The Future Perfect Continuous Tense



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The Future Perfect Continuous Tense



XVII. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. I shall have been translating the article for an hour before you come. 2. Will you have been waiting for another hour? 3. You’ll have been discussing this problem for half an hour when I come. 4. I will have been sleeping for two hours by the time he gets home. 5. My sister will have been living in Minsk for five years by the end of this month. 6. By this time next year he will have been lecturing on the subject for five years. 7. By the first of September she will have been teaching in this school for 25 years. 8. He will have been studying for two hours by the time you come.

XVIII. Put questions to the italicized words:

1. By the end of the month we shall have been living in this house for two years. 2. My sister will have been living in Lviv for five years by the end of this month. 3. We shall have been having dinner for half an hour when you call for us. 4. This actor will have been performing the chief part for several years. 5. He will have been staying at the theatre for two hours when his friend comes.

XIX. Translate into English:

1. Ми будемо готувати обід (уже) годину, коли до нас прийдуть гості. 2. Я почну працювати о десятій годині ранку. Коли ви повер­нетесь додому, я вже працюватиму сім годин. 3. Як довго ви будете писати контрольну роботу, перш ніж здати її викладачеві? 4. Я цілий день думаю про те, що розповідатиму їм, коли ми прийдемо до них.
5. До кінця року мої батьки житимуть у Лондоні вже чотири роки. 6. До кінця семестру я вивчатиму англійську мову вже десять років.

 

Indefinite Pronouns: much, many, few, little

XX. Fill in the blanks with many, much, a lot of, lots of,

plenty of, a good deal of, a great deal of:

1. I’ve got ... friends in this village. 2. ... people think so. 3. It took her ... time to clean the room. She works very slowly. 4. She put so ... salt in the soup that nobody could eat it. 5. A postman has to walk ... . 6. He spends ... money on books. 7. Has the town changed ... ? 8. My room has as ... windows as yours. 9. He hasn’t got ... work to do. 10. There isn’t ... water in the pond today. 11. Do big dogs eat much? Yes, they eat ... . 12. ... of what you say is true. 13. Did he make ... mistakes in his dictation?

XXI. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. The village was very small. There were only a few houses. 2. There was so much traffic that we were an hour late. 3. I don’t have much money with me. 4. She never eats much for breakfast. 5. Hurry up! We’ve only got a little time. 6. We spent a lot of money. 7. This jacket costs too much. 8. There too many advertisements during television shows. 9. Many people know about it. 10. We’ve got very little time. 11. I didn’t ski much during my vacation. 12. He read a lot during his vacation. 13. Have you got many friends? — I have got very few friends.

XXII. Fill in the blanks with many or much:

1. How ... sheets of paper do you want? 2. Hurry up! You haven’t got ... time. 3. How ... does it cost? 4. I don’t drink ... wine. 5. Did you pay ... money for your watch? 6. We haven’t had ... rain this summer. 7. How ... time does it take you to go there? 8. How ... butter did you buy? 9. How ... apples did you buy? 10. He doesn’t eat ... fruit. 11. Does Mary spend ... time on her English? 12. There are too ... mistakes in this essay.

XXIII. Translate into English:

1. Ви зробили дуже мало помилок у творі. 2. Скільки ви запла­тили за ваш словник? — Багато. Я витрачаю дуже багато грошей на книжки. 3. Ви їсте багато фруктів улітку? 4. Не поспішайте! У нас багато часу. 5. Багато написано на цю тему. 6. Ви купили дуже мало м’яса. 7. У вас багато роботи сьогодні? — Так. Я не можу піти з вами в кіно сьогодні, оскільки в мене надто багато роботи. 8. Ви читали багато книжок з цього питання? — Так, я читав багато книжок з цього питання. 9. Багато людей пробували зійти на гору, але мало хто досяг вершини.10.Учора в парку було мало дітей.

EXERCISES for individual work

I. Fill in the blanks with for or since:

1. We’ve been fishing ... two hours. 2. I’ve been working in this office ... a month. 3. They’ve been living in France ... 1970. 4. I’ve known that ... a long time. 5. That man has been standing there ... six o’clock. 6. I’ve been using this machine ... twelve years. 7. The strike has lasted ... six months.
8. We’ve been waiting ... half an hour. 9. I’ve been trying to open this door ... twenty minutes. 10. The police have been looking for him ... four days.
11. He has been very ill ... the last month.

II. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect

or the Present Perfect Continuous Tense:

1. We (walk) ten kilometres. 2. We (walk) for three hours. 3. I (look) for mushrooms but I (not find) any. 4. That boy (eat) seven ice-creams. 5. He (not stop) eating since he arrived. 6. The students (work) very well this term. 7. He (teach) in this school for five years. 8. I (teach) hundreds of students but I never (meet) such a hopeless class as this. 9. I (sleep) on every bed in this house and I don’t like any of them. 10. He (sleep) since ten o’clock. It’s time he woke up. 11.They (play) tennis since lunch time. 12. She (talk) to him on the phone for a quarter of an hour. 13. I (know) David since childhood. 14. He (work) with this company since 1990.

III. Put the verbs in brackets into the Perfect Continuous tense forms:

 

1. He said he (work) since five o’clock. 2. By the end of the next term we (study) English for three years already. 3. What you (do) for the past two weeks? 4. For the past few minutes I (try) to explain to you that you can’t make me go there. 5. He (paint) this picture for two years and I don’t know when he is going to finish it. 6. I (live) in Germany for five years before I came to Ukraine. 7. He (drive) all day, so he was very tired when he arrived. 8. The child (sleep) for an hour before we came. 9. By the time she comes, he (stay) at the hotel for two days. 10. Suddenly she understood that she (speak) for a long time and it was time to stop. 11. The students (write) a test for two hours. 12. He (look) through the documents for half an hour when the phone rang. 13. Ukraine (be) independent since 1991.

IV. Fill in the blanks with many, much, more, less, little, a little,
few, a few
:

 

1. He had very ... friends (hardly any friends). 2. He drank ... water and felt much better. 3. Hurry up! We have very ... time. 4. He had ... friends (some friends). 5. ... people understood what he said (hardly any people).
6. It’s no use asking him about it. He has ... knowledge of the subject.
7. May I have ... wine, please? 8. He had ... friends (some friends). 9. How ... English words do you know? 10. Does he read ...? — It’s a pity but he reads too ... . 11. I don’t drink ... coffee. 12. Please, try to make ... noise. 13. Some ... tea, please. 14. I have something to say. May I have ... words with you?

 

 


U N I T 9

 

TOPIC: MARKETS and MARKET STRUCTURES TEXT A TEXT B TEXT C GRAMMAR: Modal Verbs and their Equivalents. Indefinite Pronoun: one Indefinite-Personal Sentences

READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

market, classify, influence, similar, pure, separate, real, raise;

b) stress the second syllable:

economist, according, condition, prevail, involve, compete, competitive, competitively, competitiveness, competitor, exactly, determine, exist, monopoly, monopolist, monopolize, degree, unique, depend, attract, except, imaginary;

c) stress the third syllable:

economic, economical, economically, economics, situation, competition, conversation, independent, independently, oligopoly.

Text A [КН1]

Economists classify markets according to conditions that prevail in them. They ask questions like the following: How many supplies are there? How large are they? Do they have any influence over price? How much competition is there between firms? What kind of economic product is involved? Are all firms in the market selling exactly the same product, or simply similar one? Is it easy or difficult for new firms to enter the market? The answer to these questions helps to determine market structure, or the nature and degree of competition among firms operating in the same market. For example, one market may be highly competitive because a large number of firms produce similar products. Another may be less competitive because of fewer firms, or because the products made by each are different or unique.

In short, markets can be classified according to certain structural characteristics that are shared by most firms in the market. Economists have names for these different market structures: pure competition1, monopolistic competition2, oligopoly, and monopoly.

An important category of economic markets is pure competition. This is a market situation in which there are many independent and well-informed buyers and sellers of exactly the same economic products. Each buyer and seller acts independently. They depend on forces in the market to determine price. If they are not willing to accept this price, they do not have to do business.

To monopolize means to keep something for oneself3. A person who monopolized a conversation, for example, generally is trying to stand out from4everyone else and thus attract attention5.

A situation much like this often exists in economic markets. For example, all the conditions of pure competition may be met except that the products for sale are not exactly the same. By making its product a little different, a firm may try to attract more customers and take over the economic market6. When this happens, the market situation is called monopolistic competition.

The one thing that separates monopolistic competition from pure competition is product differentiation7. The differences among the products may be real, or imaginary. If the seller can differentiate a product, the price may be raised a little above the market price, but not too much.

COMMENTS

1.pure competition — чиста конкуренцiя

2.monopolistic competition—монополістична конкуренція

3.to keep something for oneself — затримати щось для себе

4.to stand out from— вiдiйти/вiддiлитися вiд

5.to attract attention — привертати увагу

6.to take over the economic market — змiнити економiчний ринок

7.product differentiation —диференціація (індивідуалізація) продукції

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Name the word-building elements and the part of speech
of each word:

market — marketability — marketable — marketeer — marketer — marketing; differ — difference — different — differential — differentiate — differentiation — differentiability — differently; compete — competition — competitive — competitiveness — competitor; monopoly — monopolist — monopolistic — monopolize — monopolization.

II. Find equivalents:

1. to depend on smth 2. in short 3. to attract more customers 4. to stand out from smth 5. to prevail 6. a highly competitive market 7. pure competition 8. to have some influence over price 9. to enter the market 10. to keep smth for oneself 11. to take over the economic market 12. to meet the condition of pure competition а. змiнити економiчний ринок б. затримати щось для себе в. входити в ринок г. коротко кажучи д. залежати вiд чогось е. вiдiйти вiд чогось є. чиста конкуренцiя ж. впливати якимось чином на цiну з. переважати и. залучити бiльше покупцiв і. приймати умови чистої конкуренцiї ї. ринок із високим ступенем конкуренцiї

III. Match the synonyms:

a customer, significant, to prevail, to attract smb’s attention, a supply, next, in accordance with smth, following, to draw smb’s attention, to be ready to do smth, to predominate, to determine price, a buyer, to meet the conditions of pure competition, to fix a price, to be willing to do smth, according to smth, important, a stock, to agree to the conditions of pure competition.

IV. Match the antonyms:

similarity, ordinary, easy, dependent, imaginary, to separate, difference, to attract smb, to accept, independent, difficult, buyer, unique, to reject, seller, to unite, real, to scare smb away/off.

V. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. Economists classify markets according ... conditions that prevail ... them. 2. The answer ... these questions helps to determine market structure, or the nature and degree ... competition ... firms operating ... the same market. 3. One market may be highly competitive because ... a large number ... firms produce similar ... products. 4. Pure competition is a market situation ... which there are many independent and well-informed buyers and sellers ... exactly the same economic products. 5. Buyers and sellers depend ... forces ... the market to determine price. 6. To monopolize means to keep something ... oneself. 7. By making its product a little different, a firm may try to attract more ... customers and take ... the economic market.

VI. Complete the following sentences:

1. Economists classify markets according ... . 2. They ask questions like the following ... . 3. The answer to these questions helps ... . 4. One market may be highly competitive because ... . 5. Another may be less competitive ... . 6. In short, markets can be classified according to ... . 7. Economists have names for these different market structures ... . 8. Pure competition is a market situation ... . 9. To monopolize means ... . 10. The one thing that separates monopolistic competition from pure competition is ... .

VII. Match each term in Column A with its definition in Column B:

Column A Column B



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