ORGANIZATION, COMPOSITION AND FUNCTIONS OF US NAVY



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ORGANIZATION, COMPOSITION AND FUNCTIONS OF US NAVY



The US Navy consists of the Regular Navy and the Naval Reserve. The Regular Navy consists of officers and enlisted personnel who have elected to make the naval service a lifetime career. The Naval Reserve is to provide qualified individuals and trained units to be available for active duty in time of war or national emergency.

The term "Department of the Navy" is synonymous with the term "Naval Establishment." It is construed to mean the Navy Department, the United States Marine Corps; the entire Operating Forces of the US Navy, including naval aviation, and the reserve compo­nents of such forces; all HQ, forces, bases and installations, under the control or supervision of the Secretary of the Navy and the US Coast Guard when operating as part of the Navy.

The DN consists of the principal parts as follows:

The Operating Forces (OF) of the Navy, which comprise the several fleets, sea­going forces, sea frontier forces, the Military Sea Transportation Service and such shore activities of the Navy and other forces as may be assigned to the OF of the Navy by the President or the Secretary of the Navy (SECNAV).

The Navy Department, which is the central executive authority of the Department of the Navy (DN) comprises the Office of the SECNAV, the Naval Staff headed by the Chief of Naval Operations and the HQ of the United States Marine Corps (USMC).

The Navy Department (ND) is the HQ of the Naval Establishment. So the term "Navy Department" is quite different in its meaning from the term "Department of the Navy."

The Shore Establishment comprises all activities of the DN not assigned to the OF of the Navy and not part of the ND. These activities include air stations, ordnance plants, recruit depots and training stations, shipyards, supply depots, and other shore activities of the US Navy and the USMC.

The ships that provide transportation for all Military Services are operated under the control of the OF as the Military Sealift Command.

The Coast Guard, which is a part of the Armed Forces, operates under the Treasury Department in peacetime and under the Navy in wartime.

Ships of the OF are organized under three different organizational systems.
First, the majority of forces are assigned to Type Commanders for
administration control and for operation control during primary and intermediate training phases.

Second, the same forces are assigned to Fleet Commanders for advanced training and operations.

Third, some elements of these forces are further assigned to Task Organizations for specific operations and missions.

Type Organization. All ships are organized into broad categories under Commands whose titles are self-explanatory, such as Amphibious, Destroyer, Mine, Submarine, Air, etc.

Each type command contains further admin subdivisions such as flotillas, squadrons and divisions.

Fleet Organization. There are four regularly constituted fleets — the Third and Seventh in the Pacific under the CinC, Pacific, and the Second and Sixth Fleets in the Atlantic under CinC, Atlantic Fleet.

Task Force Organization. In order to provide flexibility of organization and ease of communications, the task Force Organization (Task Fleet Organization) are formed. Under this system a flexible structure is provided consisting of fleets further divided into forces, groups, units, elements.

The organization of the ship is based on the requirements for battle of combatant vessel. The ship is organized into six main departments: the operations department, the navigation department, the gunnery department, the engineering department, the supply department, and the medical department. In aircraft carriers there is also the air department. Each department is organized into divisions under the division officer.

FUNCTIONS OF US NAVY

Principal functions of the US Navy are: to organize, train and equip Navy and Marine forces for the conduct of prompt and sustained combat operations at sea.

Specifically:

1. to gain and maintain general sea supremacy;

2. to control vital sea areas and to protect vital sea lines of communication;

3. to establish and maintain local superiority (including air) in an area of naval operations;

4. to seize and defend advanced naval bases and to conduct such land operations as may be essential to the prosecution of a naval campaign;

5. to provide naval forces for the conduct of joint amphibious operations;

6. to furnish adequate, timely, and reliable intelligence for The Navy and USMC;

7. to be responsible for naval recon, ASW, the protection of shipping and for mine laying;

8. to provide sea-based AD of the United States;

9. to interdict inland and air power and communications through operation at sea.

1.s Answer the questions.

1. What is the organization of the US Naval Establishment?

2. What is the composition of the US Navy Operating Forces?

3. What are the principal Type Commands of the US Navy?

4. What is the Fleet organization of the US Navy?

5. What is the organization of a combatant vessel?

 

2. Translate words and word combinations into English

 

Військово-морські сили США, міністерство ВМС, берегова охорона США, флот, морський штаб, оперативна організація, флотилія, ескадра, дивізія.

TEXT 5

RECRUITING AND TRAINING

Recruiting in the US Armed Forces in peacetime is based on voluntary enlistment, whereas in time of WWII recruiting was compulsory. The Selective Service Act of 1948 initiated a peaceti­me draft program which ended soon after the shameful war in Vietnam. Nowadays, to become a serviceman, an individual may enlist or reenlist in the branch selected by him.

The preliminary training of officers is conducted at the United States Military Academy at West Point (USMA), the US Naval Academy (USNA), the US Air Force Academy (USAFA) and at other educational institutions of the Armed Forces and at civilian colleges which maintain Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) units, as well as at Officer Candidate Schools.

Upon graduation, cadets of the USMA and USAFA are commissioned second lieutenants in the Regular Army (RA) and the Air Force (AF), and midshipmen of the USNA are commissioned ensigns in the Navy.

The ROTC consists of a Junior Division (secondary schools) and a Senior Division (colleges). Eligible graduates of the Senior Division are commissioned 2LTs in the Army Reserve (Ares), and certain distinguished graduates may be commissioned in the RA.

Commissioned officers (ComOs) are required to continue development by attending various military educational establishments. Following appointment they receive their school training at the Basic Course, and then at The Advanced Course prior to completing 8 years' service. Thereafter, if selected as best qualified, they may attend one or more of the courses conducted at The Command and Staff College, The Armed Forces Staff College, and some Senior Service Colleges, i.e. The Army War College, The Naval War College, The Air War College, The Inter-American Defense College, and The National Defense University (NDU), the latter created by the DOD in 1975 with The Natio­nal War College and The Industrial College of the Armed Forces as subordinate elements of the NDU. Selected officers pursue courses of instruction at schools of foreign nations: The British Royal College of Defence Studies, The Canadian National Defense College, and The French Ecole Superieure de Guerre. Extensive use is also made of civilian colleges and universities. The DOD provides very extensive (language study courses at the Defense Language Institute, Presidio of Monterey, California. This instruction may be obtained by extension courses, on-duty courses, and other means. Each branch of the Army conducts its own branch service school to prepare officers for branch assignments.

1.s Answer the questions.

1. When was recruiting in the US Armed Forces compulsory?

2. When was the peacetime draft program initiated?

3. What may an individual do to become a serviceman?

4. Where is preliminary training of officers conducted?

5. What does the ROTC consist of?

 

2. Translate words and word combinations into English

 

Комплектування, призов, військовослужбовець, поступати на військову службу, учбовий заклад, офіцер, військове авіаційне училище США, військово-морське училище США.

TEXT 6

DAILY ROUTINE

The day a man enters any branch of the Armed Forces he begins to take military training. The daily routine starts with "reveille" and ends with "taps." The military training, based on mil regulations, field manuals, technical manuals, and orders, includes instructions and classes, drill and ceremonies, physical fitness program, range practice, field exercises, map reading, tactics, etc.

Interior guard duty routine is also a part of soldier's life. Soldiers are detailed for duty according to a duty roster. The detail for guard consists of an officer of the day with necessary officers, noncommissioned officers and privates. The senior noncommissioned officer of the guard, whatever his grade, is known as the sergeant of the guard. If there is no officer of the guard he will perform the duties of the commander of the guard. There is always one corporal (CPL) of the guard for each relief.

Relief of the old detail for guard takes place after the guard mounting. The usual tour is 24 hours. Sentinels on post (sentries on post) and guards on duty are posted armed and equipped according to their particular duty. The officer of the day (OD) inspects the guard and sentinels at least once between midnight and daytime and visits the guardhouse.

Except in emergencies, members of the old guard may not be detailed for duty until four hours after they have been relieved. Men coming off guard duty are usually allowed 24 hours before being placed on any other duty.

An interior guard consists of a system of patrols and fixed posts. At an appropriate time before sentinels go on post, the CPL assembles them, checks their appearance, fitness for duty, and the condition of their arms, if carried. He issues ammunition, if required, and makes sure that they understand their instructions. When the relief is large, it may be more convenient to form the relief, call the roll, and inspect the sentinels in ranks. The CPL then reports to the commander of the guard that his relief is ready to be posted.

1.s Answer the questions.

1. What does the daily routine start and end with?

2. What does the military training include?

3. What does the detail for guard consist of?

4. When does the relief of the old guard take place?

 

2. Translate words and word combinations into English

 

Розпорядок дня, підйом, відбій, статут, польовий статут, наказ, інструкція, караул, солдат, графік нарядів, офіцер – начальник караулу, караульний сержант, зміна.

TEXT 7



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