Modal Verbs: must; be to; have to; have got to 

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Modal Verbs: must; be to; have to; have got to

XV. Give short and full answers:

1. Must the students attend any lectures at the University? 2. Must you return your books to the library in time? 3. Must they meet him at the station? 4. Must the secretary post the letters at once? 5. Must the students take part at the conference? 6. Must your friend go there today? 7. Must the children look both ways before crossing the road? 8. Must the children obey their parents?


XVI. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:

Pattern:He must do it himself.

Must he do it himself?

He needn’t (не треба) do it himself.

1. Everybody must go in for sports. 2. We must read English books every day. 3. You must air the room twice a day. 4. They must have a passport to visit most foreign countries. 5. Children must sleep nine hours a day. 6. You must leave tomorrow. 7. They must stay at home. 8. She must help her mother about the house.

XVII. Answer the following questions:

1. What time must you get up every morning? 2. When must you come to your lessons? 3. What must you do to know English well? 4. What must you do tonight? 5. Why must the students study hard? 6. Why must you prepare your home assignments regularly? 7. Why mustn’t you ask a woman her age? 8. Why must you obey the traffic rules?

XVIII. Complete the disjunctive questions:

1. The students mustn’t be late for the lessons, ... ? 2. He must answer all these questions, ... ? 3. My sister doesn’t have to work at weekends, ... ? 4. We don’t have to pay for the tickets in advance, ... ? 5. You had to wait half an hour for a bus, ... ? 6. The children must make up their minds where they want to go, ... ? 7. You had to tell them about it, ... ? 8. We’ll have to borrow the money we need, ... ?

XIX. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. I must go to the bank to get some money. 2. Cars mustn’t park in front of the entrance. 3. He must know all about it as he has read a lot on the subject. 4. It must be after midnight now. 5. She must be having a lot of problems with the language. 6. He must be angry with you. 7. She must be over fifty. 8. They must have missed the train. 9. We were to meet at six.
10. When I changed my job I had to move to another flat. 11. The children have to play in the streets till their mothers get home from work.

XX. Complete the following situation, using «be to»

Pattern: I can’t go to the cinema with you.
(be at the hospital at five).

I am to be at the hospital at five.

1. We’ll have to get up early. (leave at 6.30). 2. We were expecting him in Kyiv. (join us, on our trip). 3. You needn’t start writing the article at once. (but, hand it in next Friday). 4. He won’t be present at the meeting tomorrow. (take his examination in English). 5. We didn’t want to start the discussion of the book without him. (say a few words about the author).
6. Don’t let the child watch this film on TV. (children, not see such films).

XXI. Translate into English:

1. Я повинен негайно відвідати свого друга. Він, напевно, захворів. 2. Нам не довелося чекати, оскільки поїзд прийшов вчасно. 3. Вони по­винні принести цю книгу завтра. 4. Вона повинна відіслати листа негайно. 5. Ця робота має бути зроблена якнайшвидше. 6. Я мав був залишитися вдома учора. 7. Діти мають піти додому до того, як засу­теніє. 8. Ви не повинні тут курити, тут діти. 9. Не можна переходити вулицю на червоне світло. 10. Ви, напевно, здогадалися, що я мав на увазі.

Modal Verbs: should; ought to

XXII. Translate into Ukrainian:

a) 1. It’s late. You should goto bed. 2. I shouldn’t have trustedhim so readily. 3. You shouldn’t miss the opportunity. 4. How should I know where you’ve left your bag? 5. Why shouldI help him? He’s never done anything for me. 6. We should have checked the time before we left. 7. We should arrive before dark. 8. I suggest that you should reconsider your position.

b) 1. This cake is delicious. You ought to try some. 2. Children ought to be able to read by the age of seven. 3. That ought to be enough food for all of us. 4. You ought to improve your French before going to work in Paris. 5. Youought to apologize. 6. You ought to have apologized (but you didn’t). 7. There ought to be more buses during the rush hour. 8. Children ought to respect their parents.

XXIII. Change the sentences using the verbs should or ought:

1. I adviseyou to read this book in the original. 2. I don’t advise you to make any marks in the book. 3. I advise you to consult a doctor. 4. It’s a pity you didn’t come to my place yesterday. 5. I don’t think it was clever of him to complain. He wasn’t right himself. 6. I don’t advise them to make a decision in a hurry. I think the matter must be considered carefully.

XXIV. Put «to» where necessary:

1. I’ll have (hurry). 2. You ought (take) a holiday. 3. You must (look) both ways before crossing the road. 4. You are (go) at once. 5. He used (spend) a lot of time in the library. 6. You may (keep) my book for a week. 7. We had (wait) as the manager was out. 8. Should I (tell) him the truth?
9. You needn’t (turn on) the light. I can (see) quite well. 10. I knew the town so I was able (advise) him where to go.

XXV. Translate into English:

1. Вам слід було складати іспити разом з іншими студентами.
2. У вас стомлений вигляд. Вам слід звернутися до лікаря. 3. Чому б нам не піти на прогулянку? 4. Чому я повинен завжди чекати на нього? 5. Йому слід було б відмовитися від запрошення, якщо він був такий зайнятий. 6. Вам слід було розповісти йому всю правду. 7. Вам не слід було ходити туди вчора. 8. Нам треба було купити квитки заздалегідь. 9. Чому б вам не запросити його на вечірку? 10. Вона в лікарні. Ти б прові­дала її. 11. Чому я повинен приймати його пропозицію? Я не згоден з ним.

Indefinite Pronoun: one. Indefinite-Personal Sentences

XXVI. Paraphrase the sentences using the indefinite pronoun one:

Pattern A: It is necessary for everyone to go in for sports.

One must go in for sports.

1. It is possible to find any book in this library. 2. It is necessary to take that into consideration. 3. It was impossible to go for a walk yesterday: it was raining all day long. 4. It is impossible to master a foreign language without working hard. 5. It is necessary to read newspapers every day. 6. It is necessary to be careful while crossing the road. 7. It is impossible to forget that day. 8. It is necessary to air the room before going to bed.


Pattern B: The new flat is more comfortable than the old flat.

The new flat is more comfortable than the old one.

1. The brown shoes are as dear as the black shoes. 2. This test was less difficult than the last test. 3. I don’t like this coat. Show me another coat. 4. Her new car goes faster than the old car. 5. The white dress is as nice as the yellow dress. 6. This film is more interesting than that film. 7. The cotton dress is not so dear as the silk dress. 8. The shop assistant showed me two suits of different colours. I chose the blue suit.

XXVII. Translate the sentences and define the function of «one»:

1. The students compared British universities with American ones.
2. I’ll speak to him one of these days.3. One day he’ll understand his mistake. 4. Give me the book, please. — Which one? 5. Your father is the one man who can help you now. 6. I forgot to bring a pen. Can you lend me one? 7. One must do one’s duty. 8. In such circumstances one doesn’t sometimes know what one should do.

XXVIII. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. We are always pleased to meet old friends. 2. Before the names of seas we use the definite article. 3. In these situations one has to do his best. 4. They say we are going to have a hot summer. 5. You know more from life than from books. 6. Driving on the left is strange at first but you get used to it. 7. They’ve sent us another form to fill in. 8. One has to think about age.
9. How do you get to 5th Avenue from here? 10. You learn a language better if you visit the country where it’s spoken. 11. One tries to take an interest in what is going on. 12. They say that clever men have got the worst handwriting.

XXIX. Translate into English:

1. Не можна спізнюватися на заняття. 2. Потрібно піклуватися про своє здоров’я. 3. Треба дотримувати даного слова. 4. Потрібно вико­нувати домашні завдання регулярно. 5. Помилки інших людей бачиш швидше, ніж свої власні. 6. Ніколи не знаєш, що ця дитина може зробити. 7. Щоб бути гарним спеціалістом, потрібно вчитися наполег­ливо. 8. Якщо хочеш, щоб справу було зроблено, зроби її сам. 9. Ніколи не треба відкладати на завтра те, що можна зробити сьогодні. 10. На тарілці було кілька яблук. Я взяв червоне. 11. Коли не знаєш грама­тики, часто робиш помилки. 12. Потрібно завжди дотримуватися пра­вил дорожнього руху.


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