GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ROLE OF ARMOR IN MODERN WARFARE



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GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ROLE OF ARMOR IN MODERN WARFARE



Armor is the arm of speed and violence. It is fast, highly mobile, has great firepower and produces shock effect. Armor has been responsible in the past years for much of the change toward more open and fluid warfare, faster movements, more dispersion, more elastic defense formations, and the ability to concentrate great power at a decisive point.

Modern armor is a combined arms force designed to conduct decisive, highly mobile, ground environment, primary offensive in nature, employing armor-protected vehicles as a primary means of accomplishing a ground combat mission through the use of both ground and air vehicles.

Armor operates normally within a force structure that may include tanks, mechanized infantry, artillery, engineers, armored cavalry, and Army Aviation, supported on the battlefield by a flexible and rapid communication system, and a mobile logistic system.

ARMOR MISSIONS

Armor units fight normally as a combined arms force of two or more arms, each complementing the other and aiding the forward movement of the force by employing its own special capa­bilities.

Armor includes tank units, armored cavalry units, and mechanized infantry units, their primary missions being as follows:

1. tank units close with and destroy enemy forces, using fire, maneuver, and shock effect in coordination with other arms;

2. armored cavalry units perform reconnaissance and provide security for the unit to which organic, assigned, or attached, and engage in offensive, defensive, and delaying action as an economy of force unit;

3. mechanized infantry units close with the enemy by means of fire and maneuver to destroy or capture him or to repel his assault by fire, close to combat, and counterattack.

ARMOR CAPABILITIES

Armor is capable of operating throughout the spectrum of warfare, from cold war to general war. Armored vehicles are particularly suited to a nuclear environment because their armor protection reduces significantly the effects on personnel of blast and radiation from a nuclear burst and, even at close ranges to such burst, shields personnel from thermal effects.

Armor's inherent characteristics of mobile firepower, mobility, armor protection, shock effect, and responsiveness to command endow it with an optimum capability for accomplishing the following actions: deep penetration and wide envelopment; exploitation; mobile defense; destruction of enemy armor formations; reconnaissance and security; counter-guerrilla operations; close support of infantry; economy of force; counterinsurgency operations.

Objectives appropriate for the armor units are those that are beyond reach of other forces and that will insure success of the corps or field army missions. In the enemy rear areas armor forces attain great freedom of action as they maneuver to seize terrain; disrupt communication; destroy CPs; missile sites, artillery, and troops reserve; and capture or destroy supplies.

1.s Answer the questions.

1. What are the characteristics of armor?

2. What is the designation of modern armor?

3. Within what force structure does the armor operate?

4. What type of units does the modern armor include?

5. What are the primary missions of armored cavalry units?

 

2. Translate words and word combinations into English

 

Війна, бойові дії, мобільний, система зв’яку, броньована машина, захист, ударна хвиля, радіація, ядерний вибух, бронетанкові війська, ядерна зброя, дії проти партизан, тиловий район.

TEXT 8

US ARTILLERY GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

The artillery is a supporting arm. It acts by fire alone and is not capable of independent action. The artillery is prepared to fire under either nuclear or nonnuclear conditions. The primary mission of artillery is to support the ground-gaining arms by fire, give depth to combat by counter battery fires, attack hostile reserve, restrict movement, and disrupt communication systems and other installations. Antiaircraft (AA) protection is another primary mission of artillery.

The two general types of artillery are field artillery (FA) and air defense artillery (ADA) previously antiaircraft artillery (AAA).

 

US FIELD ARTILLERY

FA is the principal agency of ground fire support. It is equipped with cannons, missiles, and equipment required for fire control, movement, observation and surveillance, and communication. It provides a powerful means of influencing the course of combat. The efficient exploitation of FA capabilities depends on control, liaison, communication, observation, location and evaluation of targets, surveillance, and logistic support.

FA weapos are classified as cannons or missiles.

FA cannons are classified according to cal as light (120 mm and less), medium (greater than 120 mm but not to exceed 160 mm), heavy (greater than 160 mm but not to exceed 210 mm), very heavy (greater than 210 mm). Very heavy cannons are not employed by active Army field artillery units.

FA cannons are further classified according to their method of organic transport as towed (designed for movement by a separate vehicle generally termed a prime mover), self-propelled (SP) (installed on carriages which provide automotive power for the arty piece and from which the weapon is fired) and aerial (carried on airmobile vehicles). A towed weapon may be auxiliary propelled by a mounted propulsion unit. Depending on the prime mover towed arty may be subdivided into truck-drawn and tractor-drawn. All cannons are considered as short-range FA.

FA missiles are classified as free rockets and guided missiles (GMs). GMs are further classified according to their range capability as short-range GMs (max range less than 100 km), medium-range GMs (max range at least 100 km but less than 500 km), and dong-range GMs (max range 500 km or more).

All FA weapons are also classified according to the method of transportation which can be used to deliver a weapon to a combat area. All artillery weapons can be transported by road, rail, or ship. Weapons that can be moved by aerial transportation are classified as air-transportable, and helicopter transportable.

 

US ADA

ADA is a separate combat arms branch of the Army since 1968. It has the primary mission of destroying, nullifying, or reducing the enemy air threat. ADA provides many deterrent weapons, not only for the support of land warfare operations, but also for the defense of Continental United States (CONUS). It is equipped with GM systems and the Vulcan 20mm gun system which is used in every division, and other equipment required for the provision of protective AD over the battlefield, as well as over important civil and mil establishments, for target acquisition, fire distribution, communication, and movement. ADA is characterized by its ability to place timely effective fire on fast moving aerial targets.

ADA weapons are classified as guns or GMs.

ADA guns are classified according to caliber and weight as light (under 90 mm), medium (90 mm or larger), heavy (larger than 90 mm).

ADA GMs are usually classified according to the guidance systems they employ.

All ADA weapons are classified according to their mobility as fixed (permanently emplaced for the protection of important areas or Installations), towed, SP, or portable (carried by hand).

ADA guns and some ADA GMs are capable of operating as FA weapons.

1.s Answer the questions.

1. What are the characteristics of US artillery?

2. What are the characteristics of US FA?

3. How are US FA weapons classified?

4. How are FA cannon classified according to caliber?

5. What is the classification of US ADA?

 

2. Translate words and word combinations into English

 

Зенітний, протиповітряна оборона, зенітна артилерія, вогнева підтримка, артилерійська гармата, керована ракета, стаціонарний, переносний, ракета дальньої дії, самохідний.

TEXT 9

CORPS OF ENGINEERS

In the United States activities of the Corps of Engineers encompass both military and civilian engineering and all related planning, organization, training, operation, supply and main­tenance. Many public structures, such as the Washington Monu­ment, the Library of Congress, the Pentagon have been built by the Corps. In the more recent past, the construction support of the space program, such as NASA Headquarters in Houston and the launch­ing facilities at Cape Kennedy, was accomplished by the Corps. The CE works hand in glove with the Environmental Protection Agency to prevent further pollution of streams and waterways and to restore them to their former purity. But the most important mission of the Corps (carried out by the engineer troop units) is provision of combat engineer support to the Army units.

 

ENGINEER TROOP UNITS

The mission of engineer troop units in a theater of operations are to facilitate the movement of friendly forces, impede the movement of enemy forces, provide engineer staff planning and advice to all commanders in the theatre of operations (TO) and to provide all engineer services required in a TO. To accomplish their respective missions, engineer troop units in a TO are capable of —

Participating as a part of the combined arms team in all forms of combat operations (combat engineer units). This includes the offense, the defense and the retrograde in all types of operations, including airborne, airmobile and amphibious operations. In these operations they perform specialized tasks, alone or in cooperation with other units — such as the construction, destruction, breaching, or passage of obstacles and barriers; river crossings; and employment of atomic demolition munitions (ADM). Engineer combat units may be committed as units to engage in infantry type combat.

Constructing, rehabilitating, maintaining and repairing all types of facilities such as depots, hospitals, protective shelters, roads, railroads, bridges, ports, POL pipelines, airfields, heliports, etc.

Providing potable water for field troops.

Providing mapping and terrain intelligence, as well as advice on demolition and camouflage or demolition or cam services when required.

Decontaminating vital areas contaminated with chemical agents or radioactive materials.

1.s Answer the questions.

1. What construction support was accomplished by the Corps of Engineers in the more recent past in the USA?

2. What is the most important mission of the Corps of Engineers?

3. What are the missions of engineer troop units in a TO?

4. What tasks do engineer combat units perform in combat operations?

5. What types of facilities do engineer troop units construct, rehabilitate, maintain and repair?

 

2. Translate words and word combinations into English

 

Військова інженерна частина, інженерне забезпечення бойових дій, форсування річки, трубопровід, підривні роботи, інженерне командування, полегшувати рух своїх військ, приймати участь в бою.

TEXT 10

US SIGNAL CORPS

Within the classification of combat, combat support and service support, the Signal Corps is a combat support branch with the overall mission of planning, installing, operating and maintaining the Army's worldwide communication system.

The responsibilities of the Signal Corps include establishing, maintaining, operating and refining communication networks for tactical operations; operating the Army portion of 'the global strategic communication network; training signal specialists, officer and enlisted; carrying out research and development projects; handling the logistics of storage, distribution and repair of communications-electronics materiel, staffing the Army photographic and pictorial services; experimenting in the atmospheric sciences and training meteorological specialists; developing highly specialized electronic equipment for use in the space satellite program; and special research in the fields of avionics and combat surveillance.

 

SIGNAL CORPS UNITS

The complexities of today's Army require a flexible Signal Corps organization. While many types of Table of Organization and equipment (TOE) signal organizations are authorized, if not in actual existence, signal personnel are employed in practically every organizational structure throughout the Army. The Army depends upon the Signal Corps to provide the communication required by the army commander for his operational needs. The Signal Corps provides the command communication system superimposed upon the area communication system to meet this requirement.

A field army signal brigade is the signal organization formed and employed to provide an area communication system and a command communication system for a field army. The brigade assigns servicing elements including the various organic signal battalions (i.e. communication and construction) to plan, install, maintain and operate the integrated network of the command communication system serving from the field army HQ down to each combat brigade. Also, at each combat brigade there is a Signal Corps officer who serves as the brigade Communications-Electronics officer. Every manoeuvre battalion placed under the combat brigade has its own C-E off in charge of organic communications and in command of the battalion communication platoon.

At corps level, there is a signal battalion which provides command communication from the corps command post (CP) to the division CPs. This battalion performs its msn by using five organic cos: a HHC, two command operations companies for the corps main and alternate CPs, a command radio relay and cable company, and command artillery radio relay company.

 

1.s Answer the questions.

1. What is the mission of the Signal Corps?

2. What are the responsibilities of the Signal Corps?

3. In what respect does the Army depend upon the Signal Corps?

4. What purpose is a field army signal brigade formed and employed?

 

2. Translate words and word combinations into English

 

Засоби зв’язку і радіоелектроніки, електронне обладнання, мережа зв’язку, начальник зв’язку, рота зв’язку, класифікація, гнучкий, обслуговування, розгортання систем зв’язку.


TEXT 11

AIRBORNE OPERATIONS

Air born troops involve the movement and delivery by air of combat forces and their logistic support into enemy objective area for the execution of a tactical or a strategic mission. These forces may consist of airborne, infantry, and mechanized infantry divisions and air transportable units with supporting artillery. Air born troops may be a joint effort, using US Air Force, Navy, and Army transport aircraft.

CLASSIFICATION

Air born troops are classified as short-duration and long-duration. Division or division units conduct short-duration operations with limited nondivisional reinforcing units. They engage in combat using accompanying supplies and limited followup supplies. There is no routine supply phase: the assault force receives minimum combat service support in the objective area and the operation terminates with the early relief, withdrawal, or relief for subsequent operations.

In long-duration operation, nondivision combat, combat support, and combat service support units reinforce airborne units. These forces are usually committed to sus­tained ground combat. Long-duration operations involve a substantial buildup of troop, supply, and equipment primarily by airlines of communications.

The mission assigned to the airborne force determines the type of operation to be conducted. An airborne raid is normally a short-duration operation, while a large-scale operation conducted deep in the enemy's rear is usually a long-duration operation that requires a buildup by airlines of communication and a linkup between two forces. Both types of operations may be either tactical or strategic.

 

CONCEPT OF EMPLOYMENT

Usually airborne forces are not committed on missions that can be performed as economically or as expeditiously by other combat forces. Airborne forces move directly to the objective area or to forward bases. Airborne forces are airlifted from these forward bases by AF aircraft to conduct airborne assault operations. An airborne capability is a strategic threat that may compel the enemy to disperse and dissipate his forces to protect vital installa­tions in his rear areas and on his flanks.

Airborne forces can exploit the results of nuclear, biological, or chemical attack when existing radiation or level of persistent chemical or biological agent contamination in areas of employment is within acceptable limits.

Airborne operations can be conducted in areas occupied by well organized enemy combat forces when preceded by neutralizing preassault air bombardment or intensive FA fires.

Airborne operations can be conducted in either daylight or darkness or under other conditions of reduced visibility. Because of the inherent difficulties in night or reduced visibility operations, commanders prefer to launch major airborne assaults during daylight. Forces conduct loading and a major portion of their air movement during darkness or other conditions of reduced visibility to conceal these operations. Forces avoid establishing a recognizable pattern of timing in the assaults.

Parachute elements normally make the initial assault. Air-landed units then move into protected landing areas. When required, airborne operations can be conducted entirely by parachute. Air-landed units can conduct assault operations without having been preceded by a parachute assault if the land­ing area is undefended, lightly defended, or neutralized. The airborne force is most vulnerable to enemy counterattack, particularly armoured and mechanized forces, immediately after landing. Tactical air support and artillery restrict the movement of enemy forces into the airhead area during this period.

Since the airborne division is most vulnerable to enemy during the landing and reorganization of its assault echelon it must land and be reorganized with maximum speed and precision.

1.s Answer the questions.

1. What do airborne operations involve?

2. What units may airborne forces consist of?

3. What is meant by short-duration airborne combat operations?

4. What is the airborne force most vulnerable to?

5. What is the concept of employment of US airborne forces?

 

2. Translate words and word combinations into English

 

Район десантування, короткочасна десантна операція, матеріальні засоби, що доставляються одночасно з висадкою десанту, матеріальні засоби, що доставляються після висадки десанту, повітряні комунікації, повітряна атака, висадка повітряного десанту, плацдарм десантування.

TEXT 12

CHARACTERISTICS OF INFANTRY

The infantry is the basic ground-gaining arm of the Army. It is also the arm of close combat. Its mission is to close with the enemy by fire and maneuver in order to destroy or capture him, or to hold its positions and repel his attack by fire, close combat, or counterattack.

Because of its versatility today's infantry is capable of fighting under widely varying conditions of terrain, weather, and nuclear availability which often restrict the employment of heavy weapons and equipment. It can move by land, sea от air. The modern infantry may fight on foot, or go into action by parachute, helicopter, armored personnel carrier, or assault boat. The infantry can operate at night, or under any climatic conditions, and can overcome natural and man-made obstacles which would stop other forces.

The advent of nuclear weapons has not changed the role of infantry on the battlefield but has brought to life mechanized infantry which move and fight in armored personnel carrier (APC's). The decisiveness of infantry in combat will continue and four of the five types of current ROAD divisions are infantry.

TYPE ROAD DIVISIONS

The ROAD division is the smallest unit of the combined arms and services. There are five types of combat divisions: armored, mechanized, infantry, airborne and air assault. Divisions are formed by combining a division base with varying proportions of six to fifteen combat battalions of different types (tank, infantry, mechanized, airborne infantry and air assault infantry).

The combat battalions have many similarities. They are as nearly the same in organization as possible, consistent with their individual roles. All battalions are of essentially one combat arm, i.e. armor in tank battalion and infantry in other battalions.

Each ROAD division has its own characteristics. The armored division combines fast maneuver with great firepower. The mechanized division resembles the infantry division but has greater mobility and shock power. The airborne division is for vertical envelopment by airborne assault, using parachutes and Air Force troop carrier and assault landing aircraft. The air assault division with its helicopters has an ability to deliver firepower quickly anywhere.

The common base of each type ROAD division consists of the division HQ and HQ соmpany, three brigade HQ and HQ cos, division artillery, support command, aviation battalion (in infantry and air assault divisions) or aviation соmpany (in mechanized and armored divisions), engineer and signal battalions, armored cavalry squadron, ADA battalion, and a military police company.

1.s Answer the questions.

1. What is the mission of infantry?

2. How can infantry fight?

3. Has the role of infantry changed with the advent of nuclear weapons?

4. What types of combat divisions are there in the US Army?

5. How are divisions formed?

6. What common features have combat battalions?

 

2. Translate words and word combinations into English

 

БТР, ближній бій, контратака, поле бою, механізована дивізія, піхотний батальйон, мотопіхотний батальйон, маневр, вогнева міць, ударна хвиля, мобільність, рота армійської авіації, батальйон зв’язку, розвідувальний батальйон, зенітний дивізіон, відбивати атаку.

TEXT 13

DEFINITION OF TERRORISM

Definitions provided by journalists, governmental spokespersons and public debaters often reflect the purely political definition, and, more importantly, tend to be descriptive. One such example is that provided by Schmid. He writes: “Terrorism is a method of combat in which random or symbolic victims serve as an instrumental target of violence. These instrumental victims share group or class characteristics which form the basis for their selection for victimization. Through previous use of violence or the credible threat of violence other members of that group or class are put in a state of chronic fear (terror).This group or class, whose members’ sense of security is purposefully undermined, is the target of terror. The victimization of the target of violence is considered abnormal by most observers from the witnessing audience on the basis of its atrocity, the time (e.g., peacetime) or place (not battlefield) of victimization, or the disregard for rules of combat accepted in conventional warfare. The norm violation creates an attentive audience beyond the target of terror; sectors of this audience might in turn form the main object of manipulation. The purpose of this indirect method of combat is either to immobilize the target of terror in order to produce disorientation and/or compliance or to mobilize secondary targets of demands (e.g., a government) or targets of attention (e.g., public opinion) to changes of attitude or behaviour favouring the short or long term interests of the users of this method of combat.”

To some scholars, the purely political definition of terrorism was not only confusing, but was also based on, among other things, forms of violence that are restricted to violence against a government. Yet, upon closer investigation, it is apparent that even acts of violence which originate in state governments, or in their authorities, can be terrorism, as for example, state-inspired or state-sponsored terrorism. Consequently, terrorism is not necessarily the same thing as violence against a government, and that the term "terrorism" is not to be confused with guerrilla war, riots, etc.

On the other hand, some scholars prefer to look at the nature of the terrorist act itself, rather than address terrorism in abstract legal norms.

Thus, Brian Jenkins, in his down to earth approach, opines that: "All terrorist acts are crimes. Many would also be violations of the rules of war, if a state of war existed. All involve violence or the threat of violence, often coupled with specific demands. The targets are mainly civilians. The motives are political. The actions generally are designed to achieve maximum publicity. The perpetrators are usually members of an organized group, and unlike other criminals, they often claim credit for the act. (This is a true hallmark of terrorism.) And, finally, it is intrinsic to a terrorist act that it is usually intended to produce psychological effects far beyond the immediate physical damage. One person’s terrorist is everyone’s terrorist."

According to Richard Clutterbuck, an ancient Chinese proverb tells it all: "Kill one to frighten ten thousand".

Thus, in order to produce this fear, the selected victims are usually civilians, not soldiers or policemen. Killing a soldier does not frighten his ten thousand comrades. On the contrary, their reaction is to urge their officers to lead them out with their guns to find the killer. But if a member of a family is killed by political terrorists on the street outside his home, everyone on that street is in terror lest it happens to them. Thus, according to this theory: "terrorism is theatre; it is aimed at the audience rather than at the victim."

On his part, Yoram Dinstein makes a very personal definition of terrorism. He writes:

“I regard terrorism as any unlawful act of violence committed with a view to terrorizing. To my mind, it is no accident that the term "terrorism" has been chosen to describe a certain pattern of human conduct. Terrorism is a derivative of terror. My contention is that almost any crime can amount to an act of terrorism, provided that it is perpetrated in order to instill fear. The same crime will not qualify as an act of terrorism if its motive or purpose is not to terrorize.”

1.s Answer the questions.

1. What is international terrorism?

2. What definitions of terrorism do you know?

3. What are the objectives of terrorism?

4. Do you think there is a difference between terms “warfare” and “terrorism”?

5. What methods of terrorism do you know?

 

2. Translate words and word combinations into English

 

Визначення, тероризм, жертва, загроза, насилля, мета, жорстокість, мирний час, поведінка, партизанська війна, повстання, злочинець, страх, злочин, мотив.

TEXT 14



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