Прочитайте и переведите текст “Types of punishment”.



Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!



Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Прочитайте и переведите текст “Types of punishment”.



 

 

TEXT

Types of Punishment

 

There are several kinds of punishment available to the courts. Crimes are punished according to their seriousness. More serious crimes are given harsher penalties. In declaring a sentence a judge may take into account the following: prior criminal record, the age of the offender and other circumstances surrounding the crime, including cooperation with law enforcement officers, the amount of loss to victims, whether a weapon was used in the crime, the age or helplessness of the victims.

 

Punishment may include:

- a fine

- term of imprisonment (time in jail or prison)

- probation or parole

- community service

For criminal offences FINES are also often used as in civil cases when the offence is not a very serious one and when the offender has not been in trouble before.

For more serious crimes the usual punishment is IMPRISONMENT. The length of sentences varies from a few days to a lifetime. However, a life sentence may allow the prisoner to be released after a suitably long period if a parole board agrees that his detention no longer serves a purpose. In some countries, such as the Netherlands, living conditions in prison are fairly good because it is felt that deprivation of liberty is punishment in itself and should not be so harsh that it reduces the possibility of the criminal re-educating and reforming himself. In other countries, conditions are very bad. Perhaps because of an increase in crime or because of more and longer sentences of imprisonment, some prison cells have to accommodate far more people than they were built to hold. Britain and the United States are trying to solve the shortage of space by allowing private companies to open prisons.

PROBATION is the suspension of jail time. An offender on probation is ordered to follow certain conditions set forth by the court, often under the supervision of a probation officer. Offenders are ordinarily required to refrain from subsequent possession of firearms, and may be ordered to remain employed, live at a directed place, obey the orders of the probation officer. Offenders on probation might be fitted with an electronic tag (or monitor), which signals their whereabouts to officials. Also, offenders have been ordered to submit to repeated alcohol/drug testing or to participate in alcohol/drug or psychological treatment, or to perform community service work.

PAROLE is the supervised release of prisoners before the completion of their sentence in prison. They may be returned to prison if they violate the conditions of their parole. Conditions of parole often include things such as obeying the law, avoiding contact with the parolee's victims, obtaining employment, and maintaining required contacts with a parole officer.

Parole should not be confused with probation, as parole is serving the remainder of a sentence outside of prison, where probation is given instead of a prison sentence and as such, tends to place more rigid obligations upon the individual serving the term.

CORPORAL PUNISHMENT is a form of physical punishment that involves the deliberate infliction of pain as retribution for an offence, or for the purpose of disciplining or reforming a wrongdoer. This kind of punishment is still employed in Malaysia, Singapore, Pakistan, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Courts may sentence offenders to be caned or whipped. As well as corporal punishment, some Islamic countries such as Saudi Arabia and Iran use other kinds of physical penalties such as amputation or mutilation.

COMMUNITY SERVICE requires the offender to do a certain amount of unpaid work usually for a social institution such as a hospital.

 

 

Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующим словам и словосочетаниям.

1. уголовные преступления

2. более суровые наказания

3. возраст правонарушителя

4. приговор к пожизненному тюремному заключению

5. представители органов правопорядка

6. оглашение приговора

7. отсрочка тюремного заключения

8. приговорить к пробации

9. отбывать наказание

10. условное освобождение

11. рост преступности

12. задержание, заключение под стражу

13. лишение свободы

14. потерпевший

15. незначительное правонарушение

16. переполненные тюрьмы

17. подписать законопроект

18. подросток

19. носить электронные браслеты

 

6. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.

1. What does punishment for a crime depend on?

2. Which kinds of punishment do you know?

3. What does a judge take into account in declaring a sentence?

4. In what cases are fines used for criminal offences?

5. How does the length of sentences vary?

6. In what way are Britain and the USA trying to solve the shortage of space in prisons?

7. What is the main idea of probation?

8. What is a parole?

9. What does community service require?

 

Прочитайте текст “Purposes of Punishment” и озаглавьте каждый абзац, используя слова, данные в рамке. Переведите текст.

 

rehabilitation retribution deterrence

 

PURPOSES OF PUNISHMENT

 

1. The purpose of punishment means that the sentence should be designed to deter people from committing offences for fear of the consequences. These days, more and more sentences are designed to ensure that the offender is made aware of the harm he has done. Steps are also taken in appropriate cases to ensure that the offender understands the full effect of the harm he has caused, and apologizes to the victim for it.

2. The purpose means that the sentence should, wherever possible, take into account the personal circumstances of the defendant and look to his future. A large number of offenders need treatment rather than punishment. Many offenders who are mentally ill, or who are addicted to alcohol or dangerous drugs, are not sent to prison, but are ordered to receive treatment in hospitals or drug rehabilitation centers. Punishment may be designed to reform and rehabilitate the wrongdoer so that they will not commit the offenсe again. This kind of punishment should not be confused with deterrence, the goal here is to change the offender’s attitude to what they have done, and make them come to accept that their behavior was wrong.

3. The purposemeans that the punishment should in some way pay the offender back for the harm he has done. Firstly, this will give satisfaction to the victim. Some would dearly like to get their own back in an act of vengeance. They must not do this. A victim of crime must never “take the law into his own hands”. If that were acceptable there would be even more violence and public disorder. Secondly, it is the way in which the public as a whole can show their feelings of disapproval for the crime and the offender who committed it.

 

Замените русские слова и выражения, данные в скобках, соответствующими формами английских глаголов.

 

One of the two accused men (осуждать) at yesterday’s trial. Although his lawyer (защищать) him very well, he still (признать виновным) by the jury. The judge (приговорить к наказанию) him to two years in prison. He’ll probably (освобождать) after eighteen months. The other accused man was luckier. He (оправдать) and left the courtroom smiling broadly.

 

 

ДИСКУССИЯ - “Capital punishment: For and Against”. Прочитайте текст и аргументы, касающиеся “за” и “против” применения смертной казни. Выразите ваше личное мнение по данному вопросу, используя формулы речевого общения.

 

I strongly believe (that)… Я твердо убежден, что …
I’m sure (that) … Я уверен, что …
In my opinion… По-моему мнению…
I’m not sure, but … Я не уверен, но…
I’m keeping an open mind for the moment. Пока у меня нет никакого мнения на этот счет …
In general В общем ….
But also important is… Важным является также …
Unfortunately… К сожалению …
Furthermore … Кроме того …

 

TEXT

Capital Punishment

The death penalty by hanging for murder and some other crimes was first suspended in 1965, and was completely abolished in 1969 in Great Britain. But opinion polls consistently show that over half of the public is in favour of the death penalty, especially for terrorist offences and the murder of policemen. The general public seems to support harsh treatment of criminal offenders, and argue that more sympathy and aid should be given to the victims of crimes. The UN has declared itself in favor of abolition, Amnesty International actively campaigns for abolition, and the issue is now the focus of great debate.

Supporters of capital punishment believe that death is a just punishment for certain serious crimes. It deters people from committing such crimes. It must not be abolished.

Opponents argue that execution is cruel and uncivilized. The death penalty can only be imposed for especially grave crimes against life and may not be imposed against women, men under eighteen years of age.

The goal of punishment under the new Criminal Code in Russia is the re-establishment of social justice, the rehabilitation of the convicted person, and the prevention of the commission of new crimes (Art. 43 CC). The widely used Soviet punishment of banishment was abolished toward the end of the perestroika period, but the 1996 Criminal Code still includes the death penalty and other common forms of punishment: fine, prohibition to engage in a profession, confiscation of property, and deprivation of liberty among others. The death penalty can only be imposed for especially grave crimes against life and may not be imposed against women, men under eighteen years of age at the time of the commission of the offence, or men over sixty years of age at the time of judgment (Art. 59 CC). Whereas fifteen years was the maximum period of imprisonment under the old code, the 1996 Code introduces life imprisonment as an alternative to the death penalty.

 

Reasons “for” Reasons “Against”
- It protects unarmed policemen, young children, civilized society; - “Life sentence”: ten years of “good conduct” and then freedom to live on the proceeds of crime; - Suspension of capital punishment: senseless; - Violent criminals: a hero figure, glorified on screen and by press; - They expect and receive VIP treatment,   - Capital punishment creates, it doesn’t solve problems; - This has been proved many times in the past: relaxation of harsh laws has never led to increase in crime rate; - It’s absurd: capital punishment never protected anyone; - Hanging, electric chairs are barbaric practices, unworthy of human beings; - Suspension of capital punishment is civilized.

 

 



Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-04-21; Нарушение авторского права страницы; Мы поможем в написании вашей работы!

infopedia.su Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав. Обратная связь - 3.236.16.13 (0.023 с.)