Exercise 63. Match the columns.

Exercise 64. You want to send your abstracts to an international scientific conference. Read the abstracts instructions and answer the questions. Fill in the gaps of the Abstract Submission Form provided below:

a) Abstracts must contain data. Trade names should not be mentioned in the title. References can be included in the body of the text. Abbreviations should be defined. Faxes are not acceptable. For style please refer to the example. Underline the name of the expected speaker. Abstract should not contain more than 200 words excluding title and author(s). Type the abstracts inside the margins. Use a type-writer.

b) 1. What must abstracts contain?

2. What shouldn’t abstracts include?

3. What is the size of an abstract?

4. Where must an abstract be typed?


Address for correspondence  
Title (Prof/Dr/Mr/Ms) Date of birth
Initial of first name only Surname
Address Town/City
Postal code, country Telephone, e-mail
I wish to submit my abstracts to the following group …  

Exercise 65. Read the text and answer the questions.

Speaking on Public

You may speak on public for different reasons, on dif­ferent subjects, to people of different business culture and personal taste. The speaker may want:

1. to inform the audience about some subject matter;

2. to introduce some subject matter;

3. to encourage the audience to make a decision.

However, delivering speeches will be almost the same in structure. Language points will differ a little. All good speeches have two things in common: the underlying structure and the language points which typically arise to serve this structure.

If you are going to deliver a speech, you must first have a plan. You should know exactly where and when the report is to be made. Having a clear idea of what the people in the audience are: their knowledge on the subject, status, age, business culture, specific interests – these help identify the needs of the audience. The information you are going to present should be tailored to meet the needs of the listeners. You should also devise the most appropri­ate format and sketch out for the use of demonstration materials and handouts. After providing answers to seven basic questions: why?, to whom?, what?, where?, when?, how long?, how?, you get down the plan of the report. It may be as follows:

1. Greeting/introducing oneself

2. Introducing the subject

3. Describing the sequence

4. Starting the report itself

5. Moving to the next point

6. Summarizing

7. Concluding

8. Thanking/ inviting questions

You should make all the necessary preparations (audio­visual material, etc.) beforehand. Pay special attention to the opening and closing courtesies as the most memorable bits. Appear before the audience well groomed. Maintain eye contact and use body language to emphasize your talk. When answering questions from the audience, be sure you understand the question. Keep to the point, make your answers as brief as possible. Be friendly and flex­ible; try to react to the situation. Keep the time limit of your talk.

1. Why do we have to speak on public?

2. Do all speeches have anything in common?

3. What are the common features of all speeches?

4. How would you know whether people listen to you or not?

5. What is the typical plan of a speech?

6. What should you pay special attention to?

7. What are the most memorable bits of any speech?


Exercise 66. Read the following recommendations and answer the questions:

Thinking about your presentation

1. State your purpose, be specific.

2. Identify the central idea of your presentation.

3. List the main points of your presentation.

4. Think of supporting material for each main point.

5. Decide what kinds of visual aids you will use.

Preparing for your presentation

1. Write an outline of your presentation. You might want to add tran­sition words between the sections.

2. Write the introduction.

3. Write the conclusion.

4. Print the introduction, outline, and conclusion in big print.

5. Prepare your visuals.

Practising your presentation

1. Stand up and give your presentation. Pretend that you have an au­dience and look at it.

2. Do it again and time yourself. Make any adjustments necessary for time.

3. Ask a friend to listen and critique it.

4. Practise it several more times until you are comfortable and not reading it.

Giving the presentation

1. Have everything ready. Don’t spend time collecting possessions and getting it in order when it’s time for you to speak.

2. Walk to the front of the room confidently, put your notes on the lectern, and start.

3. Don’t apologize for anything.

4. Make eye contact with your audience. Don’t just look at your notes or at the wall.

5. Do not read! It’s really boring.

6. Be enthusiastic about your topic.

7. When you finish, collect your possessions quickly and sit down.

Answer the questions:

1. What is the topic of the paper you are going to present?

2. Why are you interested in this particular topic?

3. Do you always prepare for presentations?

4. What recommendations for making oral presentations do you find most helpful?

5.Which ones do you always follow?

Exercise 67. Read and practise some useful paper speech patterns:

Function Possible language
Welcoming the audience Good morning / afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. Hello / Hi everyone. First of all, let me thank you all for coming here today. It’s a pleasure to welcome you today. I’m happy / delighted that so many of you could make it today. It’s good to see you all here. Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen, I am greatly honoured to be in­vited to this conference.
Introducing yourself Let me introduce myself. I’m Ann Brown from ... For those of you who don’t know me, my name is ... Let me just start by introducing myself. My name is ...
Introducing your topic/subject In this paper I would like to talk about the concept of ... . The object of this paper is to show ... . To begin with, let us imagine that ... . As many of you know ... . First of all I would like to ... . I am sure I don’t have to remind you that ... . I am very pleased to have this opportunity to ... . In my paper I want to highlight ... . In the introduction to my paper I would like to ... . I am going to talk today about... The purpose of my presentation is to introduce our new range of... What I’d like to present to you today is ... I’m here today to present... Today’s topic is ... The subject/topic of my presentation is ... In my presentation I would like to report on ... In my talk I’ll tell you about... I’ll be talking about... The purpose/objective/aim of this presentation is to ... Our goal is to determine how / the best way to ... What I want to show you is ... My objective is to ... Today I’d like to give you an overview of... Today I’ll be showing you / reporting on ... I’d like to update you on / inform you about ...
Saying why your topic is relevant for your audience Today’s topic is of particular interest to those of you / us who ... My talk is particularly relevant to those of us who ... My topic is / will be very important for you because ... By the end of this talk you will be familiar with ...
Effective openings Rhetorical questions Do we really need … ? Interesting facts According to an article I read recently, ... Did you know that...? I’d like to share an amazing fact/figure with you. Stories and anecdotes I remember when I attended a meeting in Paris, ... At a conference in Madrid, I was once asked the following question: Let me tell you what happened to me ... Problem to think about Suppose you wanted to ... How would you go about it? Imagine you had to ... What would be your first step?
The middle/main part Saying what is coming In this part of my presentation, I’d like to talk about... So, let me first give you a brief overview. Indicating the end of a section This brings me to the end of my first point. So much for point two. So, that’s the background on ... That’s all I wanted to say about... Summarizing a point Before I move on, I’d like to recap the main points. Let me briefly summarize the main issues. I’d like to summarize what I’ve said so far... Moving to the next point This leads directly to my next point. This brings us to the next question. Let’s now move on / turn to ... After examining this point, let’s turn to ... Let’s now take a look at... Going back As I said / mentioned earlier, ... Let me come back to what I said before ... Let’s go back to what we were discussing earlier. As I’ve already explained, ... As I pointed out in the first section, ... Referring to other points I have a question in connection with/concerning payment. There are a few problems regarding the quality. With respect / regard to planning, we need more background information. Structuring I’ve divided my presentation into three (main) parts. In my presentation I’ll focus on three major issues. Sequencing Point one deals with ... , point two ..., and point three ... First, I’ll be looking at... , second ... , and third ... I’ll begin/start off by ... Then I’ll move onto ... Then/Next /After that.. .I’ll end with ... Timing My presentation will take about 30 minutes. It will take about 20 minutes to cover these issues. This won’t take more than ... Handouts Does everybody have a handout/brochure/copy of the report? Please take one and pass them on. Don’t worry about taking notes. I’ve put all the important statistics on a handout for you I’ll be handing out copies of the slides at the end of my talk. I can email the PowerPoint presentation to anybody who wants it. Questions There will be time for questions after my presentation. We will have about 10 minutes for questions in the question and answer period. If you have any questions, feel free to interrupt me at any time. Feel free to ask questions at any time during my talk.
Conclusion Indicating the end of your talk I’m now approaching/nearing the end of my presentation. Well, this brings me to the end of my presentation. That covers just about everything I wanted to say about... OK, I think that’s everything I wanted to say about... As a final point, I’d like to ... Finally, I’d like to highlight one key issue. Summarizing points Before I stop, let me go over the key issues again. Just to summarize the main points of my talk ... I’d like to run through my main points again ... To conclude/In conclusion, I’d like to ... To sum up (then), we .;. Making recommendations We’d suggest... We therefore (strongly) recommend that... In my opinion, we should ... Based on the figures we have, I’m quite certain that... Inviting questions Now I'll try to answer any questions you may have. Can I answer any questions? Are there any questions? Do you have any questions? Are there any (final) questions? And now I’ll be happy to answer any questions you may have. Quoting a well-known person As ... once said,... To quote a well-known scientist, ... To put it in the words of... Referring back to the beginning Remember what I said at the beginning of my talk today? Let me just go back to the story I told you earlier. Remember, ...
Thanking your audience Many thanks for your attention. May I thank you all for being such an attentive audience.

Exercise 68. Act out the situation. Your paper has been accepted by the Organizing Committee. To­day you are given the floor to present your research data. The time limit is six minutes. Make your presentation.



Exercise 69. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the Gerund:

1. It goes without saying. 2. There are two ways of getting sugar: one from beet and the other from sugarcane. 3. Jane Eyre was fond of reading. 4. It looks like raining. 5. My watch wants repairing. 6. Thank you for coming. 7. I had no hope of getting an answer before the end of the month.

Exercise 70. Transform the sentences using the Gerund with the preposition of:

Model: She thought she would go to the country for the weekend. –She thought of going to the country for the weekend.

1. I thought I would come and see you tomorrow. 2. She has always dreamt she will live in a small house by the sea. 3. He thought he would buy a new car after that terrible accident. 4. He dreams he will travel round the world. 5. He thought he would publish his article in the international journal.

Exercise 71. Transform the sentences using the Gerund with the preposition after:

Model: When she had bought everything she needed, she went home. – After buying everything she needed, she went home.

1. When he had made a thorough study of the subject, he found that it was a great deal more important than he had thought at first. 2. After I had hesitated some minutes, I finally decided to support the first point of view. 3. When she had graduated from the university, she went to teach in her hometown. 4. When he had proved that his theory was correct, he started studying ways and means of improving the conditions of work in very deep coalmines.

Exercise 72. Open the brackets using Participle I according to the model:

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