NATO's Partnership with Ukraine 





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NATO's Partnership with Ukraine



A visit to Ukraine by the North Atlantic Council in March 2000 injected new momentum into the Distinctive Partnership between NATO and Ukraine established in Madrid in July 1997.

The meeting in Kyiv of the NATO-Ukraine Commission - the first time this body, which directs the Partnership, had met in Ukraine - was an occasion for the 19 NATO allies and Ukraine to review the full range of their cooperation. It was hailed as a significant step for bringing Ukraine closer to the Euro-Atlantic community of nations.

The signing of the Charter on a Distinctive Partnership in Madrid in 1997 shifted cooperation between NATO and Ukraine on to a new plane and gave formal recognition to the importance of an independent, stable and democratic Ukraine to Europe as a whole.

The Charter is in line with Ukraine's declared strategy of increasing its integration in European and transatlantic structures. It is the basis on which NATO and Ukraine agree to consult in the context of Euro-Atlantic security and stability and in areas such as conflict prevention, crisis management, peace support and humanitarian operations.

Seminars, joint working group meetings and other cooperative programmes have focused on areas such as defence reform and the reshaping of the defence establishment, civil-military relations, budgeting and resource planning. Seminars on retraining retiring Ukrainian military personnel and on military downsizing and conversion have also been held.

The North Atlantic Council meets periodically with Ukraine at Foreign Ministerial, Defence Ministerial and Ambassadorial levels in a forum established by the Charter called the NATO-Ukraine Commission (NUC). The Role of the NUC is to assess implementation of the Charter and to discuss ways to improve or further develop cooperation.

NATO and Ukraine have created Joint Working Group on Defence Reform (JWGDR) to pursue initiatives in the areas of: civil-military relations, democratic control of the armed forces, defence planning, policy, strategy and national security concepts. Ukraine also participates in the Partnership for Peace Planning and Review Process (PARP), which jointly develops goals for shaping force structure and capabilities to help Ukraine to meet her objectives for interoperability with the Alliance.

NATO and Ukraine maintain a substantial military cooperation programme that includes: Ukraine's active participation in the Partnership for Peace programme, NATO Military Committee dialogue with Ukraine, and practical military cooperation in NATO-led Peace Support Operations in the Balkans. Military cooperation focuses on building interoperability, which serves as the foundation for working together in support of joint goals; for example through the work of the Polish-Ukrainian Battalion in Kosovo. Military exercises, such as Exercise Cooperation Partner, hosted by Ukraine in June 2000, are an important part of this work. In addition to building interoperability, NATO-Ukraine military cooperation is increasingly focusing on helping Ukraine in her efforts to modernise and reform her defence structures. Joint work in civil emergency planning and disaster preparedness is also a major area of cooperation with direct practical benefits for Ukraine. A Memorandum of Understanding on civil emergency planning was concluded in December 1997, providing for cooperation in this field. A disaster relief exercise was subsequently scheduled for September 2000, in the Transcarpathia region of Ukraine, to test humanitarian assistance procedures in the event of further flooding.

4.s Answer the questions

 

1. When was the Charter on a Distinctive Partnership signed?

2. What are the main points of the Charter?

3. What is the role of the NATO-Ukraine Commission?

4. What do you know about military cooperation between Ukraine and NATO?

 

5. Complete the speech bubbles

 

1. The signing of the _________________________ in Madrid in 1997 shifted cooperation between NATO and Ukraine on to a new plane and gave formal _____________ to the importance of an independent, stable and democratic Ukraine to Europe as a whole.

2. It is the basis on which NATO and Ukraine agree to consult in the _________ of Euro-Atlantic security and stability and in areas such as _________________, crisis management, peace support and _____________________.

3. Seminars on retraining retiring Ukrainian _______________ and on military ___________ and _____________ have also been held.

4. The NATO Information and Documentation Centre opened by the NATO Secretary General in May 1997 has become a _____________ for information activities to explain the ________ of the Distinctive Partnership with NATO to the Ukrainian public.

5. It has since played an _____________ in explaining Alliance policies and ____________ misperceptions.

 

6.ó ® Discuss these questions in pairs or small groups

 

1. How can you describe situation in Kosovo?

2. Would you like to take part in NATO-led operations? Why?

3. What is better – collective security or neutrality?

 

7. Translate words and word combinations into English

 

Хартія про особливе партнерство, визнання; стратегія; трансатлантичні структури; попередження конфліктів; семінар; робоча група; бюджет; перепідготовка; офіцери звільнені в запас; скорочення збройних сил; Комісія Україна-НАТО; взаємосумісність; військова співпраця; військові навчання; Центр інформації та документації НАТО.


GRAMMAR

PASSIVE (6)

8. Change the following sentences into the Passive Voice, using the Perfect Tenses.

 

Example: They have already brought the medicine. – The medicine has already been brought.

 

1. We have repaired our house lately.

2. When the fire brigade came, the fire had destroyed the building.

3. The athlete has shown much better results since this coach trains him.

1. 4.I will have answered all the business letters by noon.

4. The president of the board has signed the document.

5. Is she washing the floor? – No, she has already washed it.

6. By his arrival they had repaired his car.

7. He has booked the tickets and the clerk will have brought them by 2 o'clock.

8. They had painted the house by his arrival.

9. The police haven't found the reason for the accident yet.

10. Have you touched anything here?

11. The sociologist has interviewed a lot of students.

12. Have they tested all the machines?

15. The flood has caused considerable damage.

16. John will have received the papers by tomorrow.

 

9. Change the following sentences into the Passive Voice, using modal verbs.

 

Example: He can do this work. — The work can be done (by him).

 

1. She can find a job easily.

2. The matter is urgent. They should phone her immediately.

3. The boss wants Mr. Black. You must find him.

4. I can make an interesting offer to you.

5. He's got a pay rise and now they can buy a new house.

6. You must send the document as quickly as possible.

7. The weather is warm. She may plant the flowers.

8. The document is of great importance. He must show it to us.

9. He must give back the book on Sunday.

10. Their kitchen is large and they can use it as a dining room.

11. Ecologists say that we should take care of our planet.

12. You must send for the doctor immediately.

13. The lecture is over. You may ask questions.

14. You should avoid the center of town during rush hours.

15. They agreed that the club should raise membership fee.

 

10. Choose the correct grammar form to translate a predicate.

 

1. Цей будинок був збудований в минулому році.

a) was being built

b) has been built

c) was built

2. Зараз тут будується новий супермаркет.

a) is being built

b) is building

c) is built

3. На цьому тижні викладач пояснив (викладачем було пояснено) новий матеріал.

a) had been explained

b) was explained

c) has been explained

4. Нову будівлю інституту було збудовано коли я поступила на юридичний факультет.

a) was built

b) has been built

c) had been built

5. Студентів екзаменують два рази в рік.

a) are being examined

b) is examined

c) are examined

6. «Ви були неуважні, коли пояснювалось це правило», — сказав викладач.

a) was explained

b) had been explained

c) was being explained

7. Квіти вже политі.

a) are watered

b). have been watered

c) were watered

8. Такі столи роблять з коштовного дерева.

a) are being made

b) have been made

c) are made

9. Цей фільм ніколи не показували по телевізору.

a) has never been shown

b) was never shown

c) had never been shown

10. Мою квартиру відремонтують до суботи.

a) will be repaired

b) will have been repaired

c) is being repaired

11. Списки ще друкуються.

a) are typed

b) are being typed

c) have been typed

12. Їх ще не запросили.

a) were not invited

b) had not been invited

c) have not been invited

13. Вам повідомлять про це завтра.

a) will be informed

b) will have been informed

c) are informed

14. Коли я увійшов, обговорення було перерване.

a) had been interrupted

b) was interrupted

c) has been interrupted

15. Земля була вкрита снігом.

a) was being covered

b) was covered

c) had been covered

 

11.ó ® Describe the picture.

 

 


UNIT 27:

NATO

Lesson 7

STANDARDISATION

1.s Try to answer these questions before reading the text

 

1. What do you understand by the term “standardization”?

2. What do you know about STANAG?

3. How do you understand the term interoperability?

2. In this exercise we’ll concentrate on the words and word combinations to be sure you know what they mean

standardization – the development and implementation of concepts, doctrines, procedures and designs to achieve and maintain the required levels of compatibility, interchangeability or commonality in the operational, procedural, material, technical and administrative fields to attain interoperability;

STANAG – (NATO standardization agreement) the record of an agreement among several or all the member nations to adopt like or similar military equipment, ammunition, supplies and stores, and operational, logistic and administrative procedures;

enable– 1) to provide (someone) with adequate power, means, opportunity, or authority (to do something); 2) to make possible;

to exploit –1)to take advantage of (a person, situation, etc.), esp unethically or unjustly for one's own ends; 2) to make the best use of;

to eliminate –to remove or take out; get rid of;

duplication – a copy; duplicate;

to promulgate – 1) to put into effect (a law, decree, etc.), esp by formal proclamation; 2) to announce or declare officially; 3) to make widespread;

armament – 1) (often plural) the weapon equipment of a military vehicle, ship, or aircraft; 2) a military force raised and armed ready for war; 3) preparation for war involving the production of equipment and arms;

cohesion – the act or state of cohering; tendency to unite;

to incorporate– to include or be included as a part or member of a united whole;

integral – being an essential part (of); intrinsic (to);

requirement – 1) something demanded or imposed as an obligation; 2) a thing desired or needed;

impetus – an impelling movement or force; incentive or impulse; stimulus.

3. Read the text and translate into Ukrainian

Standardisation

Standardisation amongst NATO forces makes a vital contribution to the combined operational effectiveness of the military forces of the Alliance and enables opportunities to be exploited for making better use of economic resources. Extensive efforts are therefore made in many different spheres to improve cooperation and eliminate duplication in research, development, production, procurement and support of defence systems. NATO Standardisation Agreements for procedures and systems and for equipment components, known as STANAGs, are developed and promulgated by the NATO Military Agency for Standardisation in conjunction with the Conference of National Armaments Directors and other authorities concerned.

By formulating, agreeing, implementing and maintaining standards for equipment and procedures used throughout NATO, a significant contribution is made to the cohesion of the Alliance and to the effectiveness of its defence structure. While standardisation is of relevance in many different areas, the principal forum for standardisation policy issues is the NATO Standardisation Organisation (NSO), which aims to incorporate standardisation as an integral part of Alliance planning and acts as a coordinator between senior NATO bodies confronting standardisation requirements. The NSO was established in 1995 to give renewed impetus to Alliance work aimed at improving the coordination of allied policies and programmes for standardisation in the materiel, technical and operational fields.

 

4.s Answer the questions

 

1. What are the major objectives of STANAG?

2. Who develops STANAGs?

3. When was NSO established?

4. What are the main functions of NSO?

 

5. Complete the speech bubbles

 

1. ____________ efforts are therefore made in many different spheres to improve cooperation and eliminate ______________ in research, development, production, _______________ and support of defence systems.

2. _______________ amongst NATO forces makes a vital contribution to the combined operational effectiveness of the military forces of the Alliance and ___________ opportunities to be ____________ for making better use of economic resources.

3. By formulating, agreeing, ____________ and maintaining standards for equipment and procedures used throughout NATO, a significant _____________ is made to the _____________ of the Alliance and to the effectiveness of its defence structure.

4. NATO Standardisation Organisation (NSO) aims to ______________ standardisation as an integral part of Alliance planning and acts as a ____________ between senior NATO bodies confronting standardisation ___________________.

6.ó ® Discuss these questions in pairs or small groups

 

1. What are advantages and disadvantages of STANAG?

2. How does STANAG improve interoperability between NATO countries?

3. What do you know about STANAG 6001?

7. Translate words and word combinations into English

 

Стандартизація, значний внесок, надавати можливості, значні зусилля, дублювання, дослідження, постачання, угода про стандартизацію, опубліковувати, єдність, включати (до складу), складова частина, вимоги до стандартизації, імпульс, Організація НАТО з питань стандартизації.

8.> Read, decipher and translate abbreviations

 

STANAG; NSO.

GRAMMAR

PASSIVE (7)

9. Open the brackets and use the verb in the appropriate form of the Passive Voice.

1. The first draft resolution (not discuss) yesterday; it (withdraw) long before the beginning of the meeting.

2. He is not in town; he (send) on a special mission.

3. Don't come into the compartment; the berth (fix) now.

4. A new underground line (construct) now. They say one of its stations (build) in my street.

5. He wants to know when the final decision (take). The activities of the committee and their delays already much (speak) about.

6. It was three o'clock. We (tell) to hurry up because we (wait).

7. Do you believe that such a problem can (solve)?

8. It must (do) without delays.

9. On September 9, 1850, California (admit) to the Union as the thirty-first state.

10. Don't speak in a loud voice: we (listen) to.

11. The plan (approve)? — No, it (discuss) now. — How long it (discuss)?

12. By the time he arrives everything (settle).

13. Not all the necessary things (buy) for our trip that's why the departure (postpone).

14. The money (lend) to him two months ago, but it (not give) back yet.

15. The business day was in high gear: the mail (look) through, documents (type), letters (answer), talks (hold).

16. Wait a minute. The table (lay).

17. Dynamite (invent) by Alfred Bernhard Nobel.

18. This exercise may (write) with a pencil.

19. This work (do) before you went to Moscow?

20. If you (ask) about it, will you be able to answer?

 

10. Find and correct the mistakes if any.

 

1. Don't bring the article today. It will be being typed only tomorrow.

2. The South Pole was discovered by Amundsen in 1912.

3. The book which was written last month is discussing a lot. It has been written a lot of articles about.

4. When I came, an experiment was been holding in the lab.

5. Do you know that this house was belonged to Mr. Brown?

6. What new buildings have been built in your town since I was there?

7. The building was collapsed during the earthquake.

8. Have you seen him? Has he been changed much?

9. Do you know that you are following?

10. I hope this journal can find at the library.

 

11. Translate into English using the Passive Voice.

 

1. На жаль, на конференції такі питання не порушувались (touch upon).

2. Хто вам сказав, що угоду підписано.

3. Тут говорять лише англійською.

4. Їй дозволили займатися спортом.

6. Відвідувачів приймають кожного дня.

7. Бетті не дозволяють приходити сюди.

8. В лікарні за ним доглядали погано.

9. За ним вже послали? – Так, йому зателефонували і наказали прийти о восьмій.

10. На нашій вулиці будують новий кінотеатр.

11. Не кажи цього, а то над тобою будуть сміятися.

12. Мені ще нічого про це не казали.

13. Ми поїдемо завтра за місто, якщо буде дощ? – Так, ми повинні туди їхати, нас там будуть чекати.

14. Ця будівля була щойно збудована, коли ми приїхали сюди.

15. До вечора робота була завершена.

16. Коли ми повернулись, нам розповіли багато цікавих новин.

 


UNIT 27:

NATO

Lesson 8

FUNDAMENTAL SECURITY TASKS

1.s Try to answer these questions before reading the text

 

1. What do you know about the military structure of NATO?

2. What are the main tasks of NATO?

3. What do you know about NATO activities in the field of science and the environment?

2. In this exercise we’ll concentrate on the words and word combinations to be sure you know what they mean

inception– the beginning, as of a project or undertaking;

to carry out – to perform or cause to be implemented;

arms control – the process by which countries interact on issues relating to arms limitation, arms reduction, non-proliferation and manufacture and the deployment and/or use of the armed forces;

indispensable– 1) absolutely necessary; essential; 2) not to be disregarded or escaped;

to intimidate –to make frightened; scare;

to coerce – to compel or restrain by force or authority without regard to individual wishes or desires;

to deter – to discourage (from acting) or prevent (from occurring), usually by instilling fear, doubt, or anxiety;

threat – 1) a declaration of the intention to inflict harm, pain, or misery; 2) an indication of imminent harm, danger, or pain.

conformity– compliance in actions, behaviour, etc., with certain accepted standards or norms;

confidence – a feeling of trust in a person or thing;

impetus – an impelling movement or force; incentive or impulse; stimulus.

 

3. Read the text and translate into Ukrainian

 

Fundamental Security Tasks

NATO's essential purpose is to safeguard the freedom and security of all its members by political and military means in accordance with the North Atlantic Treaty and the principles of the United Nations Charter. The Alliance has worked since its inception for the establishment of a just and lasting peaceful order in Europe based on common values of democracy, human rights and the rule of law. This central Alliance objective has taken on renewed significance since the end of the Cold War because, for the first time in the post-war history of Europe, the prospect of its achievement has become a reality.

The means by which the Alliance carries out its security policies include the maintenance of a sufficient military capability to prevent war and to provide for effective defence; an overall capability to manage crises affecting the security of its members; and active promotion of dialogue with other nations and of a cooperative approach to European security, including measures to bring about further progress in the field of arms control and disarmament.

To achieve its essential purpose, as an Alliance of nations committed to the Washington Treaty and the United Nations Charter, the Alliance performs the following fundamental security tasks:

Security: To provide one of the indispensable foundations for a stable Euro-Atlantic security environment, based on the growth of democratic institutions and commitment to the peaceful resolution of disputes, in which no country would be able to intimidate or coerce any other through the threat or use of force.

Consultation: To serve, as provided for in Article 4 of the Washington Treaty, as an essential transatlantic forum for Allied consultations on any issues that affect their vital interests, including possible developments posing risks for members' security, and for appropriate coordination of their efforts in fields of common concern.

Deterrence and Defence: To deter and defend against any threat of aggression against any NATO member state as provided for in Articles 5 and 6 of the Washington Treaty.

And in order to enhance the security and stability of the Euro-Atlantic area:

Crisis Management: To stand ready, case-by-case and by consensus, in conformity with Article 7 of the Washington Treaty, to contribute to effective conflict prevention and to engage actively in crisis management, including crisis response operations.

Partnership: To promote wide-ranging partnership, cooperation, and dialogue with other countries in the Euro-Atlantic area, with the aim of increasing transparency, mutual confidence and the capacity for joint action with the Alliance.

 

4.s Answer the questions

 

1. What is NATO’s essential purpose?

2. What are the means by which the Alliance carries out its security policies?

3. What are the fundamental security tasks of NATO?

4. What is ‘Crisis Management?

 

 

5. Complete the speech bubbles

 

1. The Alliance has worked since its __________ for the establishment of a just and lasting _________________ in Europe based on common values of democracy, human rights and the _________________.

2. The means by which the Alliance _________________. its security policies include the maintenance of a ___________ military capability to _____________ and to provide for effective defence.

3. To provide one of the _______________ foundations for a stable Euro-Atlantic security environment, based on the growth of democratic institutions and commitment to the ________________________ of disputes, in which no country would be able to _________________________ any other through the threat or use of force.

4. To stand ready, case-by-case and by consensus, in _____________ with Article 7 of the Washington Treaty, to contribute to effective _______________ and to engage actively in crisis management, including crisis response operations.

 

6.ó ® Discuss these questions in pairs or small groups

 

1. What do you know about NATO activities in the area of civil emergency planning?

2. What is the connection between security and economy?

3. What new threats and challenges do you know?

4. What do you know about NATO reorientation towards today’s threats?

 

7. Translate words and word combinations into English

 

Захист, початок, справедливий, спільні демократичні цінності, права людини, верховенство права, здійснювати, здатність, підхід, контроль над озброєнням, роззброєння, необхідний, відданість, мирне вирішення, залякувати, примушувати, антикризове управління, партнерство.


GRAMMAR

PASSIVE (8)

8. Without changing the meaning, rewrite each sentence using a verb from the table in the passive form. Remember that it is not always necessary to mention the subject of the active sentence. The first one has been done for you as an example.

 

conceal assassinate breach sink shell blow
shoot down ambush intercept compromise capture outrange

1. We destroyed three enemy fighters during the battle. …Three enemy fighters were shot down during the battle.

2. Last night, someone shot the Chief of Police. ………………………..

3. They hid the weapons in an old oil drum. ……………………………

4. An enemy submarine has torpedoed HMS Brilliant. …………………

5. The engineers have demolished the bridge at Zemun. ……………….

6. The enemy have taken the airfield. ……………………………………

7. Enemy artillery is firing at B Company. ……………………………..

8. Partisans opened fire on the convoy as it was moving through the gorge. ………………………………………………………………………...

9. We have cleared a lane through the minefield. ………………………

10. The enemy is listening to our radio transmissions. …………………..

11. The enemy tanks can shoot further than ours. ………………………..

12. Some local people have seen our OP. ………………………………..

 

9. Write passive sentences in Present Simple.

1. the documents / print

2. the window / open

3. the shoes / buy

4. the car / wash

5. the litter / throw away

6. the letter / send

7. the book / read / not

8. the songs / sing / not

9. the food / eat / not

10. the shop / close / not

 

10. Write passive sentences in Past Simple.

1. the test / write

2. the table / set

3. the cat / feed

4. the lights / switch on

5. the house / build

6. dinner / serve

7. this computer / sell / not

8. the tables / clean / not

9. the tables / clean / not

10. the children / pick up / not

 

11. Write passive sentences in Present Perfect.

1. the postcard / send

2. the pencils / count

3. the door / close

4. the beds / make

5. the mail / write

6. the trees / plant

7. the money / spend

8. the room / book / not

9. the rent / pay / not

10. the people / inform / not

 


UNIT 27:

NATO

Lesson 9

MILITARY TRIVIA QUIZ

1.s See how many of these questions you can answer.

 

1. Who is more senior? A lieutenant-general or a major-general?

2. What is the nick-name of the American F-4 fighter aircraft?

3. What is a Kalashnikov?

4. What is Fuller’s earth used for?

5. What is Semtex?

6. Which service of the British armed forces is senior? The army or the navy?

7. What does ASAP mean?

8. How do you convert a grid bearing into a magnetic bearing?

9. There are 360 degrees in a circle. How many mils are there?

10. What is Kevlar?

11. What is scrim?

12. Which is bigger? A division or a brigade?

13. What is the equivalent of the Red Cross in Islamic countries?

14. What does starboard mean?

15. What is the main weapon on a British Scimitar light tank?

16. What does MASH mean?

17. What is a padre?

18. What is the American equivalent of a British air vice marshal?

19. What is a kukri?

20. How fast is one knot?

 

2.s See how many of these questions you can answer.

 

1. What does reveille mean?

2. What is a bowser?

3. What is a twelfth letter of the phonetic alphabet?

4. What are dragon’s teeth?

5. What does C-in-C mean?

6. What are caltrops?

7. What is the nickname of the American UH-1 utility helicopter?

8. What is the main role of a hunter-killer submarine?

9. What is the name of the officer’s mess on a warship?

10. What is a Jolly Green Giant?

11. What is no-man’s land?

12. What is an iron bomb?

13. What is flak?

14. What is a mechanism which prevents a weapon from being fired?

15. What does neutral mean?

16. What is a pontoon brigade?

17. What does FLOT mean?

18. What is a Molotov cocktail?

19. What is the chief of staff in a British brigade usually called?

20. What is the name of the national headquarters of the United States Department of Defence?

 

English is Tough Stuff

Multi-national personnel at North Atlantic Treaty Organization headquarters near Paris found English to be an easy language… until they tried to pronounce it. To help them discard an array of accents, the verses below were devised. After trying them, a Frenchman said he’d prefer six months at hard labour to reading six lines aloud. Try them yourself.

 

Dearest creature in creation,

Study English pronunciation.

I will teach you in my verse

Sounds like corpse, corps, horse, and worse.

I will keep you, Suzy, busy,

Make your head with heat grow dizzy.

Tear in eye, your dress will tear.

 

So shall I! Oh hear my prayer.

Just compare heart, beard, and heard,

Dies and diet, lord and word,

Sword and sward, retain and Britain.

(Mind the latter, how it’s written.)

Now I surely will not plague you

With such words as plaque and argue.

But be careful how you speak:

Say break and steak, but bleak and streak;

Cloven, oven, how and low,

Script, receipt, show, poem, and toe.

 

Hear me say, devoid of trickery,

Daughter, laughter, and Terpsichore,

Typhoid, measles, topsails, aisles,

Exiles, similes, and reviles,

Scholar, vicar, and cigar,

Solar, mica, war and far,

One, anemone, Balmoral,

Kitchen, lichen, laundry, laurel,

Gertrude, German, wind and mind,

Scene, Melpomene, mankind.

Billet does not rhyme with ballet,

Bouquet, wallet, mallet, chalet.

Blood and flood are not like food,

Nor is mould like should and would.

Viscous, viscount, load and broad,

Toward, to forward, to reward.

And your pronunciation’s OK

When you correctly say croquet,

Rounded, wounded, grieve and sleeve,

Friend and fiend, alive and live.

 

Ivy, privy, famous; clamour

And enamour rhyme with hammer.

River, rival, tomb, bomb, comb,

Doll and roll and some and home.

Stranger does not rhyme with anger,

Neither does devour with clangour.

Souls but foul, haunt but aunt,

Font, front, wont, want, grand, and grant,

Shoes, goes, does. Now first say finger,

And then singer, ginger, linger,

Real, zeal, mauve, gauze, gouge and gauge,

Marriage, foliage, mirage, and age.

 

Query does not rhyme with very,

Nor does fury sound like bury.

Dost, lost, post and doth, cloth, loth.

Job, nob, bosom, transom, oath.

Though the differences seem little,

We say actual but victual.

Refer does not rhyme with deafer.

Feoffer does, and zephyr, heifer.

Mint, pint, senate and sedate;

Dull, bull, and George ate late.

Scenic, Arabic, Pacific,

Science, conscience, scientific.

 

Liberty, library, heave and heaven,

Rachel, ache, moustache, eleven.

We say hallowed, but allowed,

People, leopard, towed, but vowed.

Mark the differences, moreover,

Between mover, cover, clover,

Leeches, breeches, wise, precise,

Chalice, but police and lice;

Camel, constable, unstable,

Principle, disciple, label.

 

Petal, panel, and canal,

Wait, surprise, plait, promise, pal.

Worm and storm, chaise, chaos, chair,

Senator, spectator, mayor,

Tour, but our and succour, four.

Gas, alas, and Arkansas.

Sea, idea, Korea, area,

Psalm, Maria, but malaria.

Youth, south, southern, cleanse and clean.

Doctrine, turpentine, marine.

 

Compare alien with Italian,

Dandelion and battalion.

Sally with ally, yea, ye,

Eye, I, ay, aye, whey, and key.

Say aver, but ever, fever,

Neither, leisure, skein, deceiver.

Heron, granary, canary.

Crevice and device and aerie.

 

Face, but preface, not efface.

Phlegm, phlegmatic, ass, glass, bass.

Large, but target, gin, give, verging,

Ought, out, joust and scour, scourging.

Ear, but earn and wear and tear.

Do not rhyme with here but ere.

Seven is right, but so is even,

Hyphen, roughen, nephew Stephen,

Monkey, donkey,

Turk and jerk,

Ask, grasp, wasp, and cork and work.

 

Pronunciation – think of Psyche!

Is a paling stout and spikey?

Won’t it make you lose your wits,

Writing groats and saying grits?

It’s a dark abyss or tunnel:

Strewn with stones, stowed, solace, gunwale,

Islington and Isle of Wight,

Housewife, verdict and indict.

 

Finally, which rhymes with enough –

Though, through, plough, or dough, or cough?

Hiccough has the sound of cup.

My advice is to give up!!!

By Gerard Noist Trenite

Source: http://www.ic.unicamp.br

Answers.

Ex.1

1. lieutenant-general

2. Phantom

3. Soviet-designed 7.62mm assault weapon

4. decontamination

5. Czech-produced plastic explosive

6. the navy

7. as soon as possible

8. add the magnetic variation

9. 6,400

10. synthetic material used to make body armour, helmets, etc.

11. small pieces of fabric used as camouflage

12. division

13. the Red Crescent

14. the right-hand side of a ship or aircraft

15. 30mm Rarden cannon

16. mobile army surgical hospital

17. army chaplain

18. major general

19. Gurkha fighting-knife

20. one nautical mile per hour

 

Ex.2

1. time at which troops are woken up

2. cylindrical container mounted on a trailer

3. Lima

4. concrete pillars used as an obstacle for tanks

5. commander in chief

6. metal spikes designed to damage vehicle tyres

7. Huey

8. destroying enemy submarines

9. wardroom

10. American CH-53 heavy transport helicopter

11. the ground between the forward positions of two opposing forces

12. bomb which is simply dropped onto a target by an aircraft

13. anti-aircraft fire

14. safety catch

15. not allied to either side in a war

16. bridge supported by boats

17. forward line of own troops

18. improvised incendiary device consisting of a bottle of petrol with a wick

19. brigade major

20. the Pentagon


UNIT: 28

PEACEKEEPING

Lesson 1





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