Jealous boyfriend kills Bluegate girl

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Jealous boyfriend kills Bluegate girl

On 7 June a 21-year-old Blueland female was murdered in the village of Bluegate. Earlier in the day, the woman had argued with her boyfriend when she told him that she had decided to end their relationship. Later that afternoon, a man broke into the girl’s family flat and shot her. The victim’s boyfriend has been arrested in connection with the murder.

Blueport naturist arrested

A Blueport man was stopped by the police last Friday when he was caught running naked along a country road. The man has parked his car near a remote beach. As the man was lying on the beach, the thief broke into his car and stole the man’s wallet and trousers. The man was stopped by police as he was chasing the thief.

Police hero gets medal for bravery

On the morning 9 June, an off duty UN police officer prevented a tragedywhen he persuaded an armed robber with a hostage to surrender. At 11 a.m. the robber, carrying an assault rifle, had entered the Blueville City Bank. He left the bank 10 minutes later with a female hastage. Lieutenant Kimura had seen the man enter the building and he had immediately requested back up. Police units had not arrived when the man came out of the bank and Lieutenant Kimura decided he could not wait. Armed with only his service revolver, he confronted the robber. By the time the policire response team arrived on the scene, Lieutenant Kimura had persuaded the man to surrender.

3. Match the words with the definitions.
kidnapping Taking property from a person by force.
murder Illegally taking a person away.
robbery Deliberately killing a person.
theft Illegally taking someone else’s property.
arson The theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle.
car theft Starting a fire in order to damage or destroy something.
rape Forcing someone to have sex.
4.ó ® Read the texts 1-3(ex. 2). Decide which text is …


1. a funny story.

2. a story of heroism.

3. a tragic story.

5.s Answer the questions for each report.


1. What happened?

2. When did it happen?

3. Where did it happen?

4. Who was involved?


6.ó ® Read article 3 again and order the events.


1. The robber left the bank with a female hostage.

2. Lt Kimura confronted robber and persuaded him to surrender.

3. The police response team arrived on the scene.

4. The robber entered the Blueville City Bank carrying an assault rifle.

5. Lt Kimura requested back up.


7. Choose the best tense to complete the sentences. Read the note first.


NOTE: we use the past perfect to show that one event happened before another.

E.g.Lieutenant Kimura had seen the man enter the building.

We use when, by the time and because to link the past perfect with thw past simple.

E.g. The woman had argued with her boyfriend when she told him …


On the morning of 8 June, a combined Blueland Police and UN Police operation (1) had struck/struck a major blow against arms smugglers. Someone (2) had told/told UN Police officers about a truck with illegal automatic weapons and the UN Police (3) had informed/informed the local police. It appeared that the Blueland Police intelligence unit (4) had known/knew about the smuggling for some time but they could not arrest the smugglers because they (5) hadn’t had/didn’t have specific information.


8.ó ® Describe the pictures.





ü We can use may or might to say that something is a possibility:

E.g. It may be true. or . It might be true (= perhaps it is true)


  I/you/he (etc.) may (not) might (not) be (true/in his office etc.) be (doing/going/joking etc.) know/work/want etc.


ü For past we use may have (done) and might have (done).

E.g. I wonder why Kate didn’t answer the phone. She may have been asleep. (= perhaps she was asleep)

I can’t find my bag anywhere. – You might have left it in the shop. (= perhaps you left it in the shop)

I was surprised that Kate wasn’t at the meeting yesterday. - She might not have known about it. (= perhaps she didn’t know)

I wonder why David was in such a bad mood yesterday. – He may not havebeen feeling well. (= perhaps he wasn’t feeling well)


  I/you/he (etc.) may might (not) have been (asleep / at work etc.) been (doing / looking etc.) gone / got / known etc.


ü Could is similar to may and migh.

E.g. It’s a strange story, but itcould be true. (= it may/might be true)

You could have left your bag in the shop. (= you may/might have left it in the shop)


But couldn’t (negative) is different from may not and might not. Compare:

Sarah couldn’t have got my message. Otherwise she would have replied. (= it is not possible that she got my message)

I wonder why Sarah hasn’t replied to my message. I suppose she might not have got it. (= perhaps she didn’t get it, and perhaps she did)


9. Write these sentences in a different way using might. In sentences 8-10 use might not.


Example: Perhaps Helen is in her office. – She might be in her office.

1. Perhaps John is busy.

2. Perhaps he is working.

3. Perhaps he wants to be alone.

4. Perhaps Ann was ill yesterday.

5. Perhaps she went home early.

6. Perhaps she had to go home early.

7. Perhaps Jill was working yesterday.

8. Perhaps she doesn’t want to see me.

9. Perhaps she isn’t working today.

10. Perhaps she wasn’t feeling well yesterday.


10. Complete each sentence with a verb in the correct form. The first one is done for you.


1. ‘Where’s Sam?’ - ‘I’m not sure. He might be having lunch.’

2. ‘Who is that man with Emily?’ – ‘I’m not sure. It might ______ her brother.’

3. ‘Who was the man we saw with Emily yesterday?’ – ‘I’m not sure. It may ______ her brother.’

4. ‘What are those people doing by the side of the road?’ – ‘I don’t know. They might ______ for a bus.’

5. ‘Do you have a stamp?’ – ‘No, but ask Simon. He may ______ one.’


11. Read the situation and make sentences from the words in brackets. Use might. The first one is done for you.


1. I can’t find Jeff anywhere. I wonder where he is.

a. (he / go / shopping) He might have gone shopping.

b. (he /play / tennis) He might be playing tennis.

2. I’m looking for Sarah. Do you know where she is?

a. (she / watch / TV /in her room)________________________________

b. (she / go / out) _____________________________________________

3. I can’t find my umbrella. Have you seen it?

a. (it / be /in the car)___________________________________________

b. (you / leave / in the restaurant last night) ________________________

4. Why didn’t Dave answer the doorbell? I’m sure he was at home at the time.

a. (he / go / to bed early)_______________________________________

b. (he / not / hear / the doorbell) _________________________________

c. (he / be / in the shower) ______________________________________


12. Complete the sentences using might not have… or couldn’t have…The first one is done for you.


1. Do you think Sarah got the message we sent her? – No, she would have contacted us. She couldn’t have got it.

2. I was surprised Kate wasn’t at the meeting. Perhaps she didn’t know about it. – That’s possible. She _______________________________________

3. I wonder why they never replied to our letter. Do you think they received it? – Maybe not. They ____________________________________________

4. I wonder how the fire started. Was it an accident? – No, the police say it __

5. Mike says he needs to see you. He tried to find you yesterday. – Well, he _____________________ very hard. I was in my office all day.

6. The man you spoke to – are you sure he was American? – No, I’m not sure. He __________________________________________________




“John, is it true that you were wounded?”

“Right, Jim, the bullet hit my chest.”

“And how did it miss your heart?”

“My heart was in my boots at that moment.”


Drilling by the Numbers

“Private Atkins, why have you faced about at the preliminary command? There was no executive command.”

“I understand you at half word, sergeant.”


Puzzling Question

“What is the sentry doing when a crow alights on his submachine gun?”

“He’s sleeping.”

UNIT: 28


Lesson 5


1. In this exercise we’ll concentrate on the words and word combinations to be sure you know what they mean
helicopter a type of aircraft which derives both lift and propulsion from one or two sets of horizontally revolving overhead rotors. It is capable of moving vertically and horizontally, the direction of motion being controlled by the pitch of the rotor blades
detachment a group of troops, aircraft, or ships sent away on a separate mission
assets military equipment, such as planes, ships, communications and radar installations, employed or targeted in military operations
available able to be used or obtained; at someone's disposal
cargo goods carried on a ship, aircraft, or motor vehicle
sling a flexible strap or belt used in the form of a loop to support or raise a weight
combat fighting between armed forces
range the distance that can be covered by a vehicle or aircraft without refuelling
reconnaissance military observation of a region to locate an enemy or ascertain strategic features
cannon a heavy automatic gun, especially one that is fired from an aircraft
winch a hauling or lifting device consisting of a rope or chain winding round a horizontal rotating drum, turned typically by a crank or by motor
squadron an operational unit in an air force consisting of two or more flights of aircraft and the personnel required to fly them
maintenance the process of keeping something in good condition
spare part an item kept in case another item of the same type is lost, broken, or worn out
2. Read the text and translate it into Ukrainian.



The 101st helicopter detachment provides air assets for Sector Southwest and is made up of eight AS 532 Cougar helicopters, five of which are always available. The Coguar’s main role is armed transport helicopter. It can transport cargo and light vehicles weighing up to 4,500 kg on its sling and can carry up to 20 combat troops with their equipment. With a maximum speed of 325 km/h, a range of 769 km and sophisticated radar and forward looking infra-red sensors, the Cougar is ideally suited to the Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) role as well as aerial patrols and reconnaissance missions. Although not an attack helicopter, the aircraft is equipped with two machine guns, outboard 20mm cannon and rockets.


For CSAR missions, 101st Squadron flies operationally with a crew of 4. There are 2 pilots, a radar/winch operator and a winchman with paramedic training. “The crew follow a 24-hour shift pattern,” explains pilot Lieutenant Koren. “We have a readiness state of 15 minutes between the hours of 0800 and 2200.” Outside of these hours the crews are on a 45-minute standby.

“We fly an average of 60 hours per month,” pointed out Lieutenant Koren. Most of the missions consist of transportation, including Casualty Evacuation (CASEVAC) from the point of injury and Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC). The helicopters are tasked daily according to the Air Tasking Order (ATO). “The ATO is the key document for running air ops in the theatre of operations,” adds Lt Koren.

The flight crews are backed up by the Squadron’s ground crew who work 12-hour shifts to ensure maximum aircraft availability. Technicians look after the maintenance and spare parts and the Air Operations Centre (AOC) provides air traffic control and looks after flight plans and meteorology. “We have registered landing zones all over the sector,” adds Lieutenant Gostic. “But it’s impossible to land everywhere because of the mine threat. We will usually land on asphalt road or on a recently harvested field.”


3.s Read the text and answer the questions.


1 How many aircraft are available at any time?

2 What does CASEVAC mean?

3 What roles does the Cougar perform?

4 How fast can crews mount a mission between 2200 and 0800 hrs?

5 Why do pilots land on roads or harvested fields?


4.ó ® Find a word or phrase in the text that means…


1. a machine that lifts heavy objects with a chain or rope.

2. training to give emergency medical treatment.

3. emergency evacuation of injured personnel to a hospital.

4. evacuation of medical cases from one medical facility to another.

5. daily list of missions, flight itineraries, and cargo information.


5.ó ® Match the words with the definitions.


Air Medical Evacuation Team Ground Rescue Team Quick Reaction Team


1. A team with paramedic training embarked in the helicopter. ___

2. Soldiers on standby to respond to an emergency situation. ___

3. Combat troops tasked to provide protection or security at the LZ. (landing zone) ___


6. Translate the words with the definitions.

1. Air Tasking Order (n) Daily list of missions, including take-off / landing times, flight itineraries, and cargo information.

2. Casualty evacuation (n) Emergency evacuation of injured personnel from the point of injury to a hospital.

3. Combat air patrol (n) An aircraft patrol to stop and destroy hostile aircraft before they reach target.

4. Combat search and rescue (n) Search and rescue missions carried out during war or military operations other than war.

5. Scramble (n) An order directing aircraft to take off as quickly as possible.

6. Search and rescue (n) To locate missing civilians and military personnel and help take them out of dangerous situations.

7. VIP transport (n) The transport of very important people, such as politicians and senior military officers.

7. Write the words in full.

1. CASEVAC ___________________________________________

2. CSAR _______________________________________________

3. VIP _________________________________________________




ü I have to do something = it is necessary to do it, I am obliged to do it:

E.g. You can’t turn right here. You have to turn left.

Ihave towear glasses for reading.

George can’t come out with us this evening. He has to work late.

Last week Tina broke her arm and had to go to hospital.


We use do / does / did in questions and negative sentences (for the present and past simple):

E.g.What do I have to do to get a new driving licence?

Karen doesn’t have to work on Saturdays.

Why did you have to leave early?


You can use have to with will and might / may:

E.g.If the pain gets worse, you’ll have to go to the doctor.

I might have to work late tomorrow evening. (= it’s possible that I will have to)


ü Must is similar to have to:

E.g. It’s later than I thought. I must go. or I have to go.


You can use must to give your own opinion. Have to is also possible.

E.g. I haven’t spoken to Sue for ages. I must phone her. (I say this is necessary)

Mark is a really nice person. You must meet him. (I recommend this)


We use have to to say what someone is obliged to do. The speaker is not giving his / her own opinion:

E.g.I have to work from 8.30 to 17.30 every day. (a fact, not an opinion)

Jane has to travel a lot for her work.


But must is often used in written rules and instructions:

E.g.Applications for the job must be received by 10 September.

(exam instruction) You must write your answers in ink.


ü Mustn’t and don’t have to are completely different:


You mustn’t do sth = it is necessary that you do not do it You must keep it a secret. You mustn’t tell anyone. (= don’t tell anyone) You don’t have to do sth = you don’t need to do it: You don’t have to tell him, but you can if you want.


8. Complete the sentences with have to/has to/had to. The first one is done for you.


1. Bill starts at 5 a.m. He has to get upat four. (he / get up)

2. ‘I broke my arm last week.’ ____________________ to hospital? (you / go)

3. There was a lot of noise from the street. __________ the window. (we / close)

4. Karen can’t stay for the whole meeting. _______________ early. (she / leave)

5. How old _____________________ to drive in your country? (you / be)

6. I don’t have much time. _____________________ (I / hurry)

7. How is Jill enjoying her new job? __________________ a lot? (she / travel)

8. ‘I’m afraid I can’t stay long.’ ‘What time ____________________ ? (you /go)

9. ‘The bus was late again.’ ‘How long ___________________ ? (you / wait)

10. There was nobody to help me. I __________________ everything by myself. (I / do)


9. Complete each sentence using have to + the verbs in the list. Some sentences are positive (I have to …) and some are negative (I don’t have to). The first one is done for you.


ask do drive get up go make make pay show


1. I’m not working tomorrow, so I don’t have to get upearly.

2. Steve didn’t know how to use the computer, so I ___________________ him.

3. Excuse me a moment – I _______________ a phone call. I won’t be long.

4. I’m not so busy. I have a few things to do, but I _______________ them now.

5. I couldn’t find the street I wanted. I _____________ somebody for directions.

6. The car park is free. You ________________ to park your car there.

7. A man was injured in the accident, but he _______________ to hospital because it wasn’t serious.

8. Sue has a senior position in the company. She ________ important decisions.

9. When Patrick starts his new job next month, he _____________ 50 miles to work every day.


10. In some of the sentences, must is wrong or unnatural. Correct the sentences where necessary. The first one is done for you.


1. I must work every day from 8.30 to 17.30. I have to work.

2. It’s later than I thought. I must go.

3. You must come and see us again soon.

4. Tom can’t meet us tomorrow. He must work.

5. I must work late yesterday evening.

6. I must get up early tomorrow. I have lots to do.

7. Julia wears glasses. She must wear glasses since she was very young.


11. Complete the sentences using mustn’t or don’t / doesn’t have to. The first one is done for you.


1. I don’t want anyone to know about our plan. You mustn’t tell anyone.

2. Richard ________ wear a suit to work, but he usually does.

3. I can stay in bed tomorrow morning because I ________ go to work.

4. Whatever you do, you ________ touch this switch. It’s very dangerous.

5. There’s a lift in the building, so we ________ climb the stairs.

6. You ________ forget what I told you. It is very important.

7. Sue ________ get up early, but she usually does.

8. Don’t make so much noise. We ________ wake the children.

9. I ________ eat too much. I’m supposed to be on a diet.

10. You ________ be a good player to enjoy a game of tennis.


12.ó ® Describe the picture.


Close Combat

“Where are you running like mad from the firing line, Private Right?”

“I’ve fired all the rounds for this exercise but the target hasn’t been hit. So I’m closing with the enemy for hand-to-hand fighting, sir.”


At Halt

“Why are the men of your squad loitering, Sergeant Lowson?”

“We are holding a tactical training exercise, sir.”

“What are you training for like that?”

“We are learning how to rest during march halts, sir.”


Saving Ammunition

“Well, sergeant, I have a suggestion to make.”

“What’s that about, Private Hallman?”

“I think our gun crew could save ammunition at the next field firing exercise.”

“How come?”

“Suppose all of us yell ‘Bang’ and there is one shell saved.”

UNIT: 28


Lesson 6


1. In this exercise we’ll concentrate on the words and word combinations to be sure you know what they mean
individual weapon personal weapon
ammunition a supply or quantity of bullets and shells
rifleman a soldier armed with a rifle, especially a private in a rifle regiment
fighting order equipment for fighting
marching order equipment for marching
grenade a small bomb thrown by hand or launched mechanically
webbing the system of belts, pouches, and straps worn by a soldier as part of his combat uniform
Bergen a type of rucksack supported by a frame, used by the military
beret a round flattish cap of felt or cloth
gloves a covering for the hand worn for protection against cold or dirt and typically having separate parts for each finger and the thumb
sleeping bag a warm lined padded bag to sleep in, especially when camping
combat helmet a hat made of a strong material which you wear to protect your head.
body armour clothing worn by army and police personnel to protect against gunfire
radio headset a set of headphones, typically with a microphone attached, used especially in telephony and radio communication
2. Read the text and translate it into Ukrainian.


On exercises and operations, soldiers carry their individual weapon, ammunition, water, food and protective clothing. Depending on the tactical situation, riflemen wear either fighting order or marching order. Fighting order weighs about ten kilos and includes all the equipment the soldier needs to survive for two to three days: individual weapon, extra ammunition, and grenades, webbing, digging tool, water bottle, combat rations and washing and shaving kit. Marching order weighs another seven kilos and includes a rucksack or Bergen, beret, gloves, sleeping bag, spare clothes and a towel. For protection, soldiers are issued with a Mark 6 combat helmet. In combat situations, soldiers may also be issued with body armour and a radio headset.


3.s Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions.


1. In what situations do you think fighting order is worn?

2. How much does marching order weigh?

3. When do you think marching order is worn?

4. Is the list of equipment similar to your country’s armed forces?

4.ó ® Work in pairs. Describe the weapons and equipment you carry on exercise.

5. Read the text and complete the chart.

The SA80is the standard individual weapon issued to British troops. The SA80 has a caliber of 5.56 mm and weighs approximately 5 kilos with a loaded magazine. The magazine holds 30 rounds of ammunition. The SA80 is very accurate and has a range of about 400 metres. Infantry sections are also issued with the Light Support Weapon (LSW), a version of SA80 designed as a light machine gun.


Calibre ………. mm
Barrel Length 518 mm
Weight ………. (with loaded magazine and sight)
Magazine ………. rounds
Length 785 mm
Effective Range ………. m
Rate of Fire 610-775 rounds/minute

6. Translate the words into Ukrainian and learn them.

change lever
cocking handle
magazine catch
safety catch

7. Study the examples, complete the instructions, using the words from the table.

E.g. First of all / firstly / secondly / next / after that / finally put the safety catch at the S position. When you release the cocking handle, make sure that you don’t push it forward.

finally first of all next secondly when

I will now explain how to unload the weapon. (1) ______ , put the safety catch to S and the change lever to R. (2) ______ , take the magazine with your left hand, press the magazine catch with your thumb and remove the magazine. (3) ______ the magazine is off the weapon, pull the cocking handle back to eject the round from the chamber. (4) ______ look to check that there is no round in the chamber. Make sure the weapon is pointing in a safe direction, put the safety catch to F and pull the trigger. (5) ______ , put the safety catch in the S position.

8.ó ® Work in pairs. Tell your partner about a weapon or piece of equipment you know well.

9.ó ® Describe the picture.




ü You should do something = it is a good thing to do or the right thing to do. You can use should to give advice or to give an opinion:

E.g. You look tired. You should go to bed.

The government should do more to reduce crime.


We often use should with I think / I don’t think / do you think?:

E.g. I don’t think you should work so much.

Do you think I should apply for this job?” “Yes, I think you should.”


You shouldn’t do sth = it isn’t a good thing to do:

E.g.You shouldn’t believe everything you read in the newspapers.


Should is not as strong as must or have to:

E.g. You should apologise. (= it would be a good thing to do)

You must apologise. / You have to apologise. (= you have no alternative)


ü You can use should when sth is not right or what you expect:

E.g. I wonder where Ann is. She should be here by now. (= she isn’t here yet, and this is not normal)

The price on this packet is wrong. It should be 2.50 not 3.50.


We also use should to say that we expect sth to happen:

E.g. She’s been studying hard for the exam, so she should pass. (= I expect her to pass)


ü You should have done sth = you didn’t do it, but it would have been the right thing to do:

E.g. You missed a great party last night. You should have come. Why didn’t you?


You shouldn’t have done sth = you did it, but it was the wrong thing to do:

E.g. I’m feeling sick. I shouldn’t have eaten so much. (= I ate too much)


Compare should (do) and should have (done):

E.g. You look tired. You should go to bed now.

You went to bed very late last night. You should have gone to bed earlier.


10. For each situation, write a sentences with should or shouldn’t + the phrases from the box. The first one is done for you.


go away for a few days go to bed so late look for another job
put some pictures on the walls take a photograph use her car so much


1. Liz needs a change. She should go away for a few days.

2. Your salary is very low. You …

3. John always has difficulty getting up. He …

4. What a beautiful view! You …

5. Ann drives everywhere, she never walks.

6. Bill’s room isn’t very interesting.


11. Read the situations and write sentences with I think / I don’t think … should …. The first one is done for you.


1. Peter and Cathy are planning to get married. You think it’s a bad idea. I don’t think they should get married.

2. Jane has a bad cold but plans to go out this evening. You don’t think this is a good idea. You say to her: …

3. Peter needs a job. He’s just seen an advertisement for a job which you think would be ideal for him, but he is not sure whether to apply or not. You say to him: …

4. The government wants to increase taxes, but you don’t think this is a good idea. You say: …


12. Complete the sentences with should (have) + the verb in brackets. The first one is done for you.


1. Victor should pass the exam. He’s been studying very hard. (pass)

2. You missed a great party last night. You ________ . (come)

3. We don’t see you enough. You ________ and see us more often. (come)

4. I’m in a difficult position. What do you think I ________? (do)

5. I’m sorry I didn’t take your advice. I ________ what you said. (do)

6. I’m playing tennis with Jane tomorrow. She ________ - she’s much better than I. (win)

7. We lost the match but we ________. We were the better team. (win)

8. ‘IsMike here yet?’ ‘Not yet, but he ________ here soon.’ (be)

9. I posted the letter three days ago, so it ________ by now. (arrive)


13. Read the situations and write sentences with should / shouldn’t. Some of the sentences are past and some are present. The first one is done for you.


1. I’m feeling sick. I ate too much. I shouldn’t have eaten so much.

2. That man on a motorbike isn’t wearing a helmet. That’s dangerous. He …

3. When we got to the restaurant, there were no free tables. We haven’t reserved one. We …

4. The notice says that the shop is open every day from 8.30. It is 9 o’clock now, but the shop isn’t open yet. It …

5. The speed limit is 30 miles an hour, but Kate is doing 50. She …

6. Liza gave me her address, but I didn’t write it down. Now I can’t remember it. I …

7. I was driving behind another car. Suddenly, the driver in front stopped without warning and I drove into the back of his car. It wasn’t my fault. The driver in front …

8. I walked into a wall. I was looking behind me. I wasn’t looking where I was going. I …



Curved Trajectory

“Private Smills, why did your bullets miss the target?”

“I don’t know - I took a good aim. probably the trajectory got curved near the target?”



“Why haven’t you donned your gas mask, Private Lowson? Haven’t you heard the gas alert sounded?”

“No use wearing a gas mask, sir. I’ve got a terrible cold in the head and can’t smell any gas all the same.”


Radio Reception

“Reception on the radio set must be very bad today.”


“Don’t you see how the wind is heavy – all waves will be carried away.”


UNIT: 28


Lesson 7


1. In this exercise we’ll concentrate on the words and word combinations to be sure you know what they mean
foot patrol Any kind of patrol carried out on foot. Also called dismounted patrol.
force protection Security measures to protect personnel and equipment.
main supply route The main road system for military and humanitarian convoys in an area of operations.
mobile checkpoint Checkpoints that are set up for short periods.
mounted patrol Any kind of patrol carried out in a vehicle.
presence patrol Patrols that have the mission to give a sense of security to the local population.
roadblock A closed checkpoint where movement is forbidden.
static checkpoint Permanent checkpoints deployed at fixed locations.
2. Read the text. Use the words from the box to complete the text. Translate the text into Ukrainian.
disarmament guerrilla civilian ceasefire
warring factions warlords law buffer zones



A successful Peace Support Operation (PCO) depends on close co-ordination between the military component and the (1) civiliancomponent. The military component will generally be tasked to separate the (2) ________ , which could be individual (3) ________ or groups of (4) ________ forces. They will also have the task of establishing (5) ________ and areas of separation, supervision of the (6) ________ agreement, the prevention of armed conflict within the nation by carrying out (7) ________ procedures, and they will also contribute to the maintenance of (8) ________ and order and a return to normal conditions.


Other components deployed on a PSO mission may be a civilian police force, who are tasked with supervising and controlling the local police in order to maintain law and order. The human rights component checks that human rights are observed and help start human rights education programmes. There may also be a repatriation component who takes care of refugees returning to their homes.

When a country is run by its own civilian institutions and is protected by its own armed forces, the military peace mission leaves the country and the PSO is considered completed.


3.s Answer the questions.

1. What is PSO?

2. Who has the mission of supervising the local police in a country where a PSO is in operation?

3. What are the two main tasks of the human rights component?

4. Which component of the PSO looks after refugees?

5. When does the military peace mission leave a country?

4.ó ® Match the phrases with the definitions.
An operation to attack the enemy under the best possible conditions. advance to contact
A home-made bomb or grenade. manoeuvre force
Training in preparation for an exercise or operational deployment. improvised explosive device
The combat element that moves against the enemy. training work-up
5. Read the text and label the paragraphs. Use these headings.
Boots on the ground Casualty evacuation Lessons learned Reacting to contact

1. ___________________

In the five months my platoon have spent in the DRCA, we have learned many lessons. In this article I want to share some of the lessons learned on patrolling in an urban environment. Basically, we carry out three types of foot patrol: presence patrols, checkpoints and clearing main supply routes of improvised explosive devices (IED).

2. ____________________

Routine dismounted patrols, conducted at least two to three times a week, are essential. Although mounted patrols are less risky, they do not provide adequate presence and they do not build a relationship with the local population. You should take security precautions to protect your troops, but avoiding dismounted patrols in urban areas is a bad habit and is not force protection. The best way to reduce the risk of dismounted patrols is to have more boots on the ground. This means never patrol with less than a platoon. If you are attacked, you will need enough troops to secure any casualties, set up an overwatch position, and manoeuvre against the threat.

3. _____________________

In an urban area, hostile groups will choose the time, place, and type of attack. They will aim to strike quickly and then run. You must be prepared to react to contact from any direction. If attacked, you must immediately manoeuvre against the threat and at the same time, isolate the area and provide overwatch.

4. _____________________

This requires training at every level. If you take casualties, do not let the casualty take your focus away from a combat engagement. Let your senior NCO handle the CASEVAC and focus your attention on engaging the threat. In your training work-up before deployment, integrate casualties into your exercise scenarios and train every soldier in making casualty assessments, placing a tourniquet, and calling in CASEVAC.


6. Read the text (task 3) and complete the sentences with do or don’t.

1. ______ conduct regular dismounted patrol.

2. ______ avoid dismounted patrols in urban areas.

3. ______ build a relationship with the local population.

4. ______ move against the enemy if you are attacked.

5. ______ make casualties the focus of your attention if you are attacked.


7.ó ® Work in pairs. Discuss questions.


1. Why are dismounted patrols important?

2. Why might some leaders avoid dismounted patrols?

3. What is the best way to protect troops on dismounted patrols?

4. What actions should the patrol take in case of attack?

5. What should the patrol leader do if patrol takes casualties?





ü We use would(d)/ wouldn’t when we imagine a situation or action (we think of sth that is not real):

E.g. It would be nice to buy a new car, but we can’t afford it.

I’d love to live by the sea.


We use would have (done) when we imagine situations or actions in the past (= things that didn’t happen):

E.g.They helped us a lot. I don’t know what we’d have done (=we would have done) without their help.

I didn’t tell Tom what happened. He whouldn’t have been pleased.


Compare would (do) and would have (done):

E.g.I would phone Sue, but I haven’t got her number. (now)

I would have phoned Sue, but I didn’t have her number. (past)


ü Compare will (‘ll) and would (‘d):

E.g. I’ll stay a bit longer. I’ve got plenty of time.

I’d stay a bit longer, but I really have to go now. (so I can’t stay longer)


Sometimes would / wouldn’t is the past of will / won’t. Compare:


present past
TOM: I’ll phone you on Sunday. ANN: I promise I won’t be late. Tom said he’d phone meon Sunday. Ann promised that she wouldn’t be late.


ü Somebody wouldn’t do sth = he / she refused to do it:

E.g. I tried to warn him, but he wouldn’t listen to me. (= he refused to listen)


You can also use would when you talk about things that happened regularly in the past:

E.g. When we were children, we lived by the sea. In summer we would all get up early and go for a swim. (= we did this regularly)


With this meaning, would is similar to used to.


8. Write sentences about yourself. Imagine things you would like or you wouldn’t like. The first one is done for you.


1. (a place you’dlove to live) I’d love to live by the sea.

2. (a job you wouldn’t like to do) _____________________

3. (sth you would love to do) ________________________

4. (sth that would be nice to have) ____________________

5. (a place you’d like to go to) _______________________

6. (a singer, whose concert you’d like to go to) __________


9. Complete the sentences using would + the verbs (in the correct form). The first one is done for you.


be be do do enjoy enjoy have pass stop


1. They helped us a lot. I don’t know what we would have done without their help.

2. You should go and see the film. You ________ it.

3. It’s a pity you couldn’t come to the concert yesterday. You ________ it.

4. Shall I apply for the job or not? What ______ you ______ in my position?

5. I was in a hurry when I saw you. Otherwise I ________ to talk.

6. We took a taxi home last night but got stuck in the traffic. It ________ quicker to walk.

7. Why don’t you go and see Clare? She ________ very pleased to see you.

8. Why didn’t you do the exam? I’m sure you ________ it.

9. In an ideal world, everybody ________ enough to eat.


10. Each sentences on the right follows a sentence on the left. Which follows which? The first one is done for you.


I’d like to go to Australia one day. a It won’t be much fun. 1c
I wouldn’t like to live on a busy road. b It would have been fun.  
I’m sorry the trip was cancelled. c It would be nice.  
I’m looking forward to going out tonight. d It wouldn’t have been very nice.  
I’m glad we didn’t go out in the rain. e It wouldn’t be very nice.  
I’m not looking forward to the trip. f It will be fun.  


11. Write sentences using promised + would / wouldn’t. The first one is done for you.


1. I wonder why Helen is late. She promised she wouldn’t be late.

2. I wonder why Sam hasn’t phoned. He …

3. Why did you tell Jane what I said? You …

4. I’m surprised they didn’t wait for us. They …


12. Complete the sentences. Use wouldn’t + a suitable verb. The first one is done for you.


1. I tried to warn him, but he wouldn’t listen to me.

2. I asked Amanda what had happened, but she ________ me.

3. Paul was very angry about what I’d said and ________ to me for two weeks.

4. Martina insisted on carrying all her luggage. She ________ me help her.


13. These sentences are about things that often happened in the past. Complete the sentences using + a suitable verb. The first one is done for you.


forget help shake share walk


1. Whenever Richard was angry, he would walkout of the room.

2. We used to live next to a railway line. Every time a train went past, the house ________.

3. George was a very kind man. He ______ always _______ you if you had a problem.

4. Brenda was always very generous. She didn’t have much, but she ________ what she had with everyone else.

5. You could never relyon Joe. It didn’t matter how many times you reminded him to do something, he ______ always ______.


14.ó ® Describe the picture.





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