Измените предложения, используя в них оборот «сложное подлежащее».

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Измените предложения, используя в них оборот «сложное подлежащее».

1. By the term “offence” we usually understand a crime not indictable but punishable. (to consider)

2. Everyone expects that the federal court will reverse the state judge`s erroneous findings. (to expect)

3. The general opinion was that the court would uphold a practice. (to be likely)

4. The traditional view is that judicial review is concerned with the lawfulness of a decision. (to believe)

5. They suppose that the remedy will be in force for a limited period of 2 years.(to suppose)

6. According to the report, an average judge in the Moscow Arbitrazhniy Court handles around 450 cases a year. (to report)

7. It is said that the defendant`s whereabouts were unknown. (to tell)

8. They say that the trial has been postponed. (to say)

9. Everyone thinks the parties will resort to alternative dispute resolution. (to be sure)

10. A conciliator is now trying to settle their dispute. This was announced yesterday. (to announce)

11. The standards of proof are higher in criminal action then in a civil one. (to turn to be)

12. The victim of a road accident does not directly benefit if the driver who injured him is found guilty of the crime of careless driving. (to appear)

13. Once the plaintiff has shown that the defendant is liable, the main argument in a civil court is about the amount of money, or damages, which the defendant should pay to the plaintiff. (to be sure)

14. The concept of vicarious liability is useful when high damages are sought and the defendant does not have enough money to pay them. (to regard)

15. The plaintiff has to show that he has suffered an action recognized as a tortious one and he has to show that his relation to the tortfeasor gives him the legal capacity to sue. (to be certain)


1. Прочитайте и переведите текст “Civil Procedure in the United States”. Ответьте на вопросы.

- What do you know about Civil Procedure in the United States?

- How do you understand the precedent system used by American lawyers?

- Is the similar kind of dispute resolution used in Russia?


Civil procedure in the United States has three distinctive features. First, it follows an adversarial model of dispute resolution. Parties initiate and propel litigation in this model, and the judge, historically and at least in theory, plays the relatively passive role of umpire. The burden is on the parties to present their grievances and defenses. Unlike in so-called inquisitorial models of dispute resolution, the judge rarely makes independent inquiries. The burden is also on the parties to prosecute their grievances and defenses; litigation stops unless the parties pursue it. ”These characteristics of the system of dispute resolution place on lawyers a heavy responsibility for assuring justice and mastering civil procedure.

Second, civil procedure in the United States is dominated by positive law: codified rules enacted by legislatures or their delegates. In contrast, the substantive rules of decision taught in the other traditional first year courses are more often doctrinal: declared by courts as part of the common law.

One difference between positive and common law lies in the materials containing the legal rules. The common-law materials are almost entirely judicial opinions, and the appropriate inquiry is: what rule best fits the case? In contrast, positive law materials are enacted laws or procedural rules and legislative history. Emphasis in administering the latter is on their plain words and (sometimes) legislative intent, in recognition of the superior lawmaking authority of legislatures and their delegates.

It is not always easy for the first year student to subordinate the comparatively freewheeling policy-oriented analysis of common law taught in many substantive courses to the plain language of positive law, principles of statutory construction, and reading of legislative history. But mastery of the latter lays the groundwork not just for understanding much of civil procedure, but also for understanding upper level law courses. Significantly, practicing lawyers rank “knowledge of statutory law” as the most important knowledge for practice, just ahead of “knowledge of procedural rules.

”Finally, the purpose of civil procedure is, as the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure state, “to secure the just, speedy, and inexpensive determination of every action and proceeding. ”Presumably, decisions are more likely to be just when they reach the merits. But the adversarial character of civil dispute resolution in the United States, have made the goals of “speedy and inexpensive” determinations increasingly difficult to attain. As a result, there is constant pressure for more active judicial management of litigation and for judicial intervention to dispose of the litigation without trial, if possible. Thus, the 1993 amendment to Rule 1 requires the rules to be «administered” — as well as “construed” (the original term) — “to secure just, speedy, and inexpensive determination of every action and proceeding.” No one foresees the replacement of the adversarial model by the inquisitorial model of dispute resolution, yet the former is undergoing significant change in response to widespread criticisms of the cost and efficiency of civil litigation.


Найдите в тексте “Civil Procedure in the United States” соответствия данным словосочетаниям.

1) состязательный принцип разрешения спора

2) досудебное урегулирование спора

3) жалобы и обвинения

4) добиться цели

5) простой (понятный) язык

6) следственный принцип разрешения спора


Заполните пропуски в следующих предложениях словами из текста “Civil Procedure in the USA”.

1) As a result of an adversarial model of dispute resolution in the US … plays the relatively passive role of umpire.

2) Practicing lawyers consider “knowledge of … law” to be more important than “ knowledge of … “.

3) It is in so-called … models of dispute resolution that the judge makes independent inquiries.

4) The purpose of civil procedure, according to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, is “to secure the …, … and … determination of every action.

5) As a result of widespread criticism of the cost and efficiency of civil litigation the inquisitorial model of … … is undergoing significant change.


Вставьте соответствующие предлоги.

1) Civil Procedure in the US is dominated … positive law.

2) It`s not easy … the first year student to subordinate the analysis … common law to the plain language of positive law.

3) The main aim of civil procedure is to dispose … the litigation without trial.

4) The replacement of the adversarial model … the inquisitorial one is impossible in the nearest future.



5. Работа в парах. Обсудите и составьте план пересказа текста “Civil Procedure in the United States”.



Civil offence Tort     гражданское правонарушение   деликт, противоправное действие, совершенное одним лицом против другого лица, его собственности или репутации.


1. Ответьте на вопросы.


1. What civil offences can you name?

2. What types of torts can you name?

3. What remedies is the injured person entitled to under the law?



Прочитайте и переведите текст со словарем.



Generally speaking, a "tort" is an injury one person or entity inflicts (accidentally or intentionally) upon another. When one person commits a tort upon another, the injured

person is entitled to remedies under the law. Generally, these remedies can include monetary compensation and restraining orders. The person who brings the lawsuit is called the "plaintiff," and the person who is sued is called the "defendant." The area of tort law is often referred to as "personal injury" law. Most torts involve, in some part, the doctrine of "negligence." The concept of negligence can generally be describes as (i) the failure of one person to act in way we would expect that person to do under the circumstances and (ii) an injury which results from that failure.


A tort is a civil wrong that can be remedied by awarding damages (other remedies may also be available). These civil wrongs result in harm to a person or property that forms the basis of a claim by the injured party. The harm can be physical, emotional or financial. Examples of torts include medical negligence, negligent damage to private property and negligent misstatements causing financial loss. There are many specific torts, such as trespass, assault and negligence.


Business torts include fraudulent misrepresentation, interference in contractual relations and unfair business practices. Torts fall into three general categories: intentional torts (e.g. unfair

competition), negligent torts (e.g. causing an accident by failing to obey traffic rules) and strict liability torts (e.g. liability for making and selling defective products).Why some wrongs are dealt with by tort law (or the law of torts) and others considered criminal offences is the subject of some debate. However, there are certainly overlaps between tort law and criminal law. For example, a defendant can be liable to compensate for assault and battery in tort and also be punished for the criminal law offence of assault.


Differences between tort law and criminal law include: the parties involved (the state brings an action in crime, a private individual brings an action in tort); the standard of proof (higher in criminal law); and the outcomes (a criminal action may result in a conviction and punishment, whereas an action in tort may result in liability on the part of the defendant and damages awarded to the claimant1).


The primary aims of tort law are to provide relief for the harm suffered and deter other potential tortfeasors from committing the same harms. The injured person may sue for both an injunction to stop the tortious conduct and for monetary damages. Depending on the jurisdiction, the damages awarded will be either compensatory or punitive. Compensatory damages are intended to put the victim in the position he or she would have been in had the tort not occurred. Punitive damages are awarded to punish a wrongdoer. As well as compensation for damage to property, damages may also be awarded for: loss of earnings capacity, future expected losses, pain and suffering and reasonable medical expenses.


Подберите к английским словам и выражениям (колонка А) соответствующие слова и выражения (колонка B).



1. battery a) деликт, гражданское правонарушение
2. defendant b) совершить деликт против кого-нибудь
3. products liability c) преследоваться по суду
4. to be sued d) нанести ущерб кому-либо
5. automobile accident e) потерпевший
6. plaintiff f) случайно
7. malpractice g) иметь право на получение судебной защиты
8. to mug h) денежное возмещение
9. negligence i) запретительный судебный приказ
10. assault j) предъявить иск
11. restraining order k) истец
12. to be entitled of remedies l) преследоваться по суду
13. premises liability m) ответчик, обвиняемый, подсудимый
14. slander n) небрежность
15. to commit a tort upon smb. o) дорожно-транспортное происшествие, автоавария
16. fraud p) ответственность за помещение
17. libel q) недобросовестная практика, врачевание в нарушение закона
18. invasion of privacy r) ответственность производителя (перед потребителем за качество товара)
19. fraudulent act s) диффамация
20. to inflict an injury upon smb. t) устная клевета
21. monetary compensation u) клевета письменная или через печать
22. accidentally v) нарушение неприкосновенности личной жизни; словесное оскорбление и угроза физическим насилием
23. defamation w) нанесение ударов, побоев, избиение
24. to bring a lawsuit x) обман, мошенничество
25. injury y) обманное, мошенническое действие
26. tort z) Нападение, словесное оскорбление и угроза физическим насилием
27. injured person ii) Намеренно, умышленно
28. intentionnaly iii) потерпевший



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