The Criminal Code of the Russian Federation



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The Criminal Code of the Russian Federation



 

The Criminal Code of the Russian Federation is divided into a General Part, containing general principles relating to criminal responsibility and assessment of punishment and a Special Part, listing various offenses and punishments.

Under the general part persons are subject to the criminal law when they reach the age of sixteen years for normal crimes, and fourteen years for murder and other grave crimes. Persons who are insane at the time of commission of a crime may not be convicted thereof.

The Criminal Code introduces some factors that exclude guilt to go along with traditional justifications such as self-defence or necessity or excuses such as duress. These include “innocent infliction of harm,” by persons who, due to objective or subjective (mental) circumstances, could not have appreciated the danger of their acts or have prevented the harm or who inflict harm while taking a socially useful justified risk. First-time offenders who commit less serious crimes can be freed of criminal responsibility if they engage in “active remorse” in the form of turning themselves in, aiding in the solving of the crime or making restitution.

The goal of punishment under the Code is the re-establishment of social justice, the rehabilitation of the convicted person, and the prevention of the commission of new crimes. The Code introduces life imprisonment as an alternative to the death penalty.

The Special Part of the Criminal Code contains a typical list of crimes against the person (homicide, sexual offenses, assaultive conduct). A special chapter is devoted to punishment of violations against “the constitutional rights and freedoms of the person and citizen”, among them acts infringing on the inviolability of one's private life, correspondence, and dwelling or on the liberty of confession or assembly.

Entrepreneurial activity is protected by the Constitution and regulated in the criminal law, punishing offences dealing with money laundering, restricting competition, false advertising, securities or credit fraud, fraudulent bankruptcy, tax evasion, and consumer fraud.

New provisions punish “ecological crimes” and “crimes in the sphere of computer information”, including hacking and creating viruses. The Code punishes environmental crimes, some relating to general violation of rules, others to improper handling of dangerous substances such as biological agents or toxins, still others protecting distinct resources such as water, the atmosphere, the sea, the continental shelf, the soil, the subsoil, and flora and fauna. The new Code punishes incitement to national, racial, or religious hatred.

 

4. Переведите и объясните значения данных слов и выражений:

1. the first time offender

2. constitutional rights and freedoms

3. environmental crimes

4. money laundering

5. tax evasion

6. hacking

7. dangerous substances

8. incitement to national hatred

 

5. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты:

1. освободить от уголовной ответственности

2. совершение преступлений

3. помогать в раскрытии преступления

4. испытывать угрызения совести, раскаяние

5. восстановление социальной справедливости

6. препятствовать совершению новых преступлений

7. пожизненное тюремное заключение как альтернатива смертной казни

8. неумышленное причинение вреда

9. оценить опасный характер действий

10. реабилитация осужденных

11. тяжкие преступления

12. возместить убытки

 

6. Передайте содержание текста на английском языке, обращая внимание на перевод выделенных слов и словосочетаний.

Text A. Уголовный процесс в Великобритании проходит в форме состязания (the form of a contest) между обвинением и защитой. Все судебные процессы проходят открыто. Интересы сторон могут быть представлены адвокатами. Уголовный процесс может проходить (to take place) только в присутствии обвиняемого. Бремя доказывания возложено на обвинителя. Для доказывания вины необходимо представить улики. Предполагается, что человек невиновен до тех пор, пока его вина не доказана.

Text B. Понятие и признаки преступления.

Понятие преступления является одной из основных категорий уголовного права. Закон устанавливает, что необходимо для осуществления стоящих перед уголовным законодательствомзадач охраны личности, ее собственности, общественного порядка и безопасности, окружающей среды, конституционного строя Российской Федерации, мира и безопасности человечества от преступных посягательств, а также предупреждения преступлений.

Согласно УК РФ преступление определено как совершенное общественно опасное деяние, запрещенное настоящим Кодексом под угрозой наказания. Преступление характеризуется определенными признаками. Ими являются: уголовная противоправность, общественная опасность, виновность и наказуемость.

 

 

Обсудите высказывания (1-9), сделанные обвиняемыми. Подберите для каждого высказывания вид совершенного преступления, представленного в рамке.

 

blackmail burglary embezzlement bigamy forgery espionage piracy murder bribery

 

1. “I arrived home late and found that I’d forgotten my keys. I didn’t want to wake my wife up, and I saw there was a ladder in the garden of the house next door. I got the ladder and climbed in. We've just moved house and I didn't realise I was in the wrong street”.

 

2. “I was walking my dog when I saw the gun lying on the ground. I picked it up - it was still warm - and at that moment I saw the body lying in the long grass. I went across to look and it was my business partner. That’s when the police arrived”.

 

3. “I opened the bank account in a false name as a way to help my employer pay less tax- It’s perfectly legal. I kept meaning to tell him, but somehow I just forgot. I bought the villa in France with my own money. It was an inheritance”.

 

4. “OK, so there are a hundred and twenty-three copies of ‘ Four Weddings and a Funeral’. That’s perfectly true, but I had no intention of selling them. I'm a collector. "Well, this obviously isn’t my suitcase. I’ve never seen these things before in my life”.

 

5. “I didn’t know she was still alive, I thought she’d died in a car accident. I couldn’t believe it when I saw her walk into the room. Surely you don't think I did this just to get your money?”

 

6. “You misunderstand me. When I offered him the money I meant it as a gift. I know that life can be difficult for a young man on a police salary, especially if he has a family, young children etcetera. It isn’t easy and I know that. I just wanted to help. I didn’t expect him to do anything in return”.

7. “After leaving the office I realized I’d forgotten my umbrella. I went back in to get it. When I went in I noticed that the photocopier was still turned on. It had been working very badly all day, and I decided to quickly see what was wrong with it before going home. I made a few test copies of documents that were in the office; I didn’t even look at what I was copying. The machine seemed to be working much better. I put the copies in my briefcase - intending to use the other side as notepaper. I don’t believe in wasting paper. At that moment Mr Sanders came out of his office”.

 

8. “I painted them for pleasure. I had no intention of deceiving people. I never said they were by other people. Yes, I did include the signatures of other artists but that’s because I wanted them to be perfect copies”.

 

9. “Mr Wills sent me the money to help me in my business venture – I’m trying to start a design agency. He sent me checks every month for $1200. A couple of times he sent extra when I had special expenses. It was always understood that he would participate in the profits of the business when it was running. We didn't write anything down, it was an oral agreement. The photographs I have of him with his secretary have no connection with these payments”.

 

 

UNIT 5. HISTORY OF PUNISHMENT

 

Повторите за преподавателем данные слова, обратите внимание на их произношение.

 

theory, ghost, omen, retributive, characteristic, superstition, misfortune, injury, target, frequently, ordeal, judicial, medieval Europe, sympathize, encourage, penal system.

 

 



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