PASSIVE (be / been / being done)



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PASSIVE (be / been / being done)



8. What do these words mean? Use it can... or it can’t... . Use a dictionary if necessary.
1. washable, … it can be washed. … 4. unusable, …………………….
2. unbreakable, it ………… 5. invisible, ……………………
3. edible, it ……………….. 6. portable, ……………………..

9. Complete these sentences with one of the following verbs (in the correct form):

carry cause do make repair send spend wake up

Sometimes you need have (“might have”, “could haveetc.).

 

1. The situation is serious. Something must … be done… before it’s too late.

2. I haven’t received the letter. It might ...have been sent... to the wrong address.

3. A decision will not ………. until the next meeting.

4. I told the hotel receptionist that I wanted to ………. at 6.30 the next morning.

5. Do you think that less money should …………. on armaments?

6. This road is in very bad condition. It should …….. a long time ago.

7. The injured man couldn’t walk and had to ……………. .

8. It’s not certain how the fire started but it might ……… by an electrical fault.

 

10. Rewrite these sentences. Instead of using “somebody” or “they”, write a passive sentence.

 

1. Somebody has cleaned the room. … The room has been cleaned

2. They have postponed the concert. The ………….

3. Somebody is using the computer at the moment. The computer …………

4. I didn’t realise that somebody was recording our conversation. I didn’t realise that ……………………..

5. When we got to the stadium we found that they had cancelled the game. When we got to the stadium, we found that ……………..

6. They are building a new ring road round the city. …………………………

7. They have built a new hospital near the airport. ……………………………

 

11. Make sentences from the words in brackets. Sometimes the verb is active, sometimes passive.

 

1. There’s somebody behind us. (I think / we / follow) … I think we’re being followed. …

2. This room looks different. (you / paint?) … Have you painted it?...

3. My car has disappeared. (it / steal!) It ………………

4. My umbrella has disappeared. (somebody / take) Somebody …………

5. Tom gets a higher salary now. (he / promote) …………………………

6. Ann can’t use her office at the moment. (it / redecorate) ………………

7. The photocopier broke down yesterday, but now it’s OK. (it / work / again; it / repair) ……………………………………………………………….

8. The police have found the people they were looking for. (two people / arrest / last night) ………………………………………………………………

9. A tree was lying across the road. (it / blow down / in the storm) ………..

10. The man next door disappeared six months ago. (nobody / see / since then) ……………………………………………………………………………..

11. I was mugged on my way home a few nights ago. (you / ever / mug?) ………………………………………………………………………………

 


UNIT 27:

NATO

Lesson 3

POLITICAL STRUCTURE

1.s Try to answer these questions before reading the text

 

1. What do you know about the structure of NATO?

2. How do you understand the term “sovereignty”?

 

2. In this exercise we’ll concentrate on the words and word combinations to be sure you know what they mean

ultimately– in the end; at last; finally;

to outline – to give the main features or general idea of;

delegation – 1) a person or group chosen to represent another or others; 2) the act of delegating or state of being delegated

foreign minister– a cabinet minister who is responsible for a country's dealings with other countries;

accord –1) agreement; conformity; accordance (esp in the phrase in accord with); 2) a settlement of differences, as between nations; compromise;

subordinate – under the authority or control of another.

committee – a group of people chosen or appointed to perform a specified service or function;

to retain – 1) to keep in one's possession; 2) to be able to hold or contain;

ambassador – short for ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary; a diplomatic minister of the highest rank, accredited as permanent representative to another country or sovereign;

3. Read the text and translate into Ukrainian

POLITICAL STRUCTURE

Like any alliance, NATO is ultimately governed by its 28 member states. However, the North Atlantic Treaty, and other agreements, outline how decisions are to be made within NATO. Each of the 28 members sends a delegation or mission to NATO’s headquarters in Brussels, Belgium. The senior permanent member of each delegation is known as the Permanent Representative and is generally a senior civil servant or an experienced ambassador (and holding that diplomatic rank).

Together the Permanent Members form the North Atlantic Council (NAC), a body which meets together at least once a week and has effective political authority and powers of decision in NATO. From time to time the Council also meets at higher levels involving Foreign Ministers, Defence Ministers or Heads of Government and it is at these meetings that major decisions regarding NATO’s policies are generally taken. However, it is worth noting that the Council has the same authority and powers of decision-making, and its decisions have the same status and validity, at whatever level it meets.

The meetings of the North Atlantic Council are chaired by the Secretary General of NATO and, when decisions have to be made, action is agreed upon on the basis of unanimity and common accord. There is no voting or decision by majority. Each nation represented at the Council table or on any of its subordinate committees retains complete sovereignty and responsibility for its own decisions.

 

4.s Answer the questions

 

1. Who can be the Permanent Representative?

2. Who forms the North Atlantic Council?

3. What is the function of the Council?

4. Who runs the meetings of the Council?

 

5. Complete the speech bubbles

 

1. Like any alliance, NATO is __________ governed by its 28 member states. However, the North Atlantic Treaty, and other agreements, __________ how decisions are to be made within NATO. 2. The senior permanent member of each __________ is known as the Permanent Representative and is generally a senior civil servant or an experienced __________. 3. Together the Permanent Members form the __________ (NAC), a body which meets together at least once a week and has effective political __________ and powers of decision in NATO. 4. Each nation represented at the Council table or on any of its __________ committees __________ complete __________ and responsibility for its own decisions.

 

6. Translate words and word combinations into English

 

Senior civil servant, experienced ambassador, effective political authority, powers of decision-making, validity, meetings are chaired, unanimity, common accord.


GRAMMAR

PASSIVE (3)

 

7. When were they born? Choose five of these people and write a sentence for each. (Two of them were born in the same year.)
Beethoven Galileo Elvis Presley
Agatha Christie Mahatma Gandhi Leonardo da Vinci
Walt Disney Martin Luther King William Shakespeare  

 

1. … Walt Disney was born in 1901. …

2. ………………………………………

3. ………………………………………

4. ………………………………………

5. ………………………………………

6. ………………………………………

7. And you? ……………………………

 

8. Write these sentences in another way, beginning in the way shown.

 

1. They didn’t give me the money. I … wasn’t given the money … .

2. They asked me some difficult questions at the interview. I …………

3. Janet’s colleagues gave her a present when she retired. Janet ………

4. Nobody told me that George was ill. I wasn’t ……………………….

5. How much will they pay you? How much will you …………………

6. I think they should have offered Tom the job. I think Tom ………….

7. Has anybody shown you what to do? Have you ……………………..

 

9. Complete the sentences using being + one of these verbs:

 

ask attack give invite keep pay

1. Mr Miller doesn’t like … being kept … waiting.

2. They went to the party without …………………

3. Most people like ………………………presents.

4. It's a dangerous city. People won’t go out after dark because they are afraid of ……………………………

5. I don’t like ………………… stupid questions.

6. Few people are prepared to work without …………………..

 

10. Complete the sentences using get/got + one of these verbs (in the correct form):

ask break damage hurt pay steal sting stop use

1. There was a fight at the party but nobody … got hurt… .

2. Ted ………… by a bee while he was sitting in the garden.

3. How did that window ………… ?

4. These tennis courts don’t ………… very often. Not many people want to play.

5. I used to have a bicycle but it …………

6. Last night I ………… by the police as I was driving home.

7. How much did you ………… last month?

8. Please pack these things very carefully. I don’t want them to ………

9. People often want to know what my job is. I often ………… that question.

 

 


UNIT 27:

NATO

Lesson 4

MILITARY STRUCTURE

1. In this exercise we’ll concentrate on the words and word combinations to be sure you know what they mean

staff– 1) a group of people employed by a company, individual, etc., for executive, clerical, sales work, etc; 2) the officers appointed to assist a commander, service, or central headquarters organization in establishing policy, plans, etc.

commander – 1) an officer in command of a military formation or operation; 2) a naval commissioned rank junior to captain but senior to lieutenant commander; 3) the second in command of larger British warships; 4) someone who holds authority;

overall – including or covering everything;

supreme– 1) of highest status or power; 2)of highest quality, importance, etc supreme endeavour; 3) greatest in degree; extreme;

transformation –1) a change or alteration, esp. a radical one; 2) the act of transforming or the state of being transformed;

allied – 1) joined, as by treaty, agreement, or marriage; united; 2) of the same type or class; related;

former – 1) belonging to or occurring in an earlier time; 2) having been at a previous time;

2. Read the text and translate into Ukrainian

MILITARY STRUCTURE

NATO’s military operations are directed by two Strategic Commanders, both senior U.S. officers assisted by a staff drawn from across NATO. The Strategic Commanders are responsible to the Military Committee for the overall direction and conduct of all Alliance military matters within their areas of command.

Before 2003 the Strategic Commanders were the Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) and the Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT) but the current arrangement is to separate command responsibility between Allied Command Transformation (ACT), responsible for transformation and training of NATO forces, and Allied Command Operations, responsible for NATO operations world wide.

The commander of Allied Command Operations retained the title "Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR)", and is based in the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) located at Casteau, north of the Belgian city of Mons. This is about 80 km (50 miles) south of NATO’s political headquarters in Brussels. Allied Command Transformation (ACT) is based in the former Allied Command Atlantic headquarters in Norfolk, Virginia, USA.

 

3.s Answer the questions

 

1. What is the military structure of NATO?

2. What NATO Commands do you know?

3. What is Allied Command Transformation (ACT) responsible for?

4. What is the responsibility of Allied Command Operations?

5. Where is Allied Command Transformation (ACT) located?

 

4. Complete the speech bubbles

 

1. NATO’s military operations are directed by two ______________, both senior U.S. officers assisted by a staff drawn from across NATO.

2. The current arrangement is to separate command responsibility between ______________ (ACT), responsible for transformation and training of NATO forces, and ______________, responsible for NATO operations world wide.

3. Allied Command Transformation (ACT) is based in the ______________ Allied Command Atlantic ______________ in Norfolk, Virginia, USA.

 

5. Translate words and word combinations into Ukrainian

 

Military operations, Strategic Commanders, staff, Military Committee, the Supreme Allied Commander Europe, Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic, command responsibility, Allied Command Transformation, Allied Command Operations, the Supreme Headquarters, former.


GRAMMAR

PASSIVE (4)

 

6. Put in the correct form of the verb in Passive into the gaps. Use the verb and the tense given in brackets.

 

Example: A letter ……………… by Peter. (to write - Simple Present)

Answer: A letter is written by Peter.

 

1. The words ……. by the teacher today. (to explain - Simple Present)

2. We ………. a letter the day before yesterday. (to send - Simple Past)

3. This car ……….. . It’s too old. (not/to steal - will-future)

4. This street ………. because of snow. (already/to close - Present Perfect)

5. A new restaurant ………….. next week. (to open - will-future)

6. He …………….. to the party yesterday. (to invite - Simple Past)

7. The blue box ……….. (can/not/to see - Simple Present)

8. I ……………. the book by my friend last Sunday. (to give - Simple Past)

9. The dishes ………….. by my little brother. (not/to wash - Present Perfect)

7. Rewrite the sentences using Passive voice.

Example: A letter ……………… by Peter. (to write - Simple Present)

Answer: A letter is written by Peter.

 

1. Julia rescued three cats.

2. The students handed in the reports.

3. Maria crashed into the blue car.

4. Alex learned the poem.

5. Steven has forgotten the book.

6. The mechanic has not repaired the DVD recorder.

7. They play handball.

8. Sue puts the rucksack on the floor.

9. The girls had lost the match.

10. The teacher is not going to open the window.

 

8. Rewrite the given sentences in Passive voice.

 

Example: Frank built a house.

Answer: A house was built. or A house was built by Frank.

 

1. She bought four apples.

2. We won the match.

3. The man stole the blue car.

4. The police arrested the thieves.

5. Jack swam the 200 metres.

6. The dog bit the old lady.

7. Tom and Max ate five hamburgers.

8. Oliver taught the children.

9. Victoria rode the brown horse.

10. Grandmother told good stories.

 

9. Rewrite the given sentences in Passive voice.

 

Example: Frank builds a house..

Answer: A house is built. or A house is built by Frank.

 

1. Mr Jones watches the film.

2. The people speak English.

3. He reads comics.

4. We play volleyball.

5. They sing the song.

6. I take photos.

7. She does the housework.

8. The policemen help the children.

9. He writes text messages.

 


UNIT 27:

NATO

Lesson 5

THE PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE

1.s Try to answer these questions before reading the text

 

1. What NATO programs do you know?

2. How do you understand the term “framework document”?

3. What do you know about PfP?

2. In this exercise we’ll concentrate on the words and word combinations to be sure you know what they mean

disarmament– the reduction of offensive or defensive fighting capability, as by a nation;

to diminish – to make or become smaller, fewer, or less;

pace – rate or style of proceeding at some activity;

to refrain– to abstain (from action); forbear;

integrity –unity; wholeness;

emergency – an unforeseen or sudden occurrence, esp of a danger demanding immediate remedy or action;

bilateral – having or involving two sides;

essence – the characteristic or intrinsic feature of a thing, which determines its identity; fundamental nature;

framework– a structural plan or basis of a project;

commitment – an obligation, promise, etc. that restricts one's freedom of action;

capacity – the ability or power to contain, absorb, or hold.

3. Read the text and translate into Ukrainian

THE PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE

The Partnership for Peace (PfP) is a programme of practical bilateral cooperation between individual Partner countries and NATO. It allows Partner countries to build up an individual relationship with NATO, choosing their own priorities for cooperation.

Based on a commitment to the democratic principles that underpin the Alliance itself, the purpose of the Partnership for Peace is to increase stability, diminish threats to peace and build strengthened security relationships between individual Partner countries and NATO, as well as among Partner countries.



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