Students have been encouraged to treat the course Web siteas a living document by adding their own links to material discovered in the processof answering assignments or carrying out research projects. Thus, every student canpotentially benefit from every other student’s efforts. In such a situation, educationcan become a cooperative enterprise involving teachers and students alike. There ismore: courses mounted on the Web are also available around the world so that wemight expect to see international competition among universities. In fact many universities now accept admission applications over the Web. There is a danger ofuniformity as the globally renowned universities make their presence felt everywhere. How will local colleges and universities compete? They will have to provide a variety of services – hand-on experiences, local special conditions, direct personal attention – not available to distant institutions. It does seem to be the casethat educational institutions will have to be flexible, imaginative, and perhaps lucky,to survive in a networked world.
But it should be noted that new technology is not replacing teachers but ratheris extending the power of imaginative teachers and curious students to explore the world in ways not previously possible. Well trained teachers, assisted by technical staff, operating with adequate equipment, connected to the Internet, and financed with adequate operating funds are the basic necessities for success in the wired world.
Education is usually considered in the context of educational instructions elementary schools, high schools, vocational schools, colleges, and universities – but considerable learning goes on in the workplace as well as in company-sponsored classrooms. Many people have a vision of lifelong learning as a combination of institutionalized instruction and the individual pursuit of knowledge. Traditionally, libraries have played a very important role in enabling motivated individuals to pursue their interests in a self-directed manner.
Now with the emergence of the Internet, and the explosive growth of information, it is not unrealistic to consider the self-education to become accessible beyond reduction of formal institutions. One early proposal is to get electronic books into homes – through a national digital library and small, sharp-screened computers – in an era of declining literacy. It is a vision to have an online library of books, not just public domain ones currently available on a number of Web sites, but newly published ones for which copyright still applies and that would be readily accessible for a small fee. Such a scheme could provide supplementary resources for schools as well and would operate in parallel with the school system.
to hand on – передавати, тривати
lifelong learning – безперервне навчання
forefront – передова лінія
1. Why education over the Web can become a cooperative enterprise friendly toteachers and students alike?
2. Why can universities exchange experiences with distant educational institutionsbe useful?
3. What means can nowadays help teachers and students explore the world?
4. What is the difference between the vision of the traditional lifelong learning andthe online learning?
behavioural problem – проблема поведінки
cognitivepsychology– психологія пізнання
intimidation – закомплексованість
self-pacedlearning –індивідуальний темп навчання
situatedlearning– ситуативне навчання
Do the teaching methods of the Virtual College correspond to the above-mentionedprinciples? Prove your statement.
Exercise 24. Retell the passage paying special attention to the new learning merits. Continue it beginning your talk with the word “However…” Expose your ideas about demerits of such instruction.
NEW WAYS TO LEARN
In the information economy knowledge is power. However, traditional teaching isexpensive and slow. New technologies make learning more productive.
In companies centralized training is now giving way to distributed, ‘just-in-time’' learning. The result is increased flexibility, better retention and lower costs.
In schools and colleges students surf the Internet, use Lotus Notes, exchange e-mail, use multimedia CD-ROMs and perform simulations. These techniques break down barriers, customize instruction and make education more cost-effective.
Surf the Internet –швидко продивитися інформацію в Інтернеті
Lotus Notes– електронний органайзер Лотус
retention– здатність до запам’ятовування
Exercise25. Complete the sentences with the prepositions given below at, to, with, from, on, out, of.
1. Due to Web sites you can benefit … the information obtained.
2. Online libraries could provide … supplementary information for schools.
3. Internet competitions among universities might become possible … the Web.
4. New laboratory is provided … everything necessary to carry … research.
5. Being at the forefront of technological innovations universities were the first to
turn … the Web.
6. Students can answer … assignments of the Web course.
7. The departments … computer science were founded at universities.
8. Web courses are available to remote students … any time.
Present job (in some detail: about a paragraph)
Publications (if any)
Previous jobs (with dates, but few details, unless the latter are important)
Languages spoken (say whether spoken fluently)
Leisure activities (not too much detail)
Referees (names and addresses of two people who can give confidential
details about your character and ability)
Date of birth
Place of birth
1. Ideally you should not need more than one or a maximum of two sides of
1. Don’t mention salary in your CV or in your letter: this must remain for the
A general rule is to send a typed Curriculum Vitae. CV must be clean, correct and clear. A dirty, illiterate CV can create a bad effect before an interview.
If you are going to include your photo, make sure it does you justice.
All this is more important than you may think. Don't forget you are participating in job marketing campaign. It is your CV that helps companies to see what type of person you are.
Give your CV a lot of air. It should be attractive to the eye. An interviewer, a person who has the power to interview people, may make some notes and marks on CV before seeing you and talking to you.
If you had some previous jobs, give details only concerning your last one.
In English-speaking countries, it is a good general rule to give the names, addresses and telephone numbers of those people who giveinformation about your ability, professional skills and character. It is good to have some authoritative people to address to and get letters of recommendation from them. Such letters are supposed to show you in a positive light and create some favourable response about you.
Exercise 34. Get an answer asking someone the following:
1) what CV is;
1) what the difference is between CV and Personal Essay;
2) what items CV include;
5) what recommendations concerning CV writing he/she can give you;
6) if it is important to include one’s photo;
6) why it is important to give CV much air;
7) in what countries it is there a general rule to give the names of one’s referees in CV;
8) what kind of people referees are supposed to be;
9) what helps to create a favourable response about a person before an interview;
10) what provides individualised information about the applicant;
LETTERS OF APPLICATION
Special attention is paid to writing a letter of application for a job.
Suppose, there are a lot of applicants for a particular job. Consequently, there are a lot of CVs and letters of application. A good CV and a letter may get you an interview, whereas a bad CV and a letter may be ignored.
There is one common mistake many applicants make. That is they phrase their letter of application in an unusual way. Remember a straightforward letter gives more favorable impression.
A letter of application must be handwritten. Do not use coloured ink. Black or dark blue is best.
In many countries it is the custom to enclose a recent photograph with an application. Sometimes a photo is included in CV.
Generally, there are the two types of letters of application:
I. in answer to an advertisement in a newspaper, a magazine, a circular letter, etc.
I. a speculative letter.
Exercise 37.Work in pairs.
Student A: You have read the notice advertising the vacancy for an accountant.
You telephone the Personnel Department of a firm. You want to find out:
1. Who can apply for the job.
1. How applications should be made.
2. What the pay is like, etc.
Student B: You are a member of the Personnel Department. You want to find out:
1. If he/she is a first-time job seeker.
2. If he/she has a relevant education background.
2. If he/she has some work background.
3. What the experience is.
4. If he/she has a reference from his/her former employer, etc.
I, Prokopenko Mariya Oleksandrivna, was born on April 29, 1978 in Kyiv in the family of an officer.
In 1985 I became a pupil of the first form of Kaniv secondary school #2 in Ukraine.
When my father entered a Military Academy in Kharkiv in 1986 we moved there and I continued my studies at School #20 till 1989.
Since 1989 till 1995 I studied at Kyiv secondary school #50. In 1995 I entered the Foreign Languages department of the Ukrainian State Pedagogical University named after M.P. Drahomanov where I am studying now. I am the monitor of group 43.
Father – Prokopenko Oleksandr Vasylyovych, born in 1954, is an officer and works at the Defence Ministry of Ukraine.
Mother – Prokopenko (Kyrylenko) Nataliya Viktorivna, born in 1958, is a music teacher of Kyiv children musical school #32.
Sister – Prokopenko Kateryna Oleksandrivna, born in 1987, is a pupil of the sixth form of Kyiv secondary school #44.
October 10, 2006 Signature
MY RESEARCH WORK
I would like to tell you several words of the research I am currently doing. I am conducting an investigation into the problem of pedagogic science. My interest in the given problem is evoked not so much by the desire to get a Master’s degree but, in the first instance, by its urgency for my future profession.
Thus, the theme of my dissertation which I defined together with my consulting professor and got approved by the Chair reads “Improving motivation of studying with help of computers in high school of Ukraine”. We have also defined the object and the subject of the investigation.
The subject of my investigation seems to me very interesting, because now we have a modernization of the system of education. That is: the new pedagogical ideas are developed, there is a computerization of education, and the ways of perfection of classes and lessons, methods and forms of trainings are reconsidered and of course there is a question of preparing teachers to their lessons. So my goal is to create the computer program that will help a teacher to prepare to lessons and will make that process much easy. I appreciate my investigation, because it includes the elements of pedagogic and computer science.
This investigation is supposed to benefit several parties. One of the outcomes of any research is the improved proficiency level of the researcher. Having got the deeper insight into the problem I hope to become a real expert in the field of pedagogics.
I’ve been already working on my investigation for more than 5 months. During all this time I was writing an article. I think it is very important for young researchers to print the results of their scientific works periodically. It makes everybody know that someone has already taken investigation on that problem. And other scientists can give you fresh ideas and may be help you somehow.
Besides I took part in the conference. Conference is an important event in researcher’s life. Especially it is inspiring for young researchers. Sometimes it is said that a scientific conference is the best school for young scientists who wants to advance science.
Thank you for your time and attention.
My Scientific Adviser
I major in … and have a scientific adviser. His (her) name is … . He is Doctor of … and Professor. He is associate Professor (candidate of … ). He is also a chair man of the department … . He lectures on … . The students are fond of his lectures. His candidate thesis (dissertation) is devoted to the problem of … . He has more than … published works. There are articles, essays, text-books among them. He takes an active part in the work of scientific conferences. He always presents noteworthy papers to them. Some of his recent papers deal with our higher school experiences in the use of educational technology. I meet with … twice (once) a month. His advice and remarks are valuable for me. … is an honest, earnest, straight-forward and emotionally stable person. He is very hard-working. He is a good husband and a loving father of two sons. His hobby is chess (tennis, football, stamp collection).
Planning Your Talk
Know Your Audience
Everyone will tell you to know your audience, which couldn’t be truer when you’re planning the introduction to your talk. Sure, there is a big difference between talking to high school students and presenting at a conference, but try to think: who is coming to my talk? If they are all cellular biologists like you, then skip the central dogma slide. But if you have a mix of disciplines you need to be able to explain your work to a biologist, as well as an electrical engineer. Imagine you’re giving the talk to one person with each potential background. Sometimes you need to sacrifice some specific details in order to explain the important stuff to everybody.
An introduction is more than just a history of your field up until now. That is, it’s more than a literature review. You need to review the current literature, but more importantly put your research into context. As you introduce your research you’ll likely explain why you’re doing it, but make sure you also explain why others in the field care. Even more important that justifying your work is justifying your conclusions.
Tell a Story
One of the most jarring moments in a bad presentation is the lack of transitions. Your presentation should flow from slide to slide and section to section. This will most likely mean that you aren’t going to present your experiments in the order that you did them. You’re NOT telling the story of you working in the lab! Walk your audience through the story, laying out the evidence convincing them you’re right about your conclusions.
Sweat the Small Stuff
The little details are important. Even if you have some really great results to show, you’re going to anger, upset, or at least annoy your audience if you don’t pay attention to details. Some examples: make sure any images have scale bars, and label items of interest. Use the same size, colour, and font text. Try to use the same slide layout. Make all your graphs, diagrams, molecular depictions, etc. with the same program throughout.
Giving the Presentation
6) Practice, Practice, Practice!
Even the most beautiful slides with the most logical flow and greatest data can trip you up if you don’t know what you’re going to say. It should go without saying that you can’t just read off of your slides, but seriously: practice, practice, practice! The goal is that when you get up there on the big day, everything comes out naturally – almost second nature. For me, I need to write a script – I don’t memorize it word for word, but the act of writing what I want to say helps.
You know your research, your techniques, your experiments, and your data. But you might get questions a little removed (or a lot removed) from your research. You might even get questions you don’t know the answer to, or aren’t sure about. The best advice I can give someone going into a defence – even last minute – is don’t be afraid to say “I don’t know.” Guessing, or even worse, making something up, is so much worse that admitting you don’t know the answer to a question. I’ve seen professors who will grill a student and not stop until they say “I don’t know” or they catch them answering wrong (guessing/making something up). You’ll never know everything about everything so don’t be afraid to say “I don’t know”.
Science is a productive force in our country. Our scientists are given widest opportunities for research works.
In research institutes, scientific centres, experimental laboratories and departments thousands of research workers and post-graduates carry on fundamental researches. They are solving difficult questions, tackling serious problems, and trying to discover new data, new phenomena, which in their turn will lead to new discoveries and studies.
The fundamental aims of any science are:
- to describe facts of nature, natural effects;
- to generalize them into a theory.
The time of scientific discovery “by intuition” is over. Now any scientific work is carried on in accordance with scientific method. The steps in scientific method can be listed as follows:
1. Recognition of the problem.
2. Collection of information (facts or data).
3. Analysis of data and setting up a hypothesis.
4. Performance of test experiment.
5. Substantiation, modification or abandonment of the hypothesis.
Thus any scientific work begins with recognition of the problem. A researcher must study the problem thoroughly. He gathers the known facts about the problem and analyses them, then he tries to extend his thinking beyond the known facts and set up a hypothesis. Without hypothesis investigation lacks purpose, and direction. The hypothesis must be proved experimentally but at first, a researcher must design (plan) his experiment. Only experiment may show whether hypothesis is true or not, whether a scientist should abandon it or advance it to the rank of a theory. Without theories there is no science. A good theory not only explains but helps to discover yet unknown things. The validity of any theory can be tested in practice. The results of the research become completely scientific when they are published.
A scientific work is carried out under the supervision of a scientific adviser with whom a post-graduate or researcher discusses the results obtained.
Scientific research now is dependent to large extent on sophisticated experimental installations. It is impossible to imagine any modern scientific centre without experimental laboratories, without up-to-date experimental facilities: sophisticated electronic installations, computers, automatic and cybernetic machines for performing experiments and collecting information.
Words and word-combinations to be remembered:
1. What are the fundamental aims of any science?
2. What are the steps in scientific method?
3. How can a scientist check his hypothesis?
4. How can the validity of any theory be tested?
5. When do the results of the research become completely?
6. Are you a theorist or experimentalist?
7. Which do you think is more important for research a theory or an experiment? Which usually comes first?
Margins and spacing
Use standard margins on all sides of each page. (The top margin will contain the page numbers).
Indent the first line of every paragraph (1 tab) and double-space throughout.
Begin numbering your paper in upper right of the first text page, and number consecutively through the end.
Title and identification
Centre the title, and capitalize words in it.
Double-space all this opening material.
The body of abstract
Subject of investigation
Topicality of the problem
Purpose of investigation
The main body
Methods of investigation
Theoretical and experimental parts
Results and recommendations
Exercise 55. Choose the right form of the Infinitive (Passive or Active, Indefinite or Perfect):
1. The lecturer wants … The students wants … (to understand, to be understood). 2. We expected the meeting … next month. He expected … the attention of the audience (to hold, to be held). 3. Some changes had … He wanted … some changes in the project (to make, to be made). 4. There were a lot of things … He was nowhere … (to see, to be seen). 5. It’s good … work for the day (to finish, to have finished). 5. She admits … the same mistake in her previous paper (to make, to have made). 6. He was sorry not … the idea earlier (to give up, to have given up). 7. She confessed … the man before (to see, to have seen). 8. The negotiations seem … to an end (to come, to have come). 9. The relations between the two countries seem … the lowest point (to reach, to have reached).
Exercise 56. Transform the sentences using the Infinitive instead of Subordinate Clauses:
1. He was sorry when he heard of your disappointment. 2. Do you understand what you have to do? 3. He hopes that he will get the information tomorrow. 4. We should be sorry if we heard bad reports of him. 5. The candidate did not expect that he would pass the interview. 6. Donot promise that you will do it, if you are not sure of success. 7. He was annoyed when he heard that the Conservative party got in again. 8. She was sorry that she had missed the beginning of the lecture. We must wait till we hear the examination results before we make any plans. 10. Sheis happy that she has found such a simple solution to this difficult problem.
Exercise 57. Find the Objective Infinitive Construction and translate into Ukrainian:
1. I consider them to be good specialists. 2. He heard them discuss their plan. 3. I heard him mention my name. 4. We expect writers to deal with the issues of the modern world. 5. They believed him to be honoured by the invitation to the international congress. 6. We assume these truths to be self-evident. 7. They find the experience of this conference to have been a remarkable one.
Exercise 58. Translate the sentences paying attention to the Subjective Infinitive Construction:
1. Some theories, which seemed to be perfectly reasonable even a short time ago, have proved to be absolutely wrong. 2. It was hoped that this experimental method would help to solve the problem, but it proved to be quite useless. 3. The discussion proved to be very useful in helping to approach the problem in a new way. 4. The new evidence proved to confirm the theory. 5. Facts that seem insignificant at first often prove later to be of vital importance. 6. He seems to know little about research work. 7. All our efforts proved to be useless. 8. The computer is expected to save the scientist a lot of time. 9. This discovery is considered to be the result of a long and thorough investigation. 10. These phenomena are believed to be interdependent.
What is a Scientific Paper?
A scientific paper is a written and published report describing original research results. In many ways it is an effort to answer a question or a series of questions. From this the researcher forms a main idea (that is, a thesis) on which to base the writing of the paper. So a scientific paper is a form of writing based upon a thesis supported by facts, figures, statistics, and other writers’ carefully documented ideas. Its purpose is to analyze and interpret information while making valid conclusions based upon the research.
Remember that to write a scientific paper you must:
1. Rely on more than your own personal opinions and experiences.
2. Choose a topic and explore it:
• Narrow down the topic.
• Formulate a research focus.
• Gather data.
• Write a thesis statement.
3. Make an argument:
• Select the supporting details, facts, and statistics.
• Prepare a working outline.
4. Bring a conclusion:
• Bring together the main ideas of the paper.
• Repeat the thesis on the paper.
5. Write your notes, records, and plans in English.
6. Always ask your instructor for make sure of the direction of your paper before proceeding with the research.
Once you have collected and analysed the information you need you can begin to determine your article design. When writing a scientific paper you must communicate your own ideas, but you must also include other writers’ and speakers’ ideas. In addition, you will need to refer to facts, figures, statistics, and other information from other sources. Therefore, it is your responsibility to document your writing by making clear which ideas are your own and which ideas belong to others. All of this must follow special rules for documenting sources that are not your own opinion by making references.
Another concern is how to illustrate your writing. Most people are familiar with tables, charts, and graphs – they are a common staple of business reports, newspapers, and even television news. But few people understand why particular data are shown using particular kinds of tables, charts, or graphs. In determining when to use words and when to use tables and other illustrations, keep the following criteria in mind as you are developing a draft. Tables, charts, and graphs are better than words when:
1. You have complex numerical or statistical data to convey;
2. You are describing something that requires the reader to form a mental image in order to understand it;
3. You want to present information in a form the reader will be able to recall easily.
Abstracts (an article) are far more than a one- or two- page piece of writing on a particular subject written for publication in scientific journals. They are also considered as a way to answer a particular question but only one in contradistinction to the scientific paper. Abstracts should contain at least an introduction to the matter, its brief description, and sometimes probable benefits for the interested party. As a rule, they lack illustrations and references.
Abstracts, theses, conference reports, and many other types of literature are published, but only the scientific paper normally meets the test of valid publication.
1. What is the purpose of a scientific paper?
2. How should one document the ideas of other writers?
3. How should one communicate their own ideas?
4. Is it necessary to explain and clarify information?
5. What is the main idea of a scientific paper called?
6. When does one use illustrations instead of words?
7. What does the term ‘valid publication’ mean?
ABSTRACT SUBMISSION FORM
Speaking on Public
You may speak on public for different reasons, on different subjects, to people of different business culture and personal taste. The speaker may want:
1. to inform the audience about some subject matter;
2. to introduce some subject matter;
3. to encourage the audience to make a decision.
However, delivering speeches will be almost the same in structure. Language points will differ a little. All good speeches have two things in common: the underlying structure and the language points which typically arise to serve this structure.
If you are going to deliver a speech, you must first have a plan. You should know exactly where and when the report is to be made. Having a clear idea of what the people in the audience are: their knowledge on the subject, status, age, business culture, specific interests – these help identify the needs of the audience. The information you are going to present should be tailored to meet the needs of the listeners. You should also devise the most appropriate format and sketch out for the use of demonstration materials and handouts. After providing answers to seven basic questions: why?, to whom?, what?, where?, when?, how long?, how?, you get down the plan of the report. It may be as follows:
1. Greeting/introducing oneself
2. Introducing the subject
3. Describing the sequence
4. Starting the report itself
5. Moving to the next point
8. Thanking/ inviting questions
You should make all the necessary preparations (audiovisual material, etc.) beforehand. Pay special attention to the opening and closing courtesies as the most memorable bits. Appear before the audience well groomed. Maintain eye contact and use body language to emphasize your talk. When answering questions from the audience, be sure you understand the question. Keep to the point, make your answers as brief as possible. Be friendly and flexible; try to react to the situation. Keep the time limit of your talk.
1. Why do we have to speak on public?
2. Do all speeches have anything in common?
3. What are the common features of all speeches?
4. How would you know whether people listen to you or not?
5. What is the typical plan of a speech?
6. What should you pay special attention to?
7. What are the most memorable bits of any speech?
Exercise 66. Read the following recommendations and answer the questions:
Thinking about your presentation
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