Составьте словосочетания, обратите внимание на их перевод. Используйте их для обсуждения темы “Уголовный процесс”.

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Составьте словосочетания, обратите внимание на их перевод. Используйте их для обсуждения темы “Уголовный процесс”.


report investigate cross-examine commit decide lodge arrest resolve overturn convict acquit summarize   crime criminal charge person case accused suspect witness verdict


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1. guilty plea a. заявление об обвинении
2. probable cause b. сделка о признании вины
3. preponderance of evidence c. разумное, обоснованное сомнение
4. burden of proof d. обвинительный акт
5. plea bargain e. перевес доказательств
6. reasonable doubt f. признание вины
7. information g. бремя доказывания
8. indictment h. вероятная причина, правдоподобное основани основание


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Criminal Procedure


PRETRIAL STAGE. A criminal case passes through several phases before trial. First, the crime is reported and investigated. Then, if there is probable cause, that is reasonable grounds – something more than mere suspicion to believe that a particular person committed the crime, that person can be arrested. A warrant for arrest is necessary unless the pressure of time requires immediate action (e.g. before the suspect flees).

Finally, criminal charges must be lodged against the defendant. Depending on the state, the charges, usually called either an indictment (by a grand jury) or information (by a magistrate or police officer) and must be based on probable cause, preponderance of evidence, or prosecutor’s evidence that supports a belief in the defendant’s guilt.

Most cases are resolved without a trial. Prosecutors and defenсe counsel usually reach a plea bargain. The judge must decide whether the guilty plea was freely given and whether there was some factual basis for the plea, but judicial disapproval of an agreed-upon plea is rare.

BURDEN OF PROOF. At the trial there is crucial difference between criminal and civil cases in the level of proof required. A civil plaintiff merely needs a preponderance of the evidence; the judge or jury need only find that the evidence favors the plaintiff over the defendant. A successful criminal prosecution requires proof of guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.

The prosecuting counsel opens the case with a short description of the events of the crime and calls his witnesses. After taking an oath by the witness the prosecuting counsel begins his examination by asking the witness his/her name, profession, place of domicile. In English law, witnesses are not allowed to make lengthy statements to the court. It is the responsibility of the counsel to examine the witness in such a way as to produce the evidence he needs.

THE ORDER OF PROCEEDINGS. The session is opened by the court being called to order the Clerk of the Court. “The court will come to order. All rise”. Everyone stands up and waits for the judge to take his seat. The accused is brought into the dock and the clerk asks for his or her name. The accused answers with the appropriate plea.

In English law a person is innocent until proven guilty. This means that in a trial the burden of proof is on the prosecution and if the prosecution cannot establish a reasonable cause for conviction then the court must acquit the accused.

The defendant cannot be called by the prosecution and does not have to be called by the defence. However, once called, the defendant is subject to cross-examination by the prosecution.

The defence counsel and the prosecution make a speech, summarizing the case. The judge sums up the case from both points of view, instructing the jury as to the law. He reminds the jury that if there is any doubt at all in their minds their duty is to acquit. The jury retires to the jury room to decide its verdict. A verdict “not guilty” does not necessarily mean that the judge or jury believe the defendant to be innocent. It is simply a finding that there was insufficient evidence to prove guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.

EVIDENCE. Criminal trial courts have numerous, complex rules about what evidence is admissible, and how it may be introduced. The rules are supposed to exclude irrelevant, unreliable, or unfairly prejudicial matters, especially in jury cases. (the system presupposes that a judge is less likely to be swayed by improper evidence.) The judge’s or jury’s verdict is to be based solely on the evidence properly brought out at the trial. Otherwise proper, highly relevant evidence may be excluded because it was obtained in violation of a defendant’s constitutional rights. Criminal appeals are often decided on such so-called technical issues.

APPEALS. The appeal is a petition for review of a case that has been decided by a court of law. The petition made to a higher court for the purpose of overturning the lower court’s decision. The specific procedures for appealing can vary greatly depending on the type of case and jurisdiction where the case was prosecuted. The appeal system is mostly for the benefit of the defendant, but it is possible for the prosecution to appeal for a retrial.

Appellate courts cannot overturn a verdict simply because they disagree with it - e.g., with how the jury weighed the evidence and decided to believe one witness more than another witness. Appeals tend to focus on problems in the trial judge’s legal ruling, the instructions to the jury, and the trial procedures, not simply in the judge’s factual interpretations.



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6. Выберите правильный вариант ответа в соответствии с содержанием текста.


1. At the first stage of a criminal case before trial … .

a) the police collect evidence

b) the crime is reported and investigated

c) the suspected person must be interviewed by the police


2. A person may be arrested if there … .

a) is a suspicion of the police officer

b) is a testimony of witnesses

c) are reasonable grounds


3. At the final stage … .

a) the suspected person must be arrested by the police

b) criminal charges must be brought against somebody

c) the suspected person must be taken into custody


4. A successful criminal prosecution requires … .

a) a preponderance of evidence

b) proof of guilt beyond a reasonable doubt

c) that evidence favors the prosecution over the defendant


5. There is a special order of proceedings and the session starts with … .

a) the prosecutor’s statement

b) the defence opening speech

c) the appropriate plea of the accused


6. The verdict “not guilty” means that … .

a) the defendant is acquitted

b) there was insufficient evidence to prove the guilt beyond reasonable doubt

c) the jury considers the defendant to be innocent


7. Appellate courts exist to … .

a) find the defendant guilty

b) impose a more severe punishment

c) correct errors in the application of the law

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