XII. Use the Subjective Infinitive Complex instead of 

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XII. Use the Subjective Infinitive Complex instead of

a Subordinate Clause:

Pattern A: It is known that he is a great book-lover.

He is knownto be a great book-lover.

1. It is said that she is preparing for her entrance examinations. 2. It can be expected that the weather will improve soon. 3. It proved that he was a very experienced worker. 4. It happened that he was at home at that time. 5. It seems that she knows French well. 6. It is reported that the delegation has left London. 7. It happened that there was a doctor there at that time.
8. It appears that there are different opinions on this subject.

Pattern B:It is likely that the conference will be held in London.

The conference is likelyto be held in London.

1. It was not likely that he would take the risk. 2. It is improbable that she will forget her promise. 3. It is not likely that he will come in time. 4. It is probable that the winter will be very cold this year. 5. It is improbable that this medicine will help him. 6. It is probable that they will be late. 7. It is not likely that they will return soon.

Pattern C:He surely (certainly) will go hunting.

He is sureto go hunting.

1. Surely he is easy to deal with. 2. Surely the teacher will be satisfied with your report. 3. The doctor will certainly do his best. 4. They will certainly like this film. 5. He will certainly do his duty. 6. It is certain that they will be here on Monday.

XIII. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. People seem to be more willing to pay taxes when they can understand the tax laws. 2. Economics is known to focus on production of goods and on the income generated in the course of production. 3. The customers are said to buy the goods at a price fixed by a special agreement. 4. The price is said to change. 5. The situation appears to be more difficult than we thought. 6. The meeting is expected to begin this morning. 7. He seems to know all about this matter. 8. He appeared to have received a very good education. 9. They were ordered to leave the hall. 10. She seemed to have been waiting for a long time.

XIV. Translate into English:

1. Кажуть, що він живе нині в Одесі. 2. Здавалося, що він про щось думає. 3. З’ясувалося, що він знає три іноземні мови. 4. Здається, ця фірма підписала контракт. 5. Він виявився здібним математиком.
6. Кажуть, що цей письменник написав нову цікаву книжку. 7. Ніколи не бачили, щоб він сердився. 8. Він, здається, багато знає. 9. Навряд, щоб він став ризикувати. 10. Мої нові сусіди виявилися дуже приємними людь­ми. 11. Його підхід до вирішення цієї проблеми виявився дуже простим.

XV. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. He is sure to ring you up. 2. Science is certain to influence the solution of the most important political problems. 3. They are sure (certain) to inform us about their plans. 4. No need to hurry. She is sure to be late.
5. They are likely to return next week. 6. The conference is likely to be at our University.

XVI. Translate into English:

1. Очевидно, ви забули про нашу зустріч. 2. Навряд, щоб ви застали його вдома о цій порі. 3. Мабуть, цей готель був побудований багато років тому. 4. Очевидно, ви забули про все, що обіцяли. 5. Він, оче­видно, знає, як поводитися в подібних ситуаціях. 6. Студенти обов’язково візьмуть участь у конференції. 7. Ви неодмінно знайдете там нових друзів.

EXERCISES for individual work

I. Put «to» where necessary:

1. He made me (do) it all over again. 2. I want (see) the house where our president was born. 3. He is expected (arrive) in a few days. 4. I let him (go) early as he wanted (meet) his wife. 5. He made us (wait) for hours. 6. Please let me (know) your decision as soon as possible. 7. He is said (be) the best surgeon in the country. 8. We don’t (want) anybody (know) that we are here. 9. Where would you like (have) lunch? 10. As we seem (have missed) the train we may as well (go) back to the house. 11. He told me (try) (come) early. 12. Before he let us (go) he made us (promise) (not tell) anyone what we had seen. 13. I heard the door (open) and saw a shadow (move) across the floor. 14. There is nothing (do) but (wait) till somebody comes (let) us out.

II. Transform the sentences using the Objective or Subjective

Infinitive Complexes:

1. They believe that he is honest. 2. Is it likely that he will arrive before six? 3. It is said that he was a brilliant scientist. 4. It is certain that they will arrive on Sunday. 5. It is said that she has a frightful temper.
6. They found that the report was rather interesting. 7. I could hardly believe that it had happened. 8. What I want is that you both should be happy.


III. Translate into English:

1. Вiн не чув, як я постукав у дверi. 2. Вiн сказав менi, що бачив, як вона вийшла з дому. 3. Повідомили, що збори відбудуться завтра.
4. Вона, здавалося, забула, що ми посварилися. 5. Ви сподівалися, що він виступить з промовою на зборах? 6. Я випадково почув, як він це сказав. 7. Схоже на те, що вона говорить правду. 8. Він, напевно, отри­має задоволення від цієї поїздки. 9. Ми сподiваємося, що контракт буде пiдписано завтра. 10. Я вважаю, що вiн вiдповiдальний за це. 11. Я вва­жаю, що я правий. 12. Ми знаємо, що вiн дуже досвiдчений викладач. 13. Мій друг, здається, добре проводить час на березі моря. 14. Вона, здається, знає все з цього питання. 15. Він, очевидно, задоволений ре­зультатом своєї роботи. 16. Я випадково зустрів його в Сочі. 17. Погода, напевно, зміниться. 18. Це питання неодмінно будуть обговорювати на зборах сьогодні. 19. Вони, напевно, згодяться взяти участь у цій роботі. 20. Можна чекати, що вони приїдуть у понеділок.

U N I T 14

TOPIC: AGGREGATE SUPPLY AND DEMAND TEXT A TEXT B GRAMMAR: The Participle. Forms and Functions Complexes with the Participle



1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

bring, single, aggregate, quality, quantity, adequate, motivated, labour, force, factor, natural, national, income, saving, trace, trends.

b) stress the second syllable:

economy, economic, economist, producer, production, productive, affect, performance, investment, account, accounting, consume, consumption, amount, statistics, efficiency, combine, improve.

Text A

Just as economists study the amount of goods and services brought to market by a single producer, they also study the total amount of goods and services produced by the economy as a whole. Thus, they examine aggregate supply1— the total amount of goods and services produced by the economy in a given period, usually one year.

A number of factors affect an economy’s aggregate supply. Two of these are the quantity of resources used in production and the quality of those resources. For example, an economy must have an adequate supply of natural resources and capital goods to be productive2.

It also needs a skilled and highly motivated labour force. A third factor affecting aggregate supply is the efficiency with which the resources are combined. If they are combined in a productive way, aggregate supply will increase.

In order to measure aggregate supply, statistics must be kept. To keep with this task economists use national income accounting3— a system of statistics, that keeps track of production4, consumption, saving and investment in the economy. National income accounting also makes it possible to trace long-run trends in the economy and to form new public policies to improve the economy.

The most important economic statistics kept in the national income accounts is Gross National Product (GNP). This is the dollar measure of the total amount of final goods and services produced in a year. It is one of the most important and comprehensive statistics kept on the economy’s performance5.


1. aggregate supply — сукупна пропозиція

2. to be productive — щоб бути продуктивною

3. national income accounting — розрахунок національного прибутку

4. ... keeps track of production — слідкує за виробництвом

5.... kept on the economy’s performance — яка продовжує характерис­тику економіки



I. Find equivalents:

1. adequate supply of natural resources 2. to keep with a task 3. final goods 4. to trace long-run trends in the economy 5. skilled labour force 6. national income accounting 7. capital goods 8. to improve the economy 9. aggregate supply 10. total amount of goods and services 11. single producer 12.Gross National Product (GNP) 13. the quantity and the quality а. загальна кількість товарів та послуг б. кваліфікована робоча сила в. засоби виробництва г. відповідний (достатній) запас природних багатств д. сукупна пропозиція е. поліпшувати стан економіки є. валовий національний продукт ж. виконувати завдання з. кількість і якість и. розрахунок національного прибутку і. окремий виробник ї. готова продукція й. намічати перспективні напрямки в економіці

II. Match the synonyms:

adequate, to grow, skilful, to affect, goods, merchandise, amount, trend, to ameliorate, consider, to improve, sufficient, to trace, to increase, to influence, examine, manufacturer, tendency, total, quantity, to track, producer, aggregate, skilled.

III. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. Economists examine aggregate supply — the total amount ... goods and services produced ... the economy ... a given period. 2. A number ... factors affect ... an economy’s aggregate supply. 3. Two ... these are the quantity ... resources used ... production and the quality ... those resources.
4. ... order to measure aggregate supply, statistics must be kept. 5. One ... the factors affecting ... aggregate supply is the efficiency ... which the resources are combined. 6. The most important economic statistics kept ... the national income accounts is Gross National Product. 7. This is the dollar measure ... the total amount ... final goods and services produced ... a year.


IV. Match each term in Column A with its definition in Column B:

Column A Column B

1. efficiency а. Goods ultimately bought and used by consumers.
2. capital goods b. A measure of the nation’s total output of goods and services per year.
3. services c. Something created to produce other goods and services.
4. final goods d. Intangible item of value, such as the work of physicians, lawyers, teachers, actors.
5. labour force e. A measure of how much we get what we use.
6. Gross National Product (GNP) f. All the goods and services provided by the economy.
7. Aggregate Supply g. A system of statistics, that keeps track of production, consumption, saving and investment in the economy.
8. national income accounting h. Individuals, 16 years of age or older, working or looking for work.

V. Define which of the following items best completes the statement:

1. The GNP can best be described as a measure of

a. the nation’s economic welfare.

b. the value of all goods and services produced in the country.

c. the retail value of all market production in the nation.

d. goods and services produced by the government.

2. A nation’s standard of living will rise if

a. GNP and population increase at the same rate.

b. GNP increases faster than population.

c. Population increases faster than GNP.

d. Production and consumption decrease.


3. Assume that prices are rising while production remains unchanged.

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