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1. The use of force is authorized if you reasonably believe that a hostile act or hostile intent is present.

2. Use only the force necessary to protect lives and accomplish the mission. Minimum force includes the full range of force up to and including deadly force.

3. If it is necessary to use force, then it should be proportional to the threat. If you are attacked, return fire with aimed shots and with the necessary amount of force.

4. Stop using force when you believe that the hostile act has stopped or there is no longer any threat of an imminent attack.

5. You should open fire if you are able to identify the target. Firing must be controlled and not indiscriminate.

6. You should not endanger civilians or cause unnecessary injuries or destruction unless it is essential for the preservation of life. In such a case, all reasonable steps should be taken to minimize the damage.

7. Do not use heavy weapons, such as mortars or artillery, unless ordered by your commander.


3.s Work in pairs. Answer the questions.


1. What information can you find in rules of engagement?

2. When are soldiers issued with rules of engagement?


4.ó ® Read the rules of engagement and answer true or false.


1. The use of force is prohibited unless it is necessary for self-defence.

2. Troops are only authorized to open fire if they come under fire themselves.

3. Troops must not open fire unless they can clearly identify their target.

4. Troops must never endanger the lives of innocent civilians.

5. Authorisation is required to use certain weapons.


5.ó ® Work in pairs. Say what ROEs from task 2 apply in the situations. Say what you will do.


You are commanding a UN checkpoint …

1. a truck is driving at full speed towards the checkpoint, ignoring the signs ordering vehicles to slow down.

2. A large crowd forms near the checkpoint. The crowd are shouting and appear angry. Suddenly, you come under fire from unidentified sniper in the crowd and one of your soldiers is wounded.

6. Complete the interview. Use the past simple or present perfect of the verbs.

Captain Oscar Garsia is deployed on humanitarian mission in Afganistan. Our reporter (1) interviewed (interview) him last month to find out what kind of work he is doing.

Reporter: How long (2) ______ (you be) out here on this mission, Captain Garcia?

Capt Garcia: We (3) ______ (arrive) here in January so we (4) ______ (not be) here for long … just four months.

Reporter: And what tasks (5) ______ (you carry out) since you (6) ______ (arrive) here?

Capt Garcia: Well, as an engineer unit we (7) ______ (re-establish) the water and electricity supply for the local population. We (8) ______ (rebuild) the local hospital and last week we (9) ______ (re-open) the local girls’ school. Our EOD team (10) ______ (clear) several mine fields last month, which were laid during the conflict.

Reporter:How (11) ______ (the local population receive) you when you arrived?

Capt Garcia:The local population (12) ______ (be) extremely kind. We (13) ______ (not notice) any hostility at all. Many of the men (14) ______ (work) with our troops in the reconstruction of the area. Last Saturday we (15) ______ (play) football against the local team. They (16) ______ (beat) us buy the way! We (17) ______ (not play) very well at all.





ü We can use must to say that you believe something is certain:

E.g. You’ve been travelling all day. You must be tired. (Travelling is tiring and you’ve been travelling all day, so you must be tired.)

‘Jim is a hard worker.’ – ‘Jim? You must be joking. He doesn’t do anything.’


ü We can use can’t to say that you believe something is not possible.

E.g. You’ve just had lunch. You can’t be hungry already. (People are not normally hungry just after eating a meal. You’ve just eaten, so you can’t be hungry.)


  I/you/he (etc.) must can’t be (tired/hungry/at work etc.) be (doing/going/joking etc.) do/get/know/have etc.


ü For past we use must have (done) and can’t have (done).

E.g. I didn’t hear the phone. I must have been asleep.

Sue hasn’t contacted me. She can’t have got my message.

Tom walked into a wall. He can’t have been looking where he was going.


  I/you/he (etc.) must can’t have been (asleep / at work etc.) been (doing / looking etc.) gone / got / known etc.


7. Put in must or can’t.


1. You’ve been travelling all day. You must be tired.

2. That restaurant ______ be very good. It’s always full of people.

3. That restaurant ______ be very good. It’s always empty.

4. I’m sure I gave you the key. You ______ have it. Have you looked in your bag?

5. You’re going on holiday next week. You ______ be looking forward to it.

6. It rained every day during their holiday, so they ______ have had a very nice time.

7. Congratulations on passing your exam. You ______ be very pleased.

8. You got here very quickly. You ______ have walked very fast.

9. Bill and Sue always travel business class, so they ______ be short of money.


8. Complete each sentence with a verb (one or two words) in the correct form.


1. I’ve lost one of my gloves. I must have dropped it somewhere.

2. They haven’t lived here for very long. They can’t know many people.

3. Ted isn’t at work today. He must ______ ill.

4. Ted wasn’t at work last week. He must ______ ill.

5. (the doorbell rings) I wonder who is that. It can’t ______ Mary. She’s still at work at this time.

6. Sarah knows a lot about films. She must ______ to the cinema a lot.

7. Look. James is putting on his hat and coat. He must ______ out.

8. I left my bike outside the house last night and now it is gone. Somebody must ______ it.

9. Amy was in a very difficult situation when she lost her job. It can’t ______ easy for her.

10. There is a man walking behind us. He has been walking behind us for the last twenty minutes.He must _______ us.


9. Read the situations and use the words in brackets to write sentences with must have and can’t have. The first one is done for you.


1. The phone rang, but I didn’t hear it. (I / asleep)

I must have been asleep.

2. Sue hasn’t contacted me. (she / get / my message)

3. The jacket you bought is very good quality. (it /very expensive)

4. I haven’t seen the people next door for ages. (they / go away)

5. I can’t find my umbrella. (I / leave / it in the restaurant last night)

6. Dave, who is very friendly, walked past me without speaking. (he /see /me)

7. There was a man standing outside the café. (he / wait / for somebody)

8. Liz did the opposite of what I asked her to do. (she / understand / what I said)

9. When I got back to my car, the door was unlocked. (I / forget / to lock it)

10. I was woken up in the night by the noise next door. (the neighbours / have / a party)

11. The light was red, but the car didn’t stop. (the driver / see / the red light)


10.ó ® Describe the picture.



Vigilant Sentry

“How was your guard duty yesterday, Tom?”

“OK. I was remarkably vigilant.”

“Were you?”

“Oh, yes. I was so vigilant that I heard at once the relief sergeant approaching my post though I was fast asleep.”


Unobserved Fire

“Why have you got to close one eye when aiming your weapon, Private Briggit?”

“But if I close both eyes I won’t see the target, sergeant.”



“Why are you lagging behind the march column, Private Smith?”

“It’s not my fault, sir. They are too much in a hurry.”


No Time Lost for Training

A soldier was running the obstacle course. He puffed through till the last lap when he fell in getting over the last obstacle. The physical training instructor noticed the man on the ground.

“What’s the matter, Private Higgins?”

“My leg, sir. I think I broke it on that last hurdle.”

“Well, then, don’t waste time just lying there – do push-ups!”

UNIT: 28


Lesson 4


1. In this exercise we’ll concentrate on the words and word combinations to be sure you know what they mean
arrest seize (someone) by legal authority and take them into custody
murder the deliberate and illegal killing of a person
thief a person who steals another person's property, especially by stealth and without using force or threat of violence
steal take (another person's property) without permission or legal right and without intending to return it
robber a person who commits robbery
hostage a person seized or held as security for the fulfilment of a condition
surrender stop resisting to an enemy or opponent and submit to their authority
assault rifle a rapid-fire, magazine-fed automatic rifle designed for infantry use
back up support
revolver a pistol with revolving chambers enabling several shots to be fired without reloading
smugglers people who take goods into or out of a country illegally.
arson the criminal act of deliberately setting fire to property
2. Read the text and translate it into Ukrainian.


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