Indefinite Pronouns: all, both, either neither 

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Indefinite Pronouns: all, both, either neither

XXVIII. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. We can all take part in this work. 2. All of them are here. 3. That’s all I can tell you about it. 4. They told us all about their holiday. 5. All I’ve eaten today is a sandwich. 6. I’ve been trying to find you all morning. 7. We all felt ill after the meal. 8. We are all going out for a meal this evening. 9. We spent all day on the beach. 10. I have brought you all the books you need for this work.


XXIX. Translate into English:

1. Вони всі пішли в театр. 2. Усі дикі тварини бояться вогню.
3. Усі були готові до іспиту. 4. Уся кімната була прикрашена квітами.
5. Вони всі були дуже схвильовані. 6. Розкажіть мені все, що ви знаєте про це. 7. Усе було готове до від’їзду. 8. Я чекаю на вас весь день.
9. Ми всі будемо дуже раді його бачити. 10. Ви випили все молоко, що було в пляшці? 11. Вони всі прийдуть сюди сьогодні ввечері. 12. Я провів
з ним весь вечір.


XXX. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. Both of these restaurants are very good. 2. They both graduated from the University last year. 3. We must both be there tonight. 4. You are both right. (or both of you are right). 5. I couldn’t decide which one to choose. I liked both. 6. He gave me two magazines yesterday. I have read both.

XXXI. Translate into English:

1. Вони обидві підуть туди сьогодні ввечері. 2. Він був поране­ний в обидві ноги. 3. Обидві ці машини виготовлені на нашому заводі. 4. Ви обоє повинні прийти сьогодні о 6 годині. 5. Він дав мені дві книжки: обидві дуже цікаві. 6. В обох подорожніх був стомлений вигляд. 7. Ви дали мені два приклади: обидва правильні. 8. По обидва боки річки було багато гарних будинків. 9. Їх обох було запрошено, і вони обоє прийняли запрошення. 10. Ви можете їхати будь-якою з двох доріг. 11. Ці діти обоє мої. 12. Вони обоє можуть вам допомогти.

XXXII. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. Neither of us will be at home tonight. 2. The guests sat on either side of a long table. 3. Neither of us is (or: are) married. 4. Neither of the children wants (or: want) to go to bed. 5. Neither of us could remain there.
6. I can agree in neither case. 7. Neither of them knew your address. 8. We can go to either restaurant. 9. Do you want tea or coffee? — Either. I don’t mind. 10. Neither of the restaurants we went to was (or: were) expensive.

XXXIII. Translate into English:

1. Жоден з нас (двох) не згадував його. 2. Я не бачив жодного з них (двох). 3. Вони обоє не згодні з вами. 4. Вони обоє не впізнали мене. 5. Ми не прийняли жодної (з двох) пропозиції. 6. Ви можете їхати будь-якою з двох доріг. 7. Жоден з них не прийшов вчасно. 8. Ми не знали жодного з них. 9. Ось дві книжки. Ви можете взяти будь-яку з них. 10. Жодна з (двох) відповідей не була правильною.

EXERCISES for individual work

I. Supply the missing prepositions:

1. She always felt uncomfortable when she was looked ... . 2. When will the old newspapers be thrown ... ? 3. He is spoken ... with warmth. 4. What’s that thing meant ... ? 5. The tickets must be paid ... immediately. 6. Each word he spoke was listened ... . 7. The question was not to be argued ... . 8. They read all the books that are much talked ... . 9. The matter was argued ... for days.

II. Use the verbs in bold type in the Passive Voice:

1. My chief has promised me a four-day holiday. 2. They havealways listened to these lectures with interest. 3. She had written the answers to all the questions long before the end of the lesson. 4. They have always laughedat his jokes. 5. They have knownthis fact for years. 6. She said that they hadn’t invitedhim. 7. I wondered why they had postedthe letter unstamped.
8. He left two years ago and we haven’t heard from him ever since. 9. Have they told him about the changes in the timetable? 10. No onehas livedin this house for the last hundred years.

III. Insert the auxiliary or modal verb:

1. A lot of houses ... been built in our town this year. 2. His parents ... been married five years when he was born. 3. The next morning when I came out, I saw that the streets ... been washed out by rain. 4. Don’t close the window. It has just ... opened. 5. The construction of the bridge ... been finished before winter comes. 6. I wondered why he hadn’t ... taught any foreign language. 7. How long has this stadium ... built? 8. Close the door please, little Jane ... being washed. 9. He didn’t show much interest when earlier theories on the subject ... being discussed. 10. He couldn’t do a thing when he knew he ... being watched. 11. The boys watched how the car was ... cleaned. 12. His speech is ... translated for the foreign guests. 13. Many new houses ... being built in Kyiv now.

IV. Translate into English:

1. Коли було видано цю книжку? 2. Їх зустрінуть на станції. 3. Йому дали кілька книжок для доповіді. 4. Її попросили заспівати цю пісню ще раз. 5. Цю фабрику було збудовано 10 років тому. 6. Якщо мене спитають, я їм усе розповім. 7. Телефон винайшли в минулому столітті. 8. Цей лист щойно підписано директором. 9. Молоко продають на літри. 10. Цю роботу буде закінчено через два дні. 11. Хліб було нарі­зано гострим ножем. 12. Вам не доведеться чекати. Документи буде перевірено, а листи підписано до того часу, коли ви прийдете. 13. Мені пообіцяли негайну допомогу. 14. Йому запропонували квиток на концерт. 15. Йому слід потурбуватися про своїх батьків.

V. Add of if possible:

1. All ... the children listened to the story. 2. Almost all ... students study hard for exams. 3. Both ... those books are mine. 4. I bought two books. Both ... books were expensive. 5. I have two brothers. Both ... my brothers are in school. 6. All ... the students in my class are studying English. 7. Not all ... people are friendly, but most ... people have kind hearts.
8. Almost all ... children like fairy tales. 9. Both ... us were very tired.
10. Both ... my sisters are doctors. 11. Both ... her children have blue eyes. 12. Do you know all ... the people in your group? 13. Both ... my daughters are married.


U N I T 11

TOPIC: SUPPLY TEXT A TEXT B TEXT C GRAMMAR: Sequence of Tenses. Direct and Indirect Speech Indefinite Pronouns: every, each



1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

cost, schedule, care, proper, analyse, category, salary, charge, bond, rent, interest, payment, property, wear, tear, variable, total, since, increase, marginal.

b) stress the second syllable:

supply, supplier, consumption, production, include, commodity, prevail, concern, affect, select, demand, incur, divide, executive, additional.


Text A

Business people think of demand as the consumption of goods and services. At the same time, they think of supply as their production. As they see it, supply means the quantity of a product supplied at the price prevailed at the time. Economists are concerned with1market as a whole. They want to know how much of a certain product sellers will supply at each and every possible market price. Supply may be defined as a schedule of quantities that would be offered for sale at all of the possible prices that might prevail in the market. Everyone who offers an economic product for sale is a supplier.

The law of supply states that the quantity of an economic product offered for sale varies directly with its price. If prices are high suppliers will offer greater quantities for sale. If prices are low, they will offer smaller quantities for sale. Since productivity affects both cost and supply it is important that care can be taken2in selecting the proper materials. Productivity and cost must be kept in mind3in order to make the best decision. It means a business must analyse the issue of costs before making its decisions. To make the decision-making process4easier we try to divide cost into several different categories.

Fixed cost5— the cost that a business incurs even if the plant is idle and output is zero. It makes no difference whether the business produces nothing, very little, or a lot.

Fixed costs include salaries paid to executives, interest charges on6bonds, rent payments on leased properties7, local and state property taxes. They also take in depreciation ¾ the gradual wear and tear on capital goods8over time.

Variable cost9— a cost that changes with changes in the business rate of operation or output.

Total cost10— is the sum of the fixed and variable costs. It takes in all the costs a business faces in the course of its operations.

Marginal cost11— the extra or additional cost incurred when a business produces one additional unit of a commodity. Since fixed costs do not change, marginal cost is the increase in variable costs, which stems from using additional factors of production.



1. to be concerned with smth — займатися чимось

2. ... care can be taken — ... проявити обережність

3. to keep in mind — пам’ятати

4. decision-making process — процес прийняття рішення

5. fixed cost — фіксовані витрати

6. interest charges on — процентні нарахування за ...

7. leased properties — орендна власність

8. wear and tear on capital goods — амортизація засобів виробництва

9. variable cost — змінні витрати

10. total cost — загальні витрати

11. marginal cost — додаткові витрати




I. Give the corresponding nouns to the following verbs:


a) to offer, to process, to supply, to change, to demand, to care, to price, to tax, to cost, to produce, to increase, to market, to state;

b) to consume, to differ, to select, to decide, to divide, to sell, to execute, to define, to depreciate, to lease, to operate, to pay, to analyse.

II. Find equivalents:

1. consumption of goods and services 2. at the same time 3. to be concerned with smth 4. to take in depreciation 5. schedule of quantities 6. to prevail in the market 7. decision-making process 8. issue of cost 9. fixed cost 10. variable cost 11. total cost 12. marginal cost а. процес прийняття рішення б. загальні витрати в. фіксовані витрати г. додаткові витрати д. займатися чимось е. водночас є. споживання товарів та послуг ж. включати знецінення з. тариф кількостей и. панувати на ринку і. поява ціни ї. змінні витрати

III. Translate the sentences paying attention to the italicized words:

1. His parents keep him well supplied with cash. 2. Fresh vegetables are in short supply at this time of year. 3. People who offer an economic product for sale are suppliers. 4. Money supply is the total amount of money in circulation. 5. Ukraine has insufficient water supplies. 6. Planes dropped food and medical supplies to the stranded villagers. 7. Supply and demand determine prices in a market economy. 8. You promised us fuel, but can you guarantee its supply?

IV. Match each term in Column A with its definition in Column B:

Column A Column B

1. supply a. The additional cost of producing an extra unit of output.
2. total costs b. Everyone who offers an economic product for sale.
3. the Law of Supply c. Costs that increase as the number of units produced increases.
4. variable costs d. A table showing the quantities of a product that would be offered for sale at various prices at a given time.
5. supply schedule e. Number of items offered for sale at each of several prices.
6. marginal cost f. Sellers will offer more of a product at a higher price and less at a lower price.
7. supplier g. Costs that remain the same regardless of the amount of business done by the firm.
8. fixed costs h. The sum of the fixed and variable costs.

V. Define which of the following items best completes the statement:

1. The law of supply states

a. buyers will purchase more at lower prices than at higher prices.
b. sellers will produce more at higher prices and less at lower prices.

c. quantities offered for sale do not depend on price.

d. consumers buy more at high prices and less at lower prices.

2. As output increases

a. total costs fall.

b. fixed costs increase.

c. overhead costs per unit fall.

d. total variable costs fall.

3. A producer is most likely to increase the quantity of a product

Supplied when

a. the consumer will pay a higher price for the product.

b. the quantity demanded decreases.

c. production costs increase.

d. there is government regulation.

VI. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. Business people think ... demand as the consumption ... goods and services. 2. Economists are concerned ... market as a whole. 3. Supply means the quantity ... a product supplied ... the price prevailed ... the time. 4. Supply is defined as a schedule ... quantities that would be offered ... sale ... all ... the possible prices that might prevail ... the market. 5. The law ... supply states that the quantity ... an economic product offered ... sale varies directly ... its price. 6. ... productivity affects ... both ... cost and supply it is important that care can be taken ... selecting the proper materials.

VII. Complete the following sentences:

1. Business people think of demand ... . 2. At the same time, they think of supply ... . 3. Economists want to know ... . 4. Supply may be defined ... . 5. Everyone who offers an economic product for sale is ... . 6. The law of supply states ... . 7. If prices are high ... . 8. Since productivity affects both cost and supply ... . 9. Fixed cost is ... . It includes ... . 10. Marginal cost is ... .

VIII. Answer the following questions:

1. What do business people think of demand (supply)? 2. What does the term «supply» mean? 3. Whom do we call a supplier? 4. What does the Law of Supply state? 5. Why is it important for a business to analyse the costs? 6. What categories is the cost divided into? 7. What is fixed cost?
8. What do fixed costs include? 9. What is variable cost? 10. Total cost is the sum of the fixed and variable costs, isn’t it? 11. What do you know about marginal cost?

IX. Translate into English:

1. З погляду економістів, пропозиція — це кількість продукції, запропонованої за переважаючою на той час ціною. 2. Кожний, хто про­понує продукцію на продаж, є постачальником. 3. Кількість продукції, запропонованої на продаж, змінюється залежно від ціни. 4. Необхідно пам’ятати про продуктивність та витрати для того, щоб прийняти ліпше рішення. 5. До витрат належать заробітна плата, податки, відсотки на облігації та сплата ренти за орендовану власність. 6. Змінні витрати — це витрати, що змінюються. 7. Загальні витрати — це сума фіксованих та змінних витрат. 8. Додаткові витрати — це зростання змінних витрат, спричинене застосуванням додаткових факторів виробництва.


1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

typical, perishable, length, foodstuff, offer, easily, difficulty, actual, tend, price, either, locally, sharply, generally, furniture, instance, stock, glut, rapidly;

b) stress the second syllable:

deteriorate, increase, decrease, particular, produce, producer, production, commodity, completely, adjust, encourage, create, belong, consumer, available, throughout, condition, reduce, response.


Text B

Bananas are typical example of perishable goods1. By «perishable» we mean goods which cannot be stored for any length of time without going bad. Most foodstuffs are in the perishable category. Such goods are offered for sale as quickly as possible, and so the supply of perishables and the stock of perishables available at any time are usually the same in quantity.

This is not true in the case of non-perishable goods like coal, steel and cars, which do not deteriorate easily. The supply of cars in the market may not be the same as the actual stock of cars in the factories.

Economists talk about the Law of Supply, in which a rise in prices tends to increase supply, while a fall in prices tends to reduce it. If prices rise for a particular commodity, the rise will of course encourage producers to make more. On the other hand, if prices fall either locally or throughout the world, producers will reduce production. This can result in serious difficulties for many producers, and may cause them to go out of business completely. Overproduction2 of any commodity can also create difficulties, because it can lead to a glut on the market, which may cause prices to fall sharply.

Supplies of many commodities can generally be adjusted to suit market conditions. This means that changes in prices lead to changes in the quantity of a particular commodity which is made available to consumers. Household goods3and furniture belong to this category. In such instances supply is said to be «elastic», because it can be increased or decreased rapidly in response to market prices.



1.perishable goods — товари, що швидко псуються

2.overproduction — перевиробництво; надвиробництво

3.household goods — господарські товари; предмети домашнього вжитку


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