The Functions of the Verb «to have»



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The Functions of the Verb «to have»



XVI. Make the sentences interrogative and negative:

1. They have eggs for breakfast. 2. We have to work hard. 3. They have to get up at six every day. 4. The children have dinner at school. 5. She has to make a speech. 6. You have made a mistake in your dictation. 7. He has written to her. 8. The students have a very important test tomorrow. They have to study tonight. 9. We have to leave home early. 10. You had a good journey yesterday. 11. His wife has headaches quite often. 12. I have seen you before.

XVII. State the function of the verb «to have»:

1. We have a TV set. 2. We have bought a TV set. 3. We have to buy a TV set. 4. The USA has a highly developed industry. 5. The students have an examination session at the end of each term. 6. The students have to take their examinations at the end of each term. 7. You don’t have to write this exercise. 8. He has no books on this subject. 9. You haven’t written your exercise. 10. He has to get up early in the morning. 11. I have entered our University this year. 12. He has got up early in the morning.

XVIII. Translate into English:

1. У вас є друзі? — Taк. У мене багато друзiв. 2. Нам не довелося чекати. Поїзд прийшов вчасно. 3. У вас є підручник з історії? — Так. Я взяв його в нашій бібліотеці. 4. У вас є вільний час зараз? — Ні. У мене ніколи немає вiльного часу. 5. Скiльки в неї братiв та сестер? — Не знаю. Вона ніколи не розповідала про себе. 6. Ваші діти вже поснiдали? — Так. — О котрiй годинi вони звичайно снiдають? — О восьмій. Вони завжди снідають о восьмій. 7. Скiльки у вас сьогоднi пар? — Чотири. У нас завжди чотири пари. 8. Мій друг не склав іспиту з математики. Йому доведеться складати його в серпнi.

EXERCISES for individual work

I. Choose the proper place of the adverb:

1. He has not finished his work (yet). 2. I have not received any letters from them (lately). 3. Have you been to London (ever)? 4. The delegation has arrived (just). 5. She has spoken to him (already). 6. Have you read this book (yet)? 7. I have seen him at lectures (never). 8. She has not seen this film, but she has heard a lot about it (yet). 9. She has not read very much (recently). 10. I have met her (never).

II. Insert since or for:

1. I haven’t seen you ... the beginning of the semester. I haven’t seen you ... two months. 2. We have lived in Chicago ... last year. We have lived here ... almost six months. 3. He hasn’t written to me ... April. He hasn’t written to me ... about three weeks. 4. Peter has worked in the laboratory ... he graduated from the University. Peter has worked in the laboratory ... five years. 5. You haven’t come here ... a fortnight. You haven’t come here ... last Monday. 6. You have studied English ... childhood. You have studied English ... ten years.

III. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect Tense,

and fill the spaces by repeating the auxiliary:

1. You (have) breakfast? — Yes, I ... .

2. The post (come)? — Yes, it ... .

3. You (see) my watch anywhere? — No, I’m afraid I ... .

4. Charles (pass) his exam? — Yes, he ... .

5. You (not make) a mistake? — No, I’m sure I ... .

6. Mary (water) the tomatoes? — Yes, I think she ... .

7. You (see) him lately? — No, I ... .

8. You (spend) all your money? — Yes, I ... .

9. The phone (stop) ringing? — No, it ... .

10. He just (go) out? — Yes, he ... .

IV. Translate into English:

1.Його немає вдома. Він щойно вийшов.2.Цікаво, де вони зараз?Я не бачив їх відтоді, як переїхав до цього міста. 3. Ти вже написав доповідь на цю тему? — Так. 4. Ми з ним — друзі з самого дитинства,
і ми ніколи не сварились. 5. Останнім часом я не одержував листів від своїх батьків. 6. Ти вже вивчив текст? — Так. Я щойно вивчив текст
і зараз повторюю слова. 7. В аудиторії нікого немає. Усі пішли додому. 8. Ви хоч колись думали про це? — Ні.

 


U N I T 5

 

TOPIC: WHAT IS ECONOMICS? TEXT A TEXT B TEXT C TEXT D GRAMMAR: The Past Indefinite Tense. The Functions of the Verb to do The Future Indefinite Tense. The Imperative Mood

READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

necessary, possible, business, labour, spending, politics, science, careful, satisfy, effort, taxes, government, relatively, scarce, living, utilizing;

b) stress the second syllable:

unfortunately, define, mankind, produce, production, exchange, activity, consumption, description, psychology, effect, competing, determine, unlimited, inflation, concern, resources, pretend, attempt;

c) stress the third syllable:

economics, economic, distribution, international, interaction, sociology, unemployment.

 

Text A

Studying economics for the first time, it is necessary to know what economics is all about1. Unfortunately, it is not possible to define the subject by a single word. Economics was defined as the study of mankind in the everyday business life. This means that economics deals with production, distribution, exchange and consumption. It answers such questions as: How do we produce all the things we need? How are prices determined? Economics is alsoconcerned with2unemployment, inflation, international trade, the interaction of business and labour, and the effects of government spending3and taxes.

Economics does not stop with the description of economic activity because description alone leaves unanswered many important why and how questions.

Economics is a social science like history, geography, politics, psychology and sociology. It is the study of human efforts to satisfy what seems like unlimited and competing wants4through the careful use of relatively scarce resources. Economists study what is or tends to be and how it came to be. They do not in any way pretend to tell what ought to be. People mustmake up their own minds5about that.

Economics is therefore concerned with activities relating to wealth, i.e. production, consumption, exchange and distribution.

For our own purpose, we shall define economics as the study of man in his attempts to gain a living6by utilizing his limited resources.

COMMENTS

1. ... what economics is all about— що складає економiку

2.to be concerned with — мати справу із; займатися

3.the effects of government spending — ефективнiсть урядових витрат

4.... unlimited and competing wants — необмеженi потреби, що пос­тійно зростають

5.to make up one’s own mind — вирiшувати самому

6.to gain a living — заробляти на життя

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Find equivalents:

1. for the first time 2. production 3. distribution 4. exchange 5. consumption 6. to determine price 7. international trade 8. unemployment 9. scarce resources 10. unlimited wants 11. to make up one’s own mind 12. limited resources 13. to gain a living 14. taxes a. необмеженi потреби б. розподiл в. cпоживання г. виробництво д. уперше е. недостатні ресурси є. вирiшувати самому ж. обмiн з. безробiття и. обмеженi ресурси i. визначати цiну ї. мiжнародна торгiвля й. податки к. заробляти на життя

II. Form nouns using suffixes -ion, -tion:

to produce, to distribute, to interact, to inflate, to consume, to determine, to relate, to define, to connect, to describe, to satisfy, to utilize.

III. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. Unfortunately, it is not possible to define the subject ... a single word. 2. Economics deals ... production, distribution, exchange and consumption. 3. Economics is also concerned ... unemployment, inflation, international trade, the interaction ... business and labour, and the effects ... government spending and taxes. 4. Economics does not stop ... the description ... economic activity ... description alone leaves unanswered many important why and how questions. 5. It is the study ... human efforts to satisfy what seems like unlimited and competing wants ... the careful use ... relatively scarce resources.

IV. Complete the following sentences:

1. Economics was defined ... . 2. It answers such questions as ... .
3. Economics is also concerned with ... . 4. It does not stop with the description of economic activity because ... . 5. Economics is a social science like ... . 6. Economics is the study of ... .

V. Match each term in Column A with its definition in Column B:

Column A Column B



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